1,062 Matching Annotations
  1. Mar 2019
    1. Experts estimate that in Africa alone, conservation efforts have created 14 million "conservation refugees" since the colonial era. In this model, some of the indigenous people, if they were lucky enough, could work as park wardens, preventing their relatives from entering the protected zones.

      This adds to the conflicting reputation and credibility of WWF. I think that sometimes they put animals above people when, in reality, we need to honor both animals and people for sustainability. We're all part of the ecosystem. Having 14 million displaced people is not sustainable. WWF is very complicated; they seem to have great intentions but sometimes poor execution. It's hard to say whether or not to trust them.

    1. You might expect global food conglomerates to resist such a diversity push. But Dorothy Shaver, who is head of sustainability for Knorr, says the company wants to be part of this movement. She says the shift in the amount and types of food people eat is inevitable and will also open new markets. "This actually gives us a major opportunity to identify some of the flavors that people are missing out on," she says. "And then we can get them on people's plates. We can get people to switch out one of their white potatoes that they eat potentially four or five times a week with a purple yam. Or in Indonesia make it an Indonesian sweet potato instead of white rice." Shaver says doing this all over the planet would have an enormous impact on the environment. She says Knorr will try to mainstream 10 or 15 of these so-called future foods in its dishes. She says its popular cheddar and broccoli rice dish will soon have versions featuring black beans and quinoa instead of rice.

      Dorothy Shaver designed the report. This article shows she is personally committed to the cause.

  2. wwf.panda.org wwf.panda.org
    1. WWF wishes to convene stakeholders from across the food system and integrate decisions that will ensure human and planetary health. Together, we have the power to bring food to the top of the conservation agenda and help deliver tangible results which protect our future. Our goal is to create sustainable food systems that safeguard the variety of life on Earth while ensuring food security, now and in the future. To achieve this, WWF works to improve how our food is produced, to change the way we eat, and to ensure food goes in our bodies not in the bin. Together with others, we are focusing on three key outcomes by 2030: - Half of the area used for agriculture and aquaculture is sustainably managed, with no new areas being converted - Global food waste is halved and post-harvest loss is reduced - Half of food consumption is in line with World Health Organisation dietary guidelines in target countries:

      Still unsure how credible I find WWF but they seem to have good ideas about food sustainability.

    1. The unwashed masses will not be moved by this stunt which validates the idea that it’s okay to peddle fake news for a just cause. Sitting on the opposite end of the spectrum, Joseph Barratt, CEO of Mutant Communications lauded the campaign for the impact it had. “It provoked emotions and discussions in households and workplaces around Singapore in an area where it is typically difficult to break through the noise. The outrage at the faux business drove awareness with limited resources,” he said, adding: Any allegations that the campaign spread fake news is misrepresenting a real issue in the media today.

      This article is interesting. I don't think in this instance that WWF was involved in spreading fake news, but it does show they are capable of devising plans that don't necessarily put ethics first. It's a good reminder that WWF is still involved in trying to market itself and get press. I think that WWF doesn't take a comprehensive approach to understanding the ivory trade, which is largely a result of poverty. This makes them a little less credible to me. Although, some people might find them more credible for going so far for a cause.

    1. A yearlong BuzzFeed News investigation across six countries — based on more than 100 interviews and thousands of pages of documents, including confidential memos, internal budgets, and emails discussing weapons purchases — can reveal:Villagers have been whipped with belts, attacked with machetes, beaten unconscious with bamboo sticks, sexually assaulted, shot, and murdered by WWF-supported anti-poaching units, according to reports and documents obtained by BuzzFeed News.The charity’s field staff in Asia and Africa have organized anti-poaching missions with notoriously vicious shock troops, and signed off on a proposal to kill trespassers penned by a park director who presided over the killings of dozens of people.WWF has provided paramilitary forces with salaries, training, and supplies — including knives, night vision binoculars, riot gear, and batons — and funded raids on villages. In one African country, it embroiled itself in a botched arms deal to buy assault rifles from a brutal army that has paraded the streets with the severed heads of alleged “criminals.”The charity has operated like a global spymaster, organizing, financing, and running dangerous and secretive networks of informants motivated by “fear” and “revenge,” including within indigenous communities, to provide park officials with intelligence — all while publicly denying working with informants. { "id": 122412833 } Jorge Silva / Reuters World Wildlife Fund activists demonstrate on the sidelines of the UN Climate Change conference. { "id": 122247237 } WWF has launched an “independent review” led by human rights specialists into the evidence uncovered by BuzzFeed News. “We see it as our urgent responsibility to get to the bottom of the allegations BuzzFeed has made, and we recognize the importance of such scrutiny,” the charity said in a statement. “With this in mind, and while many of BuzzFeed’s assertions do not match our understanding of events, we have commissioned an independent review into the matters raised.” The charity declined to answer detailed questions sent by BuzzFeed News.

      Again, this is very hard to ignore. This is the biggest thing cutting into the campaign. It makes me suspicious. Even if everything WWF said in the campaign was true and ethical, I think it's a bad idea to work with a company that's involved in such abuses. Hopefully Unilever was unaware of these problems. If they had known and collaborated with WWF anyway, that would be a serious knock to their credibility and reliability.

    2. Shikharam’s alleged murder in 2006 was no isolated incident: It was part of a pattern that persists to this day. In national parks across Asia and Africa, the beloved nonprofit with the cuddly panda logo funds, equips, and works directly with paramilitary forces that have been accused of beating, torturing, sexually assaulting, and murdering scores of people. As recently as 2017, forest rangers at a WWF-funded park in Cameroon tortured an 11-year-old boy in front of his parents, the family told BuzzFeed News. Their village submitted a complaint to WWF, but months later, the family said they still hadn’t heard back. { "id": 122251936 } Tsering Dolker Gurung for BuzzFeed News People living near Nepal's Chitwan National Park. { "id": 122247237 } WWF said that it does not tolerate any brutality by its partners. “Human rights abuses are totally unacceptable and can never be justified in the name of conservation,” the charity said in a statement.But WWF has provided high-tech enforcement equipment, cash, and weapons to forces implicated in atrocities against indigenous communities. In the coming days, BuzzFeed News will reveal how the charity has continued funding and equipping rangers, even after higher-ups became aware of evidence of serious human rights abuses.

      This shows that WWF breaks its own rules. It makes me wonder if their partnership with Unilever is about sustainability or money. Unfortunately I think very few people know of this scandal, so it hasn't impacted WWF's reputation. But I think it could.

    3. WWF Funds Guards Who Have Tortured And Killed People

      This comprehensive article is the biggest blow to Unilever's campaign. WWF is one of the main partners who wrote the report. Although WWF has a history of doing good things for the planet, this article is very hard to swallow. It made me completely distrust WWF.

    1. Polman was perhaps the most vocal advocate for the food industry – and business in general – to embed sustainability in how companies operate. On issues from climate change and water scarcity to energy use and ethical trading, the Dutchman was almost Polman the preacher. In 2010, Unilever launched its Sustainable Living Plan, a ten-year programme to reduce the company's impact on the environment and "decouple" that impact from its growth. "It's our business model. This is the way we do business. This is our permission to operate ten, 15 years from now," Polman just-food in an interview in 2012. Not everyone in the investor community welcomed Polman's position (nor, for that matter, those of peers like Danone CEO Emmanuel Faber), arguing the purpose-led approach to running the business was in danger of being at the expense of shareholders.

      This description of the former CEO of Unilever shows that sustainability is not a new value for Unilever. Former CEO Polman introduced many, at the time, controversial practices that were more sustainable. This establishes a history of Unilever caring about ethics and sustainable food.

    1. In January 2017, corporate behemoth Unilever unveiled a new commitment to ensuring that all of its plastic packaging is fully reusable, recyclable or compostable by 2025. The commitment was built on a recognition that the global plastics market was broken; nine months later, Blue Planet 2 aired, alerting the public to the environmental hazards of plastics.

      This article describes Unilever's plans to change the way it uses plastic. It shows that Unilever cares about sustainability because they are transparent about the economic benefits of being more sustainable as well as the benefits to the planet.

    1. The city of New York’s Building Healthy Communities initiative, Unilever and Green City Force came together to find a solution.Instead of trying to get fresh food in, they decided to grow it right where it was needed. By creating six urban farms, access to fresh produce in underserved neighbourhoods has increased, as has the knowledge of local residents about how food is grown, and healthy eating. This is community impact in action!Unilever have taken a step further, creating Growing Roots - an organic, plant-based food snack that donates half of its profits to urban farming programmes, whilst allowing others to join and dig in to help grow a better future for communities across the US.

      This is one part of Unilevers comprehensive website about sustainability. The site shows that Unilever frequently collaborates with sustainable organizations and that they care about many sustainable issues.

  3. Feb 2019
    1. Astell suggests that the woman rhetor can best gain this favomblc ethos by leading a life that demonstrates her sincere com­mitment to Christianity,

      Prior or extrinsic credibility (based on experience and reputation), as opposed to demonstrated or intrinsic credibility (shown during speech itself).

  4. Aug 2018
    1. Facebook is rating the trustworthiness of its users on a scale from zero to 1

      See also my tweet: What I coincidence! Like Facebook, I also measure people's credibility on a scale of zero to one, or what I like to think of as a scale of Pinocchio to Cassandra. It would be cool to hear what @marshallk @holden and @vgr think of this:

  5. Jul 2018
    1. Even though teachers have told me not to trust Wikipedia, I have grown to learn that Wikipedia is probably one of the more accurate parts of the internet because it’s controlled by so many people that, if you’re wrong, someone is going to call you out on it.
  6. May 2018
    1. CredCo Indicator:Inference - Convincing Evidence

      Question:How convincing do you find the evidence given for the primary claim?

      Answer:Fairly Convincing

    2. In a 2014 study, a team led by Claverie revived two viruses that had been trapped in Siberian permafrost for 30,000 years.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:An experimental study was conducted (natural experiments OK)

      Highlight:

      In a 2014 study, a team led by Claverie revived two viruses that had been trapped in Siberian permafrost for 30,000 years.

    3. Two years later, scientists managed to revive an 8-million-year-old bacterium that had been lying dormant in ice, beneath the surface of a glacier in the Beacon and Mullins valleys of Antarctica. In the same study, bacteria were also revived from ice that was over 100,000 years old.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:An experimental study was conducted (natural experiments OK)

      Highlight:

      Two years later, scientists managed to revive an 8-million-year-old bacterium that had been lying dormant in ice, beneath the surface of a glacier in the Beacon and Mullins valleys of Antarctica. In the same study, bacteria were also revived from ice that was over 100,000 years old.

    4. In a 2005 study, NASA scientists successfully revived bacteria that had been encased in a frozen pond in Alaska for 32,000 years. The microbes, called Carnobacterium pleistocenium, had been frozen since the Pleistocene period, when woolly mammoths still roamed the Earth. Once the ice melted, they began swimming around, seemingly unaffected.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:An experimental study was conducted (natural experiments OK)

      Highlight:

      In a 2005 study, NASA scientists successfully revived bacteria that had been encased in a frozen pond in Alaska for 32,000 years. The microbes, called Carnobacterium pleistocenium, had been frozen since the Pleistocene period, when woolly mammoths still roamed the Earth. Once the ice melted, they began swimming around, seemingly unaffected.

    5. For instance, scientists have discovered fragments of RNA from the 1918 Spanish flu virus in corpses buried in mass graves in Alaska's tundra. Smallpox and the bubonic plague are also likely buried in Siberia.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:An experimental study was conducted (natural experiments OK)

      Highlight:

      For instance, scientists have discovered fragments of RNA from the 1918 Spanish flu virus in corpses buried in mass graves in Alaska's tundra. Smallpox and the bubonic plague are also likely buried in Siberia.

    6. For instance, scientists have discovered fragments of RNA from the 1918 Spanish flu virus in corpses buried in mass graves in Alaska's tundra. Smallpox and the bubonic plague are also likely buried in Siberia.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:The correlation appears across multiple independent contexts

      Highlight:

      For instance, scientists have discovered fragments of RNA from the 1918 Spanish flu virus in corpses buried in mass graves in Alaska's tundra. Smallpox and the bubonic plague are also likely buried in Siberia.

    7. In August 2016, in a remote corner of Siberian tundra called the Yamal Peninsula in the Arctic Circle, a 12-year-old boy died and at least twenty people were hospitalised after being infected by anthrax. The theory is that, over 75 years ago, a reindeer infected with anthrax died and its frozen carcass became trapped under a layer of frozen soil, known as permafrost. There it stayed until a heatwave in the summer of 2016, when the permafrost thawed.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:The correlation appears across multiple independent contexts

      Highlight:

      In August 2016, in a remote corner of Siberian tundra called the Yamal Peninsula in the Arctic Circle, a 12-year-old boy died and at least twenty people were hospitalised after being infected by anthrax.

      The theory is that, over 75 years ago, a reindeer infected with anthrax died and its frozen carcass became trapped under a layer of frozen soil, known as permafrost. There it stayed until a heatwave in the summer of 2016, when the permafrost thawed.

    8. Climate change is melting permafrost soils that have been frozen for thousands of years, and as the soils melt they are releasing ancient viruses and bacteria that, having lain dormant, are springing back to life.

      CredCo Indicator:Inference - Type of Claims

      Question:Is a general or singular causal claim made? Highlight the section(s) that supports your answer.

      Answer:General Causal Claim

      Highlight:

      Climate change is melting permafrost soils that have been frozen for thousands of years, and as the soils melt they are releasing ancient viruses and bacteria that, having lain dormant, are springing back to life.

    9. CredCo Indicator:Tone - Exaggerated Claims

      Question:Does the author exaggerate any claims? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    10. CredCo Indicator:Tone - Emotionally Charged

      Question:Does the article have an emotionally charged tone? (i.e, outrage, snark, celebration, horror, etc.). If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    11. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Naturalistic

      Question:Does the author suggest that something is good because it is natural, or bad because it is not natural (the naturalistic fallacy)?

      Answer:No

    12. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Appeal to Fear

      Question:Does the author exaggerate the dangers of a situation and use scare tactics to persuade (the appeal to fear fallacy)?

      Answer:No

    13. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Slippery Slope

      Question:Does the author say that one small change will lead to a major change (use a slippery slope argument)? Highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    14. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - False Dilemma

      Question:Does the author present a complicated choice as if it were binary (construct a false dilemma)? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    15. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Straw Man

      Question:Does the author present the counterargument as a weaker, more foolish version of the real counterargument (use a Straw Man Argument)? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    16. CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Acknowledge Uncertainty

      Question:Do they acknowledge uncertainty or the possibility that things might be otherwise? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    17. CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Extent Claims Justified

      Question:To what extent does their confidence in their claims seem justified?

      Answer:Somewhat justified

    18. In February 2017, NASA scientists announced that they had found 10-50,000-year-old microbes inside crystals in a Mexican mine.

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Studies

      Question:Highlight each scientific study cited:

      Answer:Scientific Study 4

      Highlight:

      In February 2017, NASA scientists announced that they had found 10-50,000-year-old microbes inside crystals in a Mexican mine.

    19. In a 2014 study, a team led by Claverie revived two viruses that had been trapped in Siberian permafrost for 30,000 years.

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Studies

      Question:Highlight each scientific study cited:

      Answer:Scientific Study 3

      Highlight:

      In a 2014 study, a team led by Claverie revived two viruses that had been trapped in Siberian permafrost for 30,000 years.

    20. In a 2005 study, NASA scientists successfully revived bacteria that had been encased in a frozen pond in Alaska for 32,000 years.

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Studies

      Question:Highlight each scientific study cited:

      Answer:Scientific Study 2

      Highlight:

      In a 2005 study, NASA scientists successfully revived bacteria that had been encased in a frozen pond in Alaska for 32,000 years.

    21. In a project that began in the 1990s, scientists from the State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology in Novosibirsk have tested the remains of Stone Age people that had been found in southern Siberia, in the region of Gorny Altai.

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Studies

      Question:Highlight each scientific study cited:

      Answer:Scientific Study 1

      Highlight:

      In a project that began in the 1990s, scientists from the State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology in Novosibirsk have tested the remains of Stone Age people that had been found in southern Siberia, in the region of Gorny Altai.

    22. microbiologist Hazel Barton

      CredCo Indicator:Quotes from Outside Experts

      Question:Highlight each expert cited:

      Answer:Expert 3

      Highlight:

      microbiologist Hazel Barton

    23. Boris Revich and Marina Podolnaya

      CredCo Indicator:Quotes from Outside Experts

      Question:Highlight each expert cited:

      Answer:Expert 2

      Highlight:

      Boris Revich and Marina Podolnaya

    24. evolutionary biologist Jean-Michel Claverie

      CredCo Indicator:Quotes from Outside Experts

      Question:Highlight each expert cited:

      Answer:Expert 1

      Highlight:

      evolutionary biologist Jean-Michel Claverie

    25. Question:Which of the following types of sources are cited in the article? Check all that apply. If Other, please highlight.

      Answer:Studies

    26. Question:Which of the following types of sources are cited in the article? Check all that apply. If Other, please highlight.

      Answer:Experts

    27. CredCo Indicator:Single Study Article

      Question:Is this article primarily about a single scientific study?

      Answer:No

    28. diseases hidden in ice,

      CredCo Indicator:Clickbait Title

      Question:What clickbait techniques does this headline employ (select all that apply)?

      Answer:Inducing fear (“Is Your Boyfriend Cheating on You?”)

      Highlight:

      diseases hidden in ice,

    29. CredCo Indicator:Clickbait Title

      Question:Is the headline clickbaity?

      Answer:Somewhat clickbaity

    30. CredCo Indicator:Title Representativeness

      Question:Question: Does the title of the article accurately reflect the content of the article?

      Answer:Somewhat Representative

    31. Question:Rate your impression of the credibility of this article

      Answer:Somewhat high credibility

    1. CredCo Indicator:Inference - Convincing Evidence

      Question:How convincing do you find the evidence given for the primary claim?

      Answer:Moderately Convincing

    2. When read carefully, the CDC acknowledges that studies finding any perceived reduction in death rates may be due to the healthy-user effect- the tendency for healthier people to be vaccinated more than less-healthy people.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Correlation

      Highlight:

      When read carefully, the CDC acknowledges that studies finding any perceived reduction in death rates may be due to the healthy-user effect- the tendency for healthier people to be vaccinated more than less-healthy people.

    3. One study found that those who get the vaccine for three to five years increase their risk of Alzheimer's disease 10-fold.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:An experimental study was conducted (natural experiments OK)

      Highlight:

      One study found that those who get the vaccine for three to five years increase their risk of Alzheimer's disease 10-fold.

    4. A study released in February found that the flu shot was only 9 percent effective in protecting seniors against the 2012-2013 season's most virulent influenza bug...

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:An experimental study was conducted (natural experiments OK)

      Highlight:

      A study released in February found that the flu shot was only 9 percent effective in protecting seniors against the 2012-2013 season's most virulent influenza bug...

    5. randomized, controlled trials of healthy adults found that vaccinating between 33 and 100 people resulted in one less case of influenza...In

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:An experimental study was conducted (natural experiments OK)

      Highlight:

      randomized, controlled trials of healthy adults found that vaccinating between 33 and 100 people resulted in one less case of influenza...In

    6. The only randomized trial of influenza vaccine in older people found no decrease in deaths...

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:An experimental study was conducted (natural experiments OK)

      Highlight:

      The only randomized trial of influenza vaccine in older people found no decrease in deaths...

    7. what's in the vaccines--especially those from 2015 and after--might actually be more damaging then simply rolling the dice on getting the flu.

      CredCo Indicator:Inference - Type of Claims

      Question:Is a general or singular causal claim made? Highlight the section(s) that supports your answer.

      Answer:General Causal Claim

      Highlight:

      what's in the vaccines--especially those from 2015 and after--might actually be more damaging then simply rolling the dice on getting the flu.

    8. Not only is the vaccine not safe, it doesn't even work...The vaccine is completely worthless, and the government knows it...There

      CredCo Indicator:Tone - Exaggerated Claims

      Question:Does the author exaggerate any claims? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      Not only is the vaccine not safe, it doesn't even work...The vaccine is completely worthless, and the government knows it...There

    9. CredCo Indicator:Tone - Emotionally Charged

      Question:Does the article have an emotionally charged tone? (i.e, outrage, snark, celebration, horror, etc.). If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    10. they know it contains a dose of mercury that is toxic to the brain...They

      CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Naturalistic

      Question:Does the author suggest that something is good because it is natural, or bad because it is not natural (the naturalistic fallacy)?

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      they know it contains a dose of mercury that is toxic to the brain...They

    11. Not only is the vaccine not safe, it doesn't even

      CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Appeal to Fear

      Question:Does the author exaggerate the dangers of a situation and use scare tactics to persuade (the appeal to fear fallacy)?

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      Not only is the vaccine not safe, it doesn't even

    12. work...The vaccine is completely worthless, and the government knows it...There

      CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Appeal to Fear

      Question:Does the author exaggerate the dangers of a situation and use scare tactics to persuade (the appeal to fear fallacy)?

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      work...The vaccine is completely worthless, and the government knows it...There

    13. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Slippery Slope

      Question:Does the author say that one small change will lead to a major change (use a slippery slope argument)? Highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    14. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - False Dilemma

      Question:Does the author present a complicated choice as if it were binary (construct a false dilemma)? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    15. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Straw Man

      Question:Does the author present the counterargument as a weaker, more foolish version of the real counterargument (use a Straw Man Argument)? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    16. While it may be a contested subject,

      CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Acknowledge Uncertainty

      Question:Do they acknowledge uncertainty or the possibility that things might be otherwise? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      While it may be a contested subject,

    17. CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Extent Claims Justified

      Question:To what extent does their confidence in their claims seem justified?

      Answer:Somewhat justified

    18. A study released in February found that the flu shot was only 9 percent effective in protecting seniors against the 2012-2013 season's most virulent influenza bug...

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Studies

      Question:Highlight each scientific study cited:

      Answer:Scientific Study 4

      Highlight:

      A study released in February found that the flu shot was only 9 percent effective in protecting seniors against the 2012-2013 season's most virulent influenza bug...

    19. Yet a study by the Cochrane group studied hundreds of thousands of people and found it offered zero protection for those three things in the general community.

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Studies

      Question:Highlight each scientific study cited:

      Answer:Scientific Study 3

      Highlight:

      Yet a study by the Cochrane group studied hundreds of thousands of people and found it offered zero protection for those three things in the general community.

    20. (In) an Australian study (it was) found (that) one in every 110 children under the age of five had convulsions following vaccinations in 2009 for H1N1 influenza.

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Studies

      Question:Highlight each scientific study cited:

      Answer:Scientific Study 2

      Highlight:

      (In) an Australian study (it was) found (that) one in every 110 children under the age of five had convulsions following vaccinations in 2009 for H1N1 influenza.

    21. randomized, controlled trials of healthy adults found that vaccinating between 33 and 100 people resulted in one less case of influenza...In

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Studies

      Question:Highlight each scientific study cited:

      Answer:Scientific Study 1

      Highlight:

      randomized, controlled trials of healthy adults found that vaccinating between 33 and 100 people resulted in one less case of influenza...In

    22. Dr. Russell Blaylock,

      CredCo Indicator:Quotes from Outside Experts

      Question:Highlight each expert cited:

      Answer:Expert 2

      Highlight:

      Dr. Russell Blaylock,

    23. Peter Doshi's

      CredCo Indicator:Quotes from Outside Experts

      Question:Highlight each expert cited:

      Answer:Expert 1

      Highlight:

      Peter Doshi's

    24. Question:Which of the following types of sources are cited in the article? Check all that apply. If Other, please highlight.

      Answer:Studies

    25. Question:Which of the following types of sources are cited in the article? Check all that apply. If Other, please highlight.

      Answer:Experts

    26. CredCo Indicator:Single Study Article

      Question:Is this article primarily about a single scientific study?

      Answer:No

    27. releases shocking report

      CredCo Indicator:Clickbait Title

      Question:What clickbait techniques does this headline employ (select all that apply)?

      Answer:Provoking emotions, such as shock or surprise (“...Shocking Result”, “...Leave You in Tears”)

      Highlight:

      releases shocking report

    28. CredCo Indicator:Clickbait Title

      Question:Is the headline clickbaity?

      Answer:Somewhat clickbaity

    29. CredCo Indicator:Title Representativeness

      Question:Question: Does the title of the article accurately reflect the content of the article?

      Answer:Somewhat Representative

    30. Question:Rate your impression of the credibility of this article

      Answer:Medium credibility

    1. CredCo Indicator:Inference - Convincing Evidence

      Question:How convincing do you find the evidence given for the primary claim?

      Answer:Moderately Convincing

    2. When we consume simple carbohydrates such as sugar, blood sugar rises rapidly. In response, your pancreas secretes insulin whose primary purpose is to drive sugar into each cell where it is stored for energy. If the cell is full and does not need glucose, it is rejected to avoid extra sugar gumming up the works.

      Question:What kind of evidence do they give?

      Answer:A cause-and-effect chain of biological events is provided.

      Highlight:

      When we consume simple carbohydrates such as sugar, blood sugar rises rapidly. In response, your pancreas secretes insulin whose primary purpose is to drive sugar into each cell where it is stored for energy. If the cell is full and does not need glucose, it is rejected to avoid extra sugar gumming up the works.

    3. Blood sugar is controlled in a very narrow range. Extra sugar molecules attach to a variety of proteins that in turn injure the blood vessel wall. This repeated injury to the blood vessel wall sets off inflammation. When you spike your blood sugar level several times a day, every day, it is exactly like taking sandpaper to the inside of your delicate blood vessels.

      Question:What kind of evidence do they give?

      Answer:A cause-and-effect chain of biological events is provided.

      Highlight:

      Blood sugar is controlled in a very narrow range. Extra sugar molecules attach to a variety of proteins that in turn injure the blood vessel wall. This repeated injury to the blood vessel wall sets off inflammation. When you spike your blood sugar level several times a day, every day, it is exactly like taking sandpaper to the inside of your delicate blood vessels.

    4. Blood sugar is controlled in a very narrow range. Extra sugar molecules attach to a variety of proteins that in turn injure the blood vessel wall. This repeated injury to the blood vessel wall sets off inflammation. When you spike your blood sugar level several times a day, every day, it is exactly like taking sandpaper to the inside of your delicate blood vessels.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Other kind of evidence

      Highlight:

      Blood sugar is controlled in a very narrow range. Extra sugar molecules attach to a variety of proteins that in turn injure the blood vessel wall. This repeated injury to the blood vessel wall sets off inflammation. When you spike your blood sugar level several times a day, every day, it is exactly like taking sandpaper to the inside of your delicate blood vessels.

    5. When we consume simple carbohydrates such as sugar, blood sugar rises rapidly. In response, your pancreas secretes insulin whose primary purpose is to drive sugar into each cell where it is stored for energy. If the cell is full and does not need glucose, it is rejected to avoid extra sugar gumming up the works.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Other kind of evidence

      Highlight:

      When we consume simple carbohydrates such as sugar, blood sugar rises rapidly. In response, your pancreas secretes insulin whose primary purpose is to drive sugar into each cell where it is stored for energy. If the cell is full and does not need glucose, it is rejected to avoid extra sugar gumming up the works.

    6. The injury and inflammation in our blood vessels is caused by the low fat diet recommended for years by mainstream medicine.

      CredCo Indicator:Inference - Type of Claims

      Question:Is a general or singular causal claim made? Highlight the section(s) that supports your answer.

      Answer:General Causal Claim

      Highlight:

      The injury and inflammation in our blood vessels is caused by the low fat diet recommended for years by mainstream medicine.

    7. CredCo Indicator:Tone - Exaggerated Claims

      Question:Does the author exaggerate any claims? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    8. Let me repeat that: The injury and inflammation in our blood vessels is caused by the low fat diet recommended for years by mainstream medicine.

      CredCo Indicator:Tone - Emotionally Charged

      Question:Does the article have an emotionally charged tone? (i.e, outrage, snark, celebration, horror, etc.). If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      Let me repeat that: The injury and inflammation in our blood vessels is caused by the low fat diet recommended for years by mainstream medicine.

    9. The process that began with a sweet roll turns into a vicious cycle over time that creates heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes and finally, Alzheimer’s disease, as the inflammatory process continues unabated.

      CredCo Indicator:Tone - Emotionally Charged

      Question:Does the article have an emotionally charged tone? (i.e, outrage, snark, celebration, horror, etc.). If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      The process that began with a sweet roll turns into a vicious cycle over time that creates heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes and finally, Alzheimer’s disease, as the inflammatory process continues unabated.

    10. The ratio of imbalance ranges from 15:1 to as high as 30:1 in favor of omega-6. That’s a tremendous amount of cytokines causing inflammation. In today’s food environment, a 3:1 ratio would be optimal and healthy.

      CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Naturalistic

      Question:Does the author suggest that something is good because it is natural, or bad because it is not natural (the naturalistic fallacy)?

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      The ratio of imbalance ranges from 15:1 to as high as 30:1 in favor of omega-6. That’s a tremendous amount of cytokines causing inflammation. In today’s food environment, a 3:1 ratio would be optimal and healthy.

    11. There is but one answer to quieting inflammation, and that is returning to foods closer to their natural state.

      CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Naturalistic

      Question:Does the author suggest that something is good because it is natural, or bad because it is not natural (the naturalistic fallacy)?

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      There is but one answer to quieting inflammation, and that is returning to foods closer to their natural state.

    12. While we savor the tantalizing taste of a sweet roll, our bodies respond alarmingly as if a foreign invader arrived declaring war.

      CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Appeal to Fear

      Question:Does the author exaggerate the dangers of a situation and use scare tactics to persuade (the appeal to fear fallacy)?

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      While we savor the tantalizing taste of a sweet roll, our bodies respond alarmingly as if a foreign invader arrived declaring war.

    13. By eliminating inflammatory foods and adding essential nutrients from fresh unprocessed food, you will reverse years of damage in your arteries and throughout your body from consuming the typical American diet.

      CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Slippery Slope

      Question:Does the author say that one small change will lead to a major change (use a slippery slope argument)? Highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      By eliminating inflammatory foods and adding essential nutrients from fresh unprocessed food, you will reverse years of damage in your arteries and throughout your body from consuming the typical American diet.

    14. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - False Dilemma

      Question:Does the author present a complicated choice as if it were binary (construct a false dilemma)? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    15. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Straw Man

      Question:Does the author present the counterargument as a weaker, more foolish version of the real counterargument (use a Straw Man Argument)? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    16. CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Acknowledge Uncertainty

      Question:Do they acknowledge uncertainty or the possibility that things might be otherwise? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    17. CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Extent Claims Justified

      Question:To what extent does their confidence in their claims seem justified?

      Answer:Slightly justified

    18. American Heart Association

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Organizations

      Question:Highlight each organization cited:

      Answer:Cited Organization 1

      Highlight:

      American Heart Association

    19. heart surgeon with 25 years experience, having performed over 5,000 open-heart surgeries,

      CredCo Indicator:Quotes from Outside Experts

      Question:Highlight each expert cited:

      Answer:Expert 1

      Highlight:

      heart surgeon with 25 years experience, having performed over 5,000 open-heart surgeries,

    20. Question:Which of the following types of sources are cited in the article? Check all that apply. If Other, please highlight.

      Answer:Organizations

    21. Question:Which of the following types of sources are cited in the article? Check all that apply. If Other, please highlight.

      Answer:Experts

    22. CredCo Indicator:Single Study Article

      Question:Is this article primarily about a single scientific study?

      Answer:No

    23. What Really Causes Heart Disease

      CredCo Indicator:Clickbait Title

      Question:What clickbait techniques does this headline employ (select all that apply)?

      Answer:Hidden secret or trick (“Fitness Companies Hate Him...”, “Experts are Dying to Know Their Secret”)

      Highlight:

      What Really Causes Heart Disease

    24. CredCo Indicator:Clickbait Title

      Question:Is the headline clickbaity?

      Answer:A little bit clickbaity

    25. CredCo Indicator:Title Representativeness

      Question:Question: Does the title of the article accurately reflect the content of the article?

      Answer:Completely Representative

    26. Question:Rate your impression of the credibility of this article

      Answer:Medium credibility

    1. CredCo Indicator:Inference - Convincing Evidence

      Question:How convincing do you find the evidence given for the primary claim?

      Answer:Fairly Convincing

    2. Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:No evidence given

    3. CredCo Indicator:Inference - Type of Claims

      Question:Is a general or singular causal claim made? Highlight the section(s) that supports your answer.

      Answer:No Causal Claim

    4. CredCo Indicator:Tone - Exaggerated Claims

      Question:Does the author exaggerate any claims? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    5. CredCo Indicator:Tone - Emotionally Charged

      Question:Does the article have an emotionally charged tone? (i.e, outrage, snark, celebration, horror, etc.). If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    6. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Naturalistic

      Question:Does the author suggest that something is good because it is natural, or bad because it is not natural (the naturalistic fallacy)?

      Answer:No

    7. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Appeal to Fear

      Question:Does the author exaggerate the dangers of a situation and use scare tactics to persuade (the appeal to fear fallacy)?

      Answer:No

    8. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Slippery Slope

      Question:Does the author say that one small change will lead to a major change (use a slippery slope argument)? Highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    9. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - False Dilemma

      Question:Does the author present a complicated choice as if it were binary (construct a false dilemma)? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    10. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Straw Man

      Question:Does the author present the counterargument as a weaker, more foolish version of the real counterargument (use a Straw Man Argument)? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    11. CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Acknowledge Uncertainty

      Question:Do they acknowledge uncertainty or the possibility that things might be otherwise? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    12. CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Extent Claims Justified

      Question:To what extent does their confidence in their claims seem justified?

      Answer:Mostly justified

    13. Raw Story,

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Organizations

      Question:Highlight each organization cited:

      Answer:Cited Organization 2

      Highlight:

      Raw Story,

    14. Huffington Post

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Organizations

      Question:Highlight each organization cited:

      Answer:Cited Organization 1

      Highlight:

      Huffington Post

    15. Physicians for Reproductive Health advocacy fellow Dr. Diane Horvath-Cosper

      CredCo Indicator:Quotes from Outside Experts

      Question:Highlight each expert cited:

      Answer:Expert 1

      Highlight:

      Physicians for Reproductive Health advocacy fellow Dr. Diane Horvath-Cosper

    16. Question:Which of the following types of sources are cited in the article? Check all that apply. If Other, please highlight.

      Answer:Organizations

    17. Question:Which of the following types of sources are cited in the article? Check all that apply. If Other, please highlight.

      Answer:Experts

    18. CredCo Indicator:Single Study Article

      Question:Is this article primarily about a single scientific study?

      Answer:No

    19. sexual assault could be considered a pre-existing condition

      CredCo Indicator:Clickbait Title

      Question:What clickbait techniques does this headline employ (select all that apply)?

      Answer:Cliffhanger to a story (“You Won’t Believe What Happens Next”, “Man Divorces His Wife After Overhearing This Conversation”)

      Highlight:

      sexual assault could be considered a pre-existing condition

    20. CredCo Indicator:Clickbait Title

      Question:Is the headline clickbaity?

      Answer:A little bit clickbaity

    21. CredCo Indicator:Title Representativeness

      Question:Question: Does the title of the article accurately reflect the content of the article?

      Answer:Somewhat Representative

    22. Question:Rate your impression of the credibility of this article

      Answer:Somewhat high credibility

    1. CredCo Indicator:Inference - Convincing Evidence

      Question:How convincing do you find the evidence given for the primary claim?

      Answer:Moderately Convincing

    2. http://cdc.news/2017-06-01-autism-risk-420-higher-in-vaccinated-children-vs-non-vaccinated-published-science-confirms.html http://www.bewellbuzz.com/general/10-reasons-flu-shots-dangerous-flu/ http://www.rejuvenation-science.com/medication-depletion http://chemo.news/ https://realfarmacy.com/75-of-physicians-in-the-world-refuse-chemotherapy-for-themselves/
    3. Prescription pills and treatments have many dangerous side effects.

      CredCo Indicator:Inference - Type of Claims

      Question:Is a general or singular causal claim made? Highlight the section(s) that supports your answer.

      Answer:General Causal Claim

      Highlight:

      Prescription pills and treatments have many dangerous side effects.

    4. Injecting mercury into your muscle tissue will send a widespread shock through your body, which causes a severe, instant hyper-immune reply from the central nervous system.

      CredCo Indicator:Tone - Exaggerated Claims

      Question:Does the author exaggerate any claims? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      Injecting mercury into your muscle tissue will send a widespread shock through your body, which causes a severe, instant hyper-immune reply from the central nervous system.

    5. Chemotherapy should already be illegal, but it’s not.

      CredCo Indicator:Tone - Emotionally Charged

      Question:Does the article have an emotionally charged tone? (i.e, outrage, snark, celebration, horror, etc.). If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      Chemotherapy should already be illegal, but it’s not.

    6. If you think this is not true, check the Merck vaccine ingredient insert sheet for yourself.

      CredCo Indicator:Tone - Emotionally Charged

      Question:Does the article have an emotionally charged tone? (i.e, outrage, snark, celebration, horror, etc.). If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      If you think this is not true, check the Merck vaccine ingredient insert sheet for yourself.

    7. What’s the point in treating seizures with a drug that damages a vital organ?

      CredCo Indicator:Tone - Emotionally Charged

      Question:Does the article have an emotionally charged tone? (i.e, outrage, snark, celebration, horror, etc.). If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      What’s the point in treating seizures with a drug that damages a vital organ?

    8. At the moment, doctors in America are not authorized to prescribe or talk about resveratrol because this remedy is a natural remedy for blood clots. If you need some blood thinners, ask a naturopathic doctor and get a natural one.

      CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Naturalistic

      Question:Does the author suggest that something is good because it is natural, or bad because it is not natural (the naturalistic fallacy)?

      Answer:Yes

      Highlight:

      At the moment, doctors in America are not authorized to prescribe or talk about resveratrol because this remedy is a natural remedy for blood clots. If you need some blood thinners, ask a naturopathic doctor and get a natural one.

    9. The RotaTeq vaccine created by Dr. Paul Offit contains two strains of a deadly pig virus called circovirus, and there is no real reason to treat infant diarrhea with the same deadly virus that kills thousands of pigs in China.

      CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Appeal to Fear

      Question:Does the author exaggerate the dangers of a situation and use scare tactics to persuade (the appeal to fear fallacy)?

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      The RotaTeq vaccine created by Dr. Paul Offit contains two strains of a deadly pig virus called circovirus, and there is no real reason to treat infant diarrhea with the same deadly virus that kills thousands of pigs in China.

    10. What’s the point in treating seizures with a drug that damages a vital organ?

      CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Appeal to Fear

      Question:Does the author exaggerate the dangers of a situation and use scare tactics to persuade (the appeal to fear fallacy)?

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      What’s the point in treating seizures with a drug that damages a vital organ?

    11. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Slippery Slope

      Question:Does the author say that one small change will lead to a major change (use a slippery slope argument)? Highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    12. Also, consuming pharmaceutical drugs will not cure your illness. Instead, many of them will likely cause more long-term harm, than good.

      CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - False Dilemma

      Question:Does the author present a complicated choice as if it were binary (construct a false dilemma)? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      Also, consuming pharmaceutical drugs will not cure your illness. Instead, many of them will likely cause more long-term harm, than good.

    13. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Straw Man

      Question:Does the author present the counterargument as a weaker, more foolish version of the real counterargument (use a Straw Man Argument)? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    14. Also, consuming pharmaceutical drugs will not cure your illness.

      CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Acknowledge Uncertainty

      Question:Do they acknowledge uncertainty or the possibility that things might be otherwise? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      Also, consuming pharmaceutical drugs will not cure your illness.

    15. CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Extent Claims Justified

      Question:To what extent does their confidence in their claims seem justified?

      Answer:Slightly justified

    16. FDA

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Organizations

      Question:Highlight each organization cited:

      Answer:Cited Organization 2

      Highlight:

      FDA

    17. CDC

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Organizations

      Question:Highlight each organization cited:

      Answer:Cited Organization 1

      Highlight:

      CDC

    18. http://cdc.news/2017-06-01-autism-risk-420-higher-in-vaccinated-children-vs-non-vaccinated-published-science-confirms.html http://www.bewellbuzz.com/general/10-reasons-flu-shots-dangerous-flu/ http://www.rejuvenation-science.com/medication-depletion http://chemo.news/ https://realfarmacy.com/75-of-physicians-in-the-world-refuse-chemotherapy-for-themselves/
    19. Question:Which of the following types of sources are cited in the article? Check all that apply. If Other, please highlight.

      Answer:Organizations

    20. CredCo Indicator:Single Study Article

      Question:Is this article primarily about a single scientific study?

      Answer:No

    21. Immediately Destroy Your Health

      CredCo Indicator:Clickbait Title

      Question:What clickbait techniques does this headline employ (select all that apply)?

      Answer:Inducing fear (“Is Your Boyfriend Cheating on You?”)

      Highlight:

      Immediately Destroy Your Health

    22. Six Pharmaceutical Drugs

      CredCo Indicator:Clickbait Title

      Question:What clickbait techniques does this headline employ (select all that apply)?

      Answer:Listicle (“6 Tips on …”)

      Highlight:

      Six Pharmaceutical Drugs

    23. CredCo Indicator:Clickbait Title

      Question:Is the headline clickbaity?

      Answer:Somewhat clickbaity

    24. CredCo Indicator:Title Representativeness

      Question:Question: Does the title of the article accurately reflect the content of the article?

      Answer:Completely Representative

    25. Question:Rate your impression of the credibility of this article

      Answer:Medium credibility

    1. CredCo Indicator:Inference - Convincing Evidence

      Question:How convincing do you find the evidence given for the primary claim?

      Answer:Slightly Convincing

    2. Nevertheless, unlike refined sugar, honey contains beneficial vitamins and minerals too.

      Question:What kind of evidence do they give?

      Answer:Nutritional facts (without sources) are presented to support the effectiveness of the drink.

      Highlight:

      Nevertheless, unlike refined sugar, honey contains beneficial vitamins and minerals too.

    3. Apple cider vinegar promotes digestion, it likewise decreases the quantity of time that fats stay in the gastrointestinal system.

      Question:What kind of evidence do they give?

      Answer:Nutritional facts (without sources) are presented to support the effectiveness of the drink.

      Highlight:

      Apple cider vinegar promotes digestion, it likewise decreases the quantity of time that fats stay in the gastrointestinal system.

    4. Nevertheless, unlike refined sugar, honey contains beneficial vitamins and minerals too.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Other kind of evidence

      Highlight:

      Nevertheless, unlike refined sugar, honey contains beneficial vitamins and minerals too.

    5. Apple cider vinegar promotes digestion, it likewise decreases the quantity of time that fats stay in the gastrointestinal system.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Other kind of evidence

      Highlight:

      Apple cider vinegar promotes digestion, it likewise decreases the quantity of time that fats stay in the gastrointestinal system.

    6. A research study has actually likewise found that consuming half a grapefruit before every meal can lead to greater weight loss in dieters.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:An experimental study was conducted (natural experiments OK)

      Highlight:

      A research study has actually likewise found that consuming half a grapefruit before every meal can lead to greater weight loss in dieters.

    7. CredCo Indicator:Inference - Type of Claims

      Question:Is a general or singular causal claim made? Highlight the section(s) that supports your answer.

      Answer:No Causal Claim

    8. WITH ONLY 2 CUPS A DAY FOR 1 WEEK YOUR STOMACH WILL BE FLATTER!

      CredCo Indicator:Tone - Exaggerated Claims

      Question:Does the author exaggerate any claims? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:Yes

      Highlight:

      WITH ONLY 2 CUPS A DAY FOR 1 WEEK YOUR STOMACH WILL BE FLATTER!

    9. CredCo Indicator:Tone - Emotionally Charged

      Question:Does the article have an emotionally charged tone? (i.e, outrage, snark, celebration, horror, etc.). If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    10. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Naturalistic

      Question:Does the author suggest that something is good because it is natural, or bad because it is not natural (the naturalistic fallacy)?

      Answer:No

    11. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Appeal to Fear

      Question:Does the author exaggerate the dangers of a situation and use scare tactics to persuade (the appeal to fear fallacy)?

      Answer:No

    12. WITH ONLY 2 CUPS A DAY FOR 1 WEEK YOUR STOMACH WILL BE FLATTER!

      CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Slippery Slope

      Question:Does the author say that one small change will lead to a major change (use a slippery slope argument)? Highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:Yes

      Highlight:

      WITH ONLY 2 CUPS A DAY FOR 1 WEEK YOUR STOMACH WILL BE FLATTER!

    13. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - False Dilemma

      Question:Does the author present a complicated choice as if it were binary (construct a false dilemma)? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    14. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Straw Man

      Question:Does the author present the counterargument as a weaker, more foolish version of the real counterargument (use a Straw Man Argument)? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    15. Many individuals ask: Isn’t really honey a type of sugar? Doesn’t it contribute to weight gain? Won’t the calories in honey negate weight loss efforts?

      CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Acknowledge Uncertainty

      Question:Do they acknowledge uncertainty or the possibility that things might be otherwise? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      Many individuals ask: Isn’t really honey a type of sugar? Doesn’t it contribute to weight gain? Won’t the calories in honey negate weight loss efforts?

    16. CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Extent Claims Justified

      Question:To what extent does their confidence in their claims seem justified?

      Answer:Not at all justified

    17. A research study has actually likewise found that consuming half a grapefruit before every meal can lead to greater weight loss in dieters.

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Studies

      Question:Highlight each scientific study cited:

      Answer:Scientific Study 1

      Highlight:

      A research study has actually likewise found that consuming half a grapefruit before every meal can lead to greater weight loss in dieters.

    18. Question:Which of the following types of sources are cited in the article? Check all that apply. If Other, please highlight.

      Answer:Studies

    19. CredCo Indicator:Single Study Article

      Question:Is this article primarily about a single scientific study?

      Answer:No

    20. WITH ONLY 2 CUPS A DAY FOR 1 WEEK YOUR STOMACH WILL BE FLATTER!

      CredCo Indicator:Clickbait Title

      Question:What clickbait techniques does this headline employ (select all that apply)?

      Answer:Hidden secret or trick (“Fitness Companies Hate Him...”, “Experts are Dying to Know Their Secret”)

      Highlight:

      WITH ONLY 2 CUPS A DAY FOR 1 WEEK YOUR STOMACH WILL BE FLATTER!

    21. CredCo Indicator:Clickbait Title

      Question:Is the headline clickbaity?

      Answer:Very much clickbaity

    22. CredCo Indicator:Title Representativeness

      Question:Question: Does the title of the article accurately reflect the content of the article?

      Answer:Somewhat Representative

    23. Question:Rate your impression of the credibility of this article

      Answer:Very low credibility

    1. CredCo Indicator:Inference - Convincing Evidence

      Question:How convincing do you find the evidence given for the primary claim?

      Answer:Slightly Convincing

    2. This means much less deforestation and land degradation if so many plant crops weren’t run through the digestive tracts of cattle. If Americans traded their beef for beans, the researchers found, that would free up 42 percent of U.S. crop land.

      Question:What kind of evidence do they give?

      Answer:An overview of chain of events and cost/benefit analysis is used to support the idea that cutting out beef from our diet will allow us to almost meet greenhouse-gas emission goals.

      Highlight:

      This means much less deforestation and land degradation if so many plant crops weren’t run through the digestive tracts of cattle. If Americans traded their beef for beans, the researchers found, that would free up 42 percent of U.S. crop land.

    3. To understand why the climate impact of beef alone is so large, note that the image at the top of this story is a sea of soybeans in a silo in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest. The beans belong to a feed lot that holds 38,000 cattle, the growth and fattening of which means dispensing 900 metric tons of feed every day. Which is to say that these beans will be eaten by cows, and the cows will convert the beans to meat, and the humans will eat the meat. In the process, the cows will emit much greenhouse gas, and they will consume far more calories in beans than they will yield in meat, meaning far more clearcutting of forests to farm cattle feed than would be necessary if the beans above were simply eaten by people.

      Question:What kind of evidence do they give?

      Answer:An overview of chain of events and cost/benefit analysis is used to support the idea that cutting out beef from our diet will allow us to almost meet greenhouse-gas emission goals.

      Highlight:

      To understand why the climate impact of beef alone is so large, note that the image at the top of this story is a sea of soybeans in a silo in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest. The beans belong to a feed lot that holds 38,000 cattle, the growth and fattening of which means dispensing 900 metric tons of feed every day. Which is to say that these beans will be eaten by cows, and the cows will convert the beans to meat, and the humans will eat the meat. In the process, the cows will emit much greenhouse gas, and they will consume far more calories in beans than they will yield in meat, meaning far more clearcutting of forests to farm cattle feed than would be necessary if the beans above were simply eaten by people.

    4. This means much less deforestation and land degradation if so many plant crops weren’t run through the digestive tracts of cattle. If Americans traded their beef for beans, the researchers found, that would free up 42 percent of U.S. crop land.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Other kind of evidence

      Highlight:

      This means much less deforestation and land degradation if so many plant crops weren’t run through the digestive tracts of cattle. If Americans traded their beef for beans, the researchers found, that would free up 42 percent of U.S. crop land.

    5. To understand why the climate impact of beef alone is so large, note that the image at the top of this story is a sea of soybeans in a silo in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest. The beans belong to a feed lot that holds 38,000 cattle, the growth and fattening of which means dispensing 900 metric tons of feed every day. Which is to say that these beans will be eaten by cows, and the cows will convert the beans to meat, and the humans will eat the meat. In the process, the cows will emit much greenhouse gas, and they will consume far more calories in beans than they will yield in meat, meaning far more clearcutting of forests to farm cattle feed than would be necessary if the beans above were simply eaten by people.

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Other kind of evidence

      Highlight:

      To understand why the climate impact of beef alone is so large, note that the image at the top of this story is a sea of soybeans in a silo in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest. The beans belong to a feed lot that holds 38,000 cattle, the growth and fattening of which means dispensing 900 metric tons of feed every day. Which is to say that these beans will be eaten by cows, and the cows will convert the beans to meat, and the humans will eat the meat. In the process, the cows will emit much greenhouse gas, and they will consume far more calories in beans than they will yield in meat, meaning far more clearcutting of forests to farm cattle feed than would be necessary if the beans above were simply eaten by people.

    6. Recently Harwatt and a team of scientists from Oregon State University, Bard College, and Loma Linda University calculated [Broken Hyperlink] just what would happen if every American made one dietary change: substituting beans for beef. They found that if everyone were willing and able to do that—hypothetically—the U.S. could still come close to meeting its 2020 greenhouse-gas emission goals

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Experts are cited

      Highlight:

      Recently Harwatt and a team of scientists from Oregon State University, Bard College, and Loma Linda University calculated [Broken Hyperlink] just what would happen if every American made one dietary change: substituting beans for beef. They found that if everyone were willing and able to do that—hypothetically—the U.S. could still come close to meeting its 2020 greenhouse-gas emission goals

    7. She and her colleagues conclude in the journal Climatic Change: “While not currently recognized as a climate policy option, the ‘beans for beef’ scenario offers significant climate change mitigation and other environmental benefits, illustrating the high potential of animal to plant food shifts.”

      Question:What evidence is given for the primary claim? Select all that apply.

      Answer:Experts are cited

      Highlight:

      She and her colleagues conclude in the journal Climatic Change: “While not currently recognized as a climate policy option, the ‘beans for beef’ scenario offers significant climate change mitigation and other environmental benefits, illustrating the high potential of animal to plant food shifts.”

    8. cheese—this one dietary change could achieve somewhere between 46 and 74 percent of the reductions needed to meet the target.

      CredCo Indicator:Inference - Type of Claims

      Question:Is a general or singular causal claim made? Highlight the section(s) that supports your answer.

      Answer:General Causal Claim

      Highlight:

      cheese—this one dietary change could achieve somewhere between 46 and 74 percent of the reductions needed to meet the target.

    9. With one dietary change, the U.S. could almost meet greenhouse-gas emission goals.

      CredCo Indicator:Tone - Exaggerated Claims

      Question:Does the author exaggerate any claims? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      With one dietary change, the U.S. could almost meet greenhouse-gas emission goals.

    10. CredCo Indicator:Tone - Emotionally Charged

      Question:Does the article have an emotionally charged tone? (i.e, outrage, snark, celebration, horror, etc.). If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    11. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Naturalistic

      Question:Does the author suggest that something is good because it is natural, or bad because it is not natural (the naturalistic fallacy)?

      Answer:No

    12. it as the dread and helplessness that come with “watching the slow and seemingly irrevocable impacts of climate change unfold, and worrying about the future for oneself, children, and later generations.”

      CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Appeal to Fear

      Question:Does the author exaggerate the dangers of a situation and use scare tactics to persuade (the appeal to fear fallacy)?

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      it as the dread and helplessness that come with “watching the slow and seemingly irrevocable impacts of climate change unfold, and worrying about the future for oneself, children, and later generations.”

    13. Named in 2011, the American Psychological Association recently described

      CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Appeal to Fear

      Question:Does the author exaggerate the dangers of a situation and use scare tactics to persuade (the appeal to fear fallacy)?

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      Named in 2011, the American Psychological Association recently described

    14. A relatively small, single-food substitution could be the most powerful change a person makes in terms of their lifetime environmental impact—more so than downsizing one’s car [HYPERLINK: paywall], or being vigilant about turning off light bulbs, and certainly more than quitting showering

      CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Slippery Slope

      Question:Does the author say that one small change will lead to a major change (use a slippery slope argument)? Highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:Yes

      Highlight:

      A relatively small, single-food substitution could be the most powerful change a person makes in terms of their lifetime environmental impact—more so than downsizing one’s car [HYPERLINK: paywall], or being vigilant about turning off light bulbs, and certainly more than quitting showering

    15. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - False Dilemma

      Question:Does the author present a complicated choice as if it were binary (construct a false dilemma)? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    16. CredCo Indicator:Logical Fallacies - Straw Man

      Question:Does the author present the counterargument as a weaker, more foolish version of the real counterargument (use a Straw Man Argument)? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:No

    17. that—hypothetically—the U.S. could still come close to meeting its 2020 greenhouse-gas emission goals

      CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Acknowledge Uncertainty

      Question:Do they acknowledge uncertainty or the possibility that things might be otherwise? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      that—hypothetically—the U.S. could still come close to meeting its 2020 greenhouse-gas emission goals

    18. They found that if everyone were willing and able to do that—hypothetically—the

      CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Acknowledge Uncertainty

      Question:Do they acknowledge uncertainty or the possibility that things might be otherwise? If so, highlight the relevant section(s).

      Answer:Sort of

      Highlight:

      They found that if everyone were willing and able to do that—hypothetically—the

    19. CredCo Indicator:Confidence - Extent Claims Justified

      Question:To what extent does their confidence in their claims seem justified?

      Answer:Somewhat justified

    20. American Psychological Association

      Question:Are any experts, organizations, or studies cited that are separate from the central study quoted in the article? If so, highlight relevant section(s).

      Answer:2

      Highlight:

      American Psychological Association

    21. United Nations

      Question:Are any experts, organizations, or studies cited that are separate from the central study quoted in the article? If so, highlight relevant section(s).

      Answer:2

      Highlight:

      United Nations

    22. United Nations

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Organizations

      Question:Highlight each organization cited:

      Answer:Cited Organization 2

      Highlight:

      United Nations

    23. American Psychological Association

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Organizations

      Question:Highlight each organization cited:

      Answer:Cited Organization 1

      Highlight:

      American Psychological Association

    24. Recently Harwatt and a team of scientists from Oregon State University, Bard College, and Loma Linda University calculated [Broken Hyperlink] just what would happen if every American made one dietary change: substituting beans for beef.

      CredCo Indicator:Citation of Studies

      Question:Highlight each scientific study cited:

      Answer:Scientific Study 1

      Highlight:

      Recently Harwatt and a team of scientists from Oregon State University, Bard College, and Loma Linda University calculated [Broken Hyperlink] just what would happen if every American made one dietary change: substituting beans for beef.

    25. Helen Harwatt

      CredCo Indicator:Quotes from Outside Experts

      Question:Highlight each expert cited:

      Answer:Expert 1

      Highlight:

      Helen Harwatt

    26. Question:Which of the following types of sources are cited in the article? Check all that apply. If Other, please highlight.

      Answer:Organizations

    27. Question:Which of the following types of sources are cited in the article? Check all that apply. If Other, please highlight.

      Answer:Studies

    28. Question:Which of the following types of sources are cited in the article? Check all that apply. If Other, please highlight.

      Answer:Experts

    29. Recently Harwatt and a team of scientists from Oregon State University, Bard College, and Loma Linda University calculated [Broken Hyperlink] just what would happen if every American made one dietary change: substituting beans for beef.

      CredCo Indicator:Single Study Article

      Question:Is this article primarily about a single scientific study?

      Answer:Yes

      Highlight:

      Recently Harwatt and a team of scientists from Oregon State University, Bard College, and Loma Linda University calculated [Broken Hyperlink] just what would happen if every American made one dietary change: substituting beans for beef.

    30. With one dietary change, the U.S. could almost meet greenhouse-gas emission goals.

      CredCo Indicator:Clickbait Title

      Question:What clickbait techniques does this headline employ (select all that apply)?

      Answer:Hidden secret or trick (“Fitness Companies Hate Him...”, “Experts are Dying to Know Their Secret”)

      Highlight:

      With one dietary change, the U.S. could almost meet greenhouse-gas emission goals.