129 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. in human memory they call it external context um so we have 00:35:59 so the external context for instance is the the spatial cues and the other items that are kind of attached to the note right

      Theory: The external context of one's physical surroundings (pen, paper, textures, sounds, smells, etc.) combined with the internal context, the learner's psychological state, mood, etc., comprises a potentially closed system where each part props up the other for the best learning outcomes.

      Do neurodiversity effects help/hinder this process? What if people are missing one or more of these bits of contextualization? What does the literature look like in this space? Research?

  2. May 2022
    1. You may find this book in the “self-improvement” category, but in adeeper sense it is the opposite of self-improvement. It is aboutoptimizing a system outside yourself, a system not subject to you

      imitations and constraints, leaving you happily unoptimized and free to roam, to wonder, to wander toward whatever makes you feel alive here and now in each moment.

      Some may categorize handbooks on note taking within the productivity space as "self-help" or "self-improvement", but still view it as something that happens outside of ones' self. Doesn't improving one's environment as a means of improving things for oneself count as self-improvement?

      Marie Kondo's minimalism techniques are all external to the body, but are wholly geared towards creating internal happiness.

      Because your external circumstances are important to your internal mental state, external environment and decoration can be considered self-improvement.


      Could note taking be considered exbodied cognition? Vannevar Bush framed the Memex as a means of showing associative trails. (Let's be honest, As We May Think used the word trail far too much.)

      How does this relate to orality vs. literacy?

      Orality requires the immediate mental work for storage while literacy removes some of the work by making the effort external and potentially giving it additional longevity.

  3. Apr 2022
    1. Krapp argues that, despite its ‘respectablelineage’, the card index generally ‘figures only as an anonymous,furtive factor in text generation, acknowledged – all the way into thetwentieth century – merely as a memory crutch’ (361).2 A keyreason for this is due to the fact that the ‘enlightened scholar isexpected to produce innovative thought’ (361); knowledgeproduction, and any prostheses involved in it, ‘became and remaineda private matter’ (361).

      'Memory crutch' implies a physical human failing that needs assistance rather than a phrase like aide-mémoire that doesn't draw that same attention.

    2. The filing cards or slipsthat Barthes inserted into his index-card system adhered to a ‘strictformat’: they had to be precisely one quarter the size of his usualsheet of writing paper. Barthes (1991: 180) records that this systemchanged when standards were readjusted as part of moves towardsEuropean unification. Within the collection there was considerable‘interior mobility’ (Hollier, 2005: 40), with cards constantlyreordered. There were also multiple layerings of text on each card,with original text frequently annotated and altered.

      Barthes kept his system to a 'strict format' of cards which were one quarter the size of his usual sheet of writing paper, though he did adjust the size over time as paper sizes standardized within Europe. Hollier indicates that the collection had considerable 'interior mobility' and the cards were constantly reordered with use. Barthes also apparently frequently annotated and altered his notes on cards, so they were also changing with use over time.


      Did he make his own cards or purchase them? The sizing of his paper with respect to his cards might indicate that he made his own as it would have been relatively easy to fold his own paper in half twice and cut it up.

      Were his cards numbered or marked so as to be able to put them into some sort of standard order? There's a mention of 'interior mobility' and if this was the case were they just floating around internally or were they somehow indexed and tethered (linked) together?

      The fact that they were regularly used, revise, and easily reordered means that they could definitely have been used to elicit creativity in the same manner as Raymond Llull's combinatorial art, though done externally rather than within one's own mind.

  4. Mar 2022
    1. because increasingly search and credibility skills or social skills to help their friends build personal trust networks to determine good information scientific information scholarly 00:09:36 information health related information information related to your social needs like where am I going to go on vacation where am I going to go on Friday night but I think that we're going to be able to improve the internet experience for 00:09:49 everybody and the capital investment and teaching people searching credibility skills crap detection skills is miniscule compared to the cost of building servers and and and creating 00:10:03 all of the physical infrastructure that the Internet requires

      personal trust networks - a part of personal learning networks? the internal and the external benefit are no longer seperatable - one always comes together with the other

    1. ● Global symbols○ Symbols defined by module m that can be referenced by other modules.■ e.g., non-static C functions and non-static global variables.● External symbols○ Global symbols that are referenced by module m but defined by some other module.● Local symbols○ Symbols that are defined and referenced exclusively by module m.■ e.g., C functions and global variables defined with the static attribute.○ Local linker symbols are not local program variables

      分别有哪些 linker symbol?

    1. Future tools will provide standard ized learning streams to help novices perform basic tasks and scaffolding that wraps the tool with guidance as users acquire expertise. Experts will be able to record their insights for others and make macros to speed common tasks by novices.

      We've been promised this for ages, but where is it? Shouldn't it be here by now if it were deliverable or actualizable?

      What are the problems in solving this?

      How might one automate the Markov monkey?

    1. The use of gesture supplies a temporary scaffold that supports theseundergraduates’ still wobbly understanding of the subject as they fix theirknowledge more firmly in place.

      Gesturing supplies a visual scaffolding which allows one to affix their budding understanding of new concepts into a more permanent structure.

    1. “Noteson paper, or on a computer screen [...] do not make contemporaryphysics or other kinds of intellectual endeavour easier, they make itpossible” is one of the key takeaways in a contemporary handbookof neuroscientists (Levy 2011, 290) Concluding the discussions inthis book, Levy writes: “In any case, no matter how internalprocesses are implemented, insofar as thinkers are genuinelyconcerned with what enables human beings to perform the

      spectacular intellectual feats exhibited in science and other areas of systematic enquiry, as well as in the arts, they need to understand the extent to which the mind is reliant upon external scaffolding.” (Ibid.)

      Does Neil Levy go into anything on orality with respect to this topic? Check: Levy, Neil. 2011. “Neuroethics and the Extended Mind.” In Judy Illes and B. J. Sahakian (Ed.), Oxford Handbook of Neuroethics, 285–94, Oxford University Press

      Link this to P.M. Forni's question about how I think about mathematics and my answer relating to scaffolding or the construction of the Great Pyramid of Giza.

      Link this to the 9/8 zettel quote from Luhmann about writing being thinking.

      Compare the ideas of visual thinking (visualizations) and a visualization of one's thinking being instantiated in writing along with the Feynman quote about the writing being the thinking. What ways are they similar or different? Is there a gradation in which one subsumes the other?

      What does Annie Murphy Paul have to say on this topic in The Extended Mind?

  5. Feb 2022
    1. This is why choosing an external system that forces us todeliberate practice and confronts us as much as possible with ourlack of understanding or not-yet-learned information is such a smartmove.

      Choosing an external system for knowledge keeping and production forces the learner into a deliberate practice and confronts them with their lack of understanding. This is a large part of the underlying value not only of the zettelkasten, but of the use of a commonplace book which Benjamin Franklin was getting at when recommending that one "read with a pen in your hand". The external system also creates a modality shift from reading to writing by way of thinking which further underlines the value.

      What other building blocks are present in addition to: - modality shift - deliberate practice - confrontation of lack of understanding

      Are there other systems that do all of these as well as others simultaneously?


      link to Franklin quote

    2. We need a reliable and simple external structure tothink in that compensates for the limitations of our brains

      Let's be honest that there are certainly methods for doing all of this within our brains and not needing to rely on external structures. This being said, using writing, literacy, and external structures does allow us to process things faster than before.


      Can we calculate what the level of greater efficiency allows for doing this? What is the overall throughput difference in being able to forget and write? Not rely on communication with others? What does a back of the envelope calculation for this look like?

    1. I've observed for myself that not all weeks of writing are made equal. When I do try to impose a schedule on myself – like resolving that ‘I'll write for three hours every day and hit 1200 words’ – it can work out OK, but it’s usually not that great.But I have learned that when I’m really on a roll – when I’ve found a voice that’s really working and that I’m excited about – I need to just clear the decks and go with it. I will empty my schedule, dive in, and stay up late in order to be as productive as I can. I would say this is how I got both of my novels written.

      Robin Sloan's writing process sounds similar to that of Niklas Luhmann where he chose to work on things that seemed exciting and fun. This is, in part, helped by having a large quantity of interesting notes to work off of. They both used them as stores to fire their internal motivation to get work done.

  6. Jan 2022
    1. அவருக்கென இருப்பது அவருடைய அனுபவங்கள் மட்டுமே. அந்த அக- புற அனுபவங்களில் இருந்து அவர் நேரடியாக அடைவனவே அவருக்குரியவை. அவற்றை அளவுகோலாகக் கொண்டுதான் அவர் எல்லாவற்றையும் மதிப்பிட்டு தனக்கான முடிவுகளை அடையமுடியும். அத்தனைபேரும் இயல்பாகச் செய்வது அதைத்தான். ஆனால் எவராக இருந்தாலும் ஒருவரின் அனுபவம் என்பது மிகமிக எல்லைக்குட்பட்டது. அதைக்கொண்டு அனைத்தையும் புரிந்துகொள்ளுமளவுக்கு ஆழ்ந்த அறிதல்களை அடையமுடியாது. அதற்குத்தான் புனைவுகளை வாசிப்பது உதவுகிறது.அவை நாம் அடைந்த அனுபவங்களை கற்பனையில் விரிவாக மீண்டும் அனுபவிக்க உதவுகின்றன. உதாரணமாக, நான் குமரிமாவட்ட வாழ்க்கையையும் தர்மபுரி மாவட்ட வாழ்க்கையையும் மட்டுமே அறிந்தவன். ஆனால் தேவிபாரதியின் நாவல்கள் வழியாக என்னால் ஈரோடு மாவட்ட வாழ்க்கைக்குள் செல்லமுடியும். கண்மணி குணசேகரன் வழியாக விழுப்புரம் வட்டார வாழ்க்கைக்குள் செல்லமுடியும். கீரனூர் ஜாகீர்ராஜா வழியாக இஸ்லாமிய வாழ்க்கைக்குள்ச் செல்லமுடியும். புனைவுகளினூடாக தமிழகம் முழுக்க வாழ்ந்த அனுபவத்தை நான் அடையமுடியும். அவ்வாசிப்பு எனக்கு உண்மையில் வாழ்ந்த அனுபவத்துக்கு நிகரான அறிதல்களை அளிக்கமுடியும்.

      Fiction extends limits of my internal and external experience

    1. “It was kind of fun. Like even though I was green, that doesn’t mean my green tops your yellow right? Whatever I did, I just did it with a lot of energy.”

      There's been a normalization of providing exterior indicators of internal ideas and people's mental states. Examples include pins indicating pronouns, arm bracelets indicating social distancing or other social norms.

      But why aren't we taking these even farther on the anthropological spectrum? Is one society better or worse than another? One religion, one culture? Certainly not. Just like Leah McGowen-Hare's green band indicating that she's a hugger isn't any more valuable than someone else's yellow fist bump indicator. We need to do a better job of not putting people into linear relationships which only exist in our minds until we realize how horrific and dehumanizing they are.


      Cross reference:

  7. Dec 2021
    1. As a result of extensive work with this technique a kind of secondary memory will arise, an alter ego with who we can constantly communicate.

      I want to look at the original German for this sentence, particularly with respect to the translation of the phrase "secondary memory". Is the translation semantic or literal? Might the original German have been a more literal "second brain"?

      Compare this to the one or two other examples of this sort of translation from the German.

  8. Nov 2021
    1. We report the first neural recording during ecstatic meditations called jhanas and test whether a brain reward system plays a rolein the joy reported. Jhanas are Altered States of Consciousness (ASC) that imply major brain changes based on subjective reports:(1) external awareness dims, (2) internal verbalizations fade, (3) the sense of personal boundaries is altered, (4) attention is highlyfocused on the object of meditation, and (5) joy increases to high levels. The fMRI and EEG results from an experienced meditatorshow changes in brain activity in 11 regions shown to be associated with the subjective reports, and these changes occur promptlyafter jhana is entered. In particular, the extreme joy is associated not only with activation of cortical processes but also with activationof the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in the dopamine/opioid reward system. We test three mechanisms by which the subject mightstimulate his own reward system by external means and reject all three. Taken together, these results demonstrate an apparentlynovel method of self-stimulating a brain reward system using only internal mental processes in a highly trained subject.

      I can find no other research on this particular matter. It would be helpful to have other studies to validate or invalidate this one. This method of reward requires a highly-trained participant and involves no external means.

  9. Oct 2021
    1. while with server/externalFetch there is no direct way to pass cookie headers from the original request to the external one
    2. Right now I am working around this issue by having an internal [...api].js, then call fetch for that endpoint (which automatically passes on cookies) and from there hit the actual external endpoint. It works, there is no risk of leaking anything, but imo shouldn't be necessary.
    3. Sure you can abuse session but I don't like that since there is the risk of exposing credentials to client side code.
    1. This function allows you to modify (or replace) a fetch request for an external resource that happens inside a load function that runs on the server (or during pre-rendering). For example, your load function might make a request to a public URL like https://api.yourapp.com when the user performs a client-side navigation to the respective page, but during SSR it might make sense to hit the API directly (bypassing whatever proxies and load balancers sit between it and the public internet).
  10. Sep 2021
    1. Since the world's big bullies and bulletproof forms of power thrive on this oscillation between loop and binary, it is as if there is nothing to counter them -only more ways of fighting and being right and providing the rancor that nourishes their violence.

      This smacks of Cooper's, Deleuze's, and Whitehead's departures from Hegelian dialectic.

    1. as the Church was in the days of old

      Texts like Joyce's Portrait of an Artist as a Young Man suggest that the days of old mightn't've been all that long ago, and that's got its pros and cons

    2. Scott disrupts this familiar depiction of the world gone wrong by observing that it rests on the assumption that there are those who mis- perceive reality and those who perceive it clearly, those with false consciousness and those with a scientific or true understanding of social reality

      This reminds me of what we talked about in our last class. That is, how we believe that someone else is wrong because their "logic" is faulty. Such a belief implies that logic is purely objective, when it in fact, may not be. The question that arises from this observation is: who is to say who perceives the world clearly and who "misperceive[s] it?" How can we decipher which belief is correct?

  11. Aug 2021
    1. n response, I’d suggest that just as we “lose ourselves” in narratives that we find in novels, we can also lose ourselves (read: produce unexpected results) in a dictionary or other reading materials by tracing out connections and relations that exist within but across the alphabetic or logical argument imposed upon the piece.

      This point Boyle makes here is reminiscent of the concept of "intra-actions" and decentering humanistic ideals in favor for a more interactive and interconnectivity with humanity the world found in The Animal Who Writes.

  12. Jun 2021
    1. contact the API layer using internal DNS hostname of the API service for better latency. It can go straight to the application load balancer instead of passing through the external load balancer first
  13. May 2021
    1. if (parsed.protocol) { // external fetch response = await fetch(parsed.href, /** @type {import('node-fetch').RequestInit} */ (opts)); } else { // otherwise we're dealing with an internal fetch const resolved = resolve(request.path, parsed.pathname);
    1. CSR asking my Python backed directly (over nginx). Basically, in my particular situation, I want to use most shorter paths for SSR or CSR cases when I have a separate API server under the same domain and nginx frontend.
    2. on CSR it connects to the svelte-kit endpoint which just use a localhost connection. and to optimize this you can use unix sockets in your endpoints to connect to backend server
    3. ah you are talking about a external api endpoint server? then you could use the svelte-kit endpoints as proxy handler
    1. This looks cool but right now, let's say i have an external api which depends on users cookies, the cookies only gets send through internal sk endpoints while ssr even if its the same domain. Couldn't we pass the 'server' request to the serverFetch hook? I would currently have to patch package svelte kit to pass request headers to the external api or create an sk endpoint which proxies the request.
    1. Because of that, it's essential that the bundler doesn't treat the package as an external dependency. You can either modify the external option under server in rollup.config.js or the externals option in webpack.config.js,
  14. Feb 2021
    1. Source maps eliminate the need to serve these separate files. Instead, a special source map file can be read by the browser to help it understand how to unpack your assets. It "maps" the current, modified asset to its "source" so you can view the source when debugging. This way you can serve assets in development in the exact same way as in production.
    1. When Sprockets was introduced, one of the opinions that it held strongly, is that assets such as CSS and JS should be bundled together and served in one file.
    2. The alternative was to have multiple scripts or stylesheet links on one page, which would trigger multiple HTTP requests. Multiple requests mean multiple connection handshakes for each link “hey, I want some data”, “okay, I have the data”, “alright I heard that you have the data, give it to me” (SYN, ACK, SYNACK). Even once the connection is created there is a feature of TCP called TCP slow start that will throttle the speed of the data being sent at the beginning of a request to a slower speed than the end of the request. All of this means transferring one large request is faster than transferring the same data split up into several smaller requests.
  15. Jan 2021
    1. ἔγρετο δ᾽ ἐξ ὕπνου, θείη δέ μιν ἀμφέχυτ᾽ ὀμφή:

      It's dream which produces thinking

    1. ἐγὼ δ᾽ οὐκ αἴτιός εἰμι, ἀλλὰ Ζεὺς καὶ Μοῖρα καὶ ἠεροφοῖτις Ἐρινύς, οἵ τέ μοι εἰν ἀγορῇ φρεσὶν ἔμβαλον ἄγριον ἄτην, ἤματι τῷ ὅτ᾽ Ἀχιλλῆος γέρας αὐτὸς ἀπηύρων.

      Thinking is not a production of a subject but it comes from gods

  16. Dec 2020
  17. Nov 2020
    1. Update: I was advised not to import directly from svelte on a reusable publishable store but instead declare svelte as an external.
    2. In your case, it sounds like you just want to make svelte external when compiling your components and provide svelte's packages as es modules (straight from npm; look at the .mjs files).
    1. An Array which instructs the plugin to limit module resolution to those whose names match patterns in the array. Note: Modules not matching any patterns will be marked as external.
    1. obviously it's too late, but it's a good practice to keep the 3rd party dependencies mirrored in your own infrastructure :) There is NO GUARANTEE that even a huge site (like launchpad for downloading DEBs) won't go down over a period of time.
    1. I think you might want to use resolve just for the umd build, and set svelte/internal as an external dependency for the es build, but I'm not entirely sure.
    1. If you rely on any external dependencies (files required in a preprocessor for example) you might want to watch these files for changes and re-run svelte compile. Webpack allows loader dependencies to trigger a recompile. svelte-loader exposes this API via options.externalDependencies.
  18. Oct 2020
    1. If you define a variable outside of your form, you can then set the value of that variable to the handleSubmit function that 🏁 React Final Form gives you, and then you can call that function from outside of the form.
    1. If you return an object, then it is possible to resolve an import to a different id while excluding it from the bundle at the same time. This allows you to replace dependencies with external dependencies without the need for the user to mark them as "external" manually via the external option
    2. If you do want to include the module in your bundle, you need to tell Rollup how to find it. In most cases, this is a question of using @rollup/plugin-node-resolve.
  19. Sep 2020
    1. /node_modules/

      This might be better than explicitly listing all external modules...?

    2. or an Array of module IDs, or regular expressions to match module IDs, that should remain external to the bundle.
    3. Resolve imports to module ids (i.e. file names) using the same plugins that Rollup uses, and determine if an import should be external. If null is returned, the import could not be resolved by Rollup or any plugin but was not explicitly marked as external by the use
    1. But this is only a halfway decent way to clarify that this is an external dependency, because the only way to resolve a peer dependency warning is to install react from npm—there's no way to notify npm that you resolve the dependency to a browser global. So peer dependencies should be avoided in favor of external declarations. Then Rollup will take care of warning about "unresolved dependencies", even if external declarations can't express a particular version range with which your library is compatible like peer dependencies can.

      Interesting. Didn't realize. From my perspective, I usually do install packages via npm, so wouldn't have known about this problem.

      npm and rollup both try to solve this problem but in different ways that apparently conflict? So if a lib author lists peerDependencies then it can cause problems for those getting lib via browser (CDN)? How come so many libs use it then? How come I've never heard of this problem before?

    2. Now, in the resulting bundle, you'll see that import React from 'react'; remains. This lets the application that consumes this library decide how it would like to resolve this dependency. This will generally be to a browser global, using the the external and globals options, as above; but could be to a local file or even to npm for some reason.
    3. external: ['react']
    4. When you publish this module, you do not want to bundle React, for the reasons described above. (It would be even worse to bundle React in a library, because then its copy would duplicate that loaded by the application!) But the fix is slightly different for a library than an application. In this library's Rollup configuration, we only want to specify external, not globals:
    5. many CDNs nowadays ultimately source from npm (before caching the JavaScript on their own edge servers). So you'll be guaranteed to have the same library version on the CDN as on npm
    6. Why bundling 3rd-party dependencies can be a very bad idea
    7. So React, and other large third-party dependencies, should not be bundled alongside your application; they should be kept external. But where will they come from then?
    8. The only module names that Rollup understands out of the box are relative or absolute file paths, like ./maths.js in the example. This works just fine for your own code—but what about 3rd-party dependencies?
  20. Aug 2020
  21. Jul 2020
    1. While stylesheets can be reworked relatively easily with AMP by inlining the CSS, the same is not true for JavaScript. The tag 'script' is disallowed except in specific forms. In general, scripts in AMP are only allowed if they follow two major requirements: All JavaScript must be asynchronous (i.e., include the async attribute in the script tag). The JavaScript is for the AMP library and for any AMP components on the page. This effectively rules out the use of all user-generated/third-party JavaScript in AMP except as noted below.
    2. The problem is that this is an external stylesheet reference. In AMP, to keep the load times of documents as fast as possible, you cannot include external stylesheets.
  22. Jun 2020
    1. However, when you use an SD card as internal storage, Android formats the SD card in such a way that no other device can read it. Android also expects the adopted SD card to always be present, and won’t work quite right if you remove it.
  23. May 2020
    1. Mozilla does not permit extensions distributed through https://addons.mozilla.org/ to load external scripts. Mozilla does allow extensions to be externally distributed, but https://addons.mozilla.org/ is how most people discover extensions. The are still concerns: Google and Microsoft do not grant permission for others to distribute their "widget" scripts. Google's and Microsoft's "widget" scripts are minified. This prevents Mozilla's reviewers from being able to easily evaluate the code that is being distributed. Mozilla can reject an extension for this. Even if an extension author self-distributes, Mozilla can request the source code for the extension and halt its distribution for the same reason.

      Maybe not technically a catch-22/chicken-and-egg problem, but what is a better name for this logical/dependency problem?

  24. Mar 2020
    1. How do you leverage browser cache when Google’s very own Analytics.js has it’s expiry time set to 2 hours? How do you minimize DNS requests when Google advices you to copy their tracking code, linking to an externally hosted Javascript file?If that isn’t bad enough already, Google’s advice is to avoid hosting the JavaScript file locally. And why? To ensure you get access to new features and product updates.
    2. Why should I host analytics.js locally?The Complete Analytics Optimization Suite for WordPress gives you the best of both worlds. After activation it automagically downloads the latest version of analytics.js from Google’s servers, places the necessary tracking code in your WordPress theme’s header and keeps the local Javascript file up-to-date using an adjusted version of Matthew Horne’s update analytics script and wp_cron(). This way you can minimize DNS requests, leverage browser cache, track your visitors and still follow Google’s recommendation to use the latest features and product updates.
  25. Nov 2019
    1. This article studies the impact of external differentiation and vocational orientation of lower and upper in secondary education. Hard Read for sure. The age range for participants is 30-44 year old's in 18 countries. The results are what you would expect..

  26. Mar 2019
  27. Feb 2019
    1. Without this, men fill one another's heads with noise and sounds;

      Alluding to the Transactional Model of Communication, noise can external (e.g. words, sounds) or internal (e.g. anxiety, distraction). Noise is a barrier to clear communication, which in this sense, inhibits the progression of knowledge.

  28. May 2017
    1. That is, it is through specific intra-actions that phenomenacome to matter—in both senses of the word.

      I could be way off base, but this sentence reminds me of the Romantic idea (held by William Godwin, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, and Mary Shelley, amongst others) that the betterment of the individual was achieved through interactions and forming relationships with others. An improved individual was equipped to understand the world and discover truth--which is I think what Barad is saying here about agential intra-actions and their production of phenomena, which results in both physical and cultural matter.

  29. Apr 2017
    1. Donna Haraway

      Feminist writer known for her "Cyborg Manifesto".

      Also, she had a cameo appearance in Episode 2 of the anime "Ghost in the Shell" (which is appropriate given her academic background), albeit a somewhat satirical one poking fun at her haughtiness.

    1. Fredric Jameson describes his experience and frustration with the Bonaventure Hotel in Los Angeles

      I read through the next few paragraphs and struggled to understand the point they were making with these examples. I wanted more context, which I found helped a great deal in understanding the point being made here, so I thought you folks might appreciate that, as well. Here is the hotel:

      And here is an excerpt from the aforementioned text in which Jameson discusses the hotel. Important points are helpfully in red: https://pegasus.cc.ucf.edu/~janzb/courses/hum3930b/jameson1.htm

    1. hus, if anything, a rhetoricalbasis of meaning requires a disciplinary hierarchy with rhetoricat the top

      Sounds kind of like Plato in Phaedrus on the Soul when he said that philosophers should have control over Greece to run the society as efficiently and morally as possible.

      Maybe this is a stretch, but the word choice of "hierarchy" makes me uncomfortable because it implies a great amount of self-importance and arrogant superiority.

    1. Wild tongues can't be tamed, they can only be cut out.

      “When you tear out a man's tongue, you are not proving him a liar, you're only telling the world that you fear what he might say.”

      George R. R. Martin (through Tyrion Lannister)

    2. weaving images from her multiple selves and from many others into a kind of tapestry or patchwork quilt of language.

      I love the metaphor of language as a quilt. Quilts are unique, just as language is unique to each individual who engages it. It brings together different types of fabric that maybe don't seem like they would go together, but once assembled make a beautiful product.

      The image of layering multiple identities is intriguing to me, and reminds me of a class I took last semester called American Mosaic, which explored literature written by American immigrants or minorities from different backgrounds, which reflected the confusion individuals felt concerning their identities. Anzaldua, I anticipate, tries to layer these multiple facets of her identity together in her literary works, a feat with which many authors struggle.

    1. signification"

      Etymology of signification: early 14c., "symbolization, representation," from Old French significacion and directly from Latin significationem (nominative significatio) "a signifying, indication, expression, sign, token, meaning, emphasis," noun of action from past participle stem of significare "make known, indicate" (see signify). From late 14c. as "meaning" (of a word, etc.).

      I thought it would be interesting to look at the etymology of "signification" (as it is a main topic of this essay) because Gates has been discussing the diverging meanings of the word in different rhetorics. It is unsurprising that the etymology defined here comes from the "white rhetoric" tradition, as described by Gates. I suppose upon further search and inquiry I could possibly find the meaning of "signification" as defined within African American rhetoric, but it would require a lot of extra effort on my part. This lack of available definition demonstrates the "glossing over" of the African American culture in the United States and the general lack of knowledge and understanding on behalf of the majority of white Americans, and is a reminder of the ignorance that is very much alive in the US.

      This reading has encouraged me to think a lot more on divergent cultural rhetorics and how awareness and acknowledgement of the validity of different rhetorics is crucial to any progress that is to be made in race relations in the US.

    2. Smokey Joe Whitfield
  30. Mar 2017
    1. symbolic interchange as we know it is impossible, and the condition of being fully human has not been attained.

      To Booth, being fully human means that one can communicate with others through symbols, language, and other interactions. To him, lacking full mental capacity means that one is not fully human (at least I think that is what he is saying). This kind of broaches on the philosophical argument surrounding personhood, and whether one requires what is considered "normal" mental function in order to be considered "human." Animalists would say no, your form as a human is enough; Hylomorphists and Substance Dualists would argue that your mental capacity is necessary to your identity as a human person. I wonder how much, if at all, these schools of thought influenced Booth when he wrote this?

    2. Belief or thought or knowledge, action or will or choice, feeling or emotion or passion occur in every theory of thinking, acting, or feel-ing;

      Booth mentioned "tripartite" earlier and here lists three phrases which three words each.... sounding Platonic.

    3. monstrous births,

      I found the use of this phrase very interesting. My inference from previous reading was that a "monstrous birth" was a phrase from a much earlier period in history, used to describe still-births or severely deformed babies that died shortly after birth. From my understanding, they were seen as a punishment from God for some moral failing on the part of the mother. This usage implies that a monstrous birth is someone who has moral failings. I wonder whether this is the true version of the "monstrous birth" for the present age.

      [Side note: I tried finding the etymology, but struggled to do so, perhaps because it is a phrase rather than a single term.]

    4. the Weather-men group

      I had a sort of fuzzy recollection of this group from a history course a few years back, but since they are often glossed over in history books, I thought this might be helpful, especially since this piece is so historically situated in its strange political moment:

      "The Weather Underground Organization (WUO), commonly known as the Weather Underground, was an American militant radical left-wing organization founded on the Ann Arbor campus of the University of Michigan. Originally called Weatherman, the group became known colloquially as the Weathermen. Weatherman organized in 1969 as a faction of Students for a Democratic Society (SDS)[2] composed for the most part of the national office leadership of SDS and their supporters. Their goal was to create a clandestine revolutionary party for the overthrow of the U.S. Government."

      (This is all from the Wiki, if you want to read more:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weather_Underground)

    1. And yes," says Molly, carrying Ulysses off be-yond any book and toward the new writing; "I said yes, I will Yes."

      I was curious about this line, so I did a little searching and I found this particularly interesting, since Cixous did her dissertation on Joyce:

      The episode both begins and ends with "yes," a word that Joyce described as "the female word" and that he said indicated "acquiescence, self-abandon, relaxation, the end of all resistance."

      https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Molly_Bloom#Soliloquy

    1. speech act referred to by English analysts?6

      In J.L. Austin 's How to Do Things With Words, a "speech act" is a performative utterance. That is, "speech acts" do something; whereas most of our concern with language thus far was regarding its relative "Truth," Austin was interested in language that was not meant to assert, but to do. (For example, "hello!" is not meant to persuade, but to greet. It does something rather than conveying information.)

      https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J._L._Austin#Performative_utterance

    1. there is a distinction between the "contemplative" goal of literature and the "active" goal of rhetoric, literature frequently uses persuasion and argumentation.

      Many authors use literature as a way to express their views on society, politics, economics, etc. Some prominent authors that come to mind are William Godwin and Mary Wollstonecraft, both of whom wrote extensively on the struggles of women and criticized the societal structure in which they lived, but expressed these views through characters and stories.

    2. Traditional language philosophy treats language as an imperfect expression of logic.

      Interesting to note that in Goethe's The Sorrows of Young Werther, the protagonist Werther mentions multiple times that words/language could not accurately describe his feelings or the world around him; this takes the stance that not only does language not accurately convey logic, but also lacks the ability to explain one's emotions. It's similar to Locke's (and other Enlightenment thinkers') idea that language cannot allow us to express what we want to express because it does not accurately capture anything in the world around us, whether that be objects, emotions, other people, etc.

    3. Burke sees rhetoric as the loser in a connict with literature

      In the general university system, I would tend to agree with Burke. Whenever I tell anyone I am an English major, they immediately assume that I study literature (which I do sometimes, but also not all the time) and ask what I want to teach, and can't possibly imagine that there are other careers available for English majors. When I mention that my concentration is Rhetoric, people are confused as to what that even is. This kind of references the readings from the first week when we tried to define rhetoric, but never actually established a definitive definition; in the same way, I struggle with communicating exactly what I learn with my friends who have no contextual background or understanding for what I study.

    1. They are, in summation, that man is not nor ever can be nor ever should be a de-personalized thinking machine.

      There is more to humanity than being "moist robots", as modern day rhetorical critic and philosopher (and cartoonist) Scott Adams might purport.

      To Weaver, all humans have, in the least, a "soul", it is important that that soul is recognized and catered to.

    2. Definition is an attempt to capture essence.

      I've never thought of it quite like that, but that's exactly what it is.

      Reminds me of how Nathaniel explained to us how at first dictionaries were just lists of words, but evolved to become the mighty canons of language that they are today. Nowadays, they contain the bulk of rhetorical essence that our modern tradition utilizes.

  31. Feb 2017
    1. The Angel in the House.

      (Please forgive all the bullet points, but hypothes.is was not cooperating with my formatting. The options were either this, or to have the poem become one long paragraph)

      • Excerpt:
      • Man must be pleased; but him to please
      • Is woman's pleasure; down the gulf
      • Of his condoled necessities
      • She casts her best, she flings herself.
      • How often flings for nought, and yokes
      • Her heart to an icicle or whim,
      • Whose each impatient word provokes
      • Another, not from her, but him;
      • While she, too gentle even to force
      • His penitence by kind replies,
      • Waits by, expecting his remorse,
      • With pardon in her pitying eyes;
      • And if he once, by shame oppress'd,
      • A comfortable word confers,
      • She leans and weeps against his breast,
      • And seems to think the sin was hers;
      • Or any eye to see her charms,
      • At any time, she's still his wife,
      • Dearly devoted to his arms;
      • She loves with love that cannot tire;
      • And when, ah woe, she loves alone,
      • Through passionate duty love springs higher,
      • As grass grows taller round a stone.
    2. It is true I am a woman; it is true I am employed; but what professional experiences have I had? I

      This reminds me of Iris Young's "Five Faces of Oppression." Young argues that we often neglect to see the many faces of oppression, and that we misrepresent reality by comparing dissimilar experiences of oppression as existing under the same general umbrella of subjectivity. Anyone who experiences even one face of oppression is oppressed, but many individuals and groups experience oppression differently because they may experience different combinations of the faces of oppression. One face of oppression which often goes overlooked is "powerlessness."

      Powerlessness is a distinction between technical freedom and actual self-possession and choice. Examples Young gives are that although we are technically allowed to choose our employer, many employees are placed at the bottom of the totem pole, where they are dictated to, rather than consulted about their own work. Those who work menial jobs, for example, in which the minutia of their jobs (what to do and how to do it) are strictly controlled are powerless. In contrast, professionals such as doctors, teachers, managers, etc. are given a degree of freedom and choice about how to best go about their work, and they might even have employees working under them, whose work they get to control. This freedom gives one "respectability" in the eyes of society and one's own eyes. If someone does not have access to professionalization, they are denigrated for this lack of "respectability," by the implication that they are inferior to professionals. This, of course, becomes a vicious economic and psychological cycle.

      This system of oppression through powerlessness is what Woolf is referencing here. Although she is employed, society has denied her the freedom allotted to most literary professionals, most of whom are men. She is employed, but she is not a professional because she is denied the freedom and respectability that being a professional connotes.

    1. They corre-spond to the three departments of the human mind, the Understanding, the Will, and the Feel-ings.

      Reflects platonic division into three parts; also seems to be somewhat Augustinian in nature. Augustinian divided the soul into three parts: Memory, Understanding, and Willing.

      The Understanding, the Will, and the Feelings seem to be Bain's update on Logos, Ethos, and Pathos.

      Lots of connections in this passage!

    1. the prin-ciples of reasoning neither makes, nor is essential to, a good reasoner, is doubtless true. Thus, 100, is it wilh grammar.

      This attitude is in contrast to the weak defense idea that a good reasoner was a good person. Here Spencer is rejecting that idea, and also rejecting the idea that good grammar is indicative of a good character.

    1. Her Most Gracious Majesty Queen Vic-toria, the reigning sovereign of the most mighty, intelligent people of this or any other age

      I would personally wager that she was one of the greatest female rulers of all time (maybe only ousted by Russia's Catherine the Great), and monitored an extraordinary era of Britain's history that many, even today, reminisce and romanticize over.

      If you're going to chose any one woman to demonstrate how good of leaders they can be, you're not going to get much better than the Britain's beloved matriarch. So good example, Palmer.

      It does beg the question, though: Is she really such a good example if Palmer is advocating for greater female involvement in the church? Are an imperiastic queen and a hypothetical female priestess inherently compatible?

    1. Beacon Hill

      an extremely white community to this day, the 2010 census says about a 2% percent of the population is African american

    2. including William Lloyd Garrison, who could testify to her good works from her activist days in Boston to the present.

      Historically, this sort of testimony was fairly common as a preface to the writing of women and people of color. Such testimonies from (white, wealthy, well-connected) men would sometimes appear prior to the text itself to convince the reader that the author was worth taking seriously, since women and people of color were not considered worth of consideration on their own merits.

    3. did not yet enjoy this supportive reaction

      This seems like quite an understatement, given the last sentence of the next paragraph. Do we have any historical info regarding the ways the hostility of the audience manifested itself? I imagine it must have been fairly extreme to force her to leave the city. For example, was it heckling, attempts to speak over her, jeers and boos to drown out her words, perhaps even a dramatic attempt to pull her from the stage? It seems like the reactions of such hostile audiences offer important historical information, as it should be kept in mind when we consider how women and people of color first needed to shape a type of rhetoric that would quell a hostile audience.

      As an example from a different historical moment, there are conflicting reports of Sojourner Truth's reception at the Seneca Falls Convention. Some reports imply that she was heckled, or at least that there were interjections from the audience, while other reports offer an opposing narrative that present Truth as largely supported by the audience and not decried at all. The hostility or receptivity of the audience (and the way such information is mentioned in accounts) shapes the way we can interpret Truth's oration and its effects.

    1. but this edu-cation did not include classical learning, literacy in Greek and Latin, or formal training in rhetoric, except in a few elite schools for boys destined for the univer-sity

      I do wonder what the reasoning was for this (I mean, besides the blatant "women and the lower class are too stupid to understand our Great Books and/or will lead lives that do not require a 'polite' education"). We've already read arguments that the "polite" education supposedly improved the virtues as well as the mind, right? Wouldn't all of society benefit if women and the lower class were virtuous, as much as possible?

  32. Oct 2015
    1. . Human interactional intelligence is, so far as we know, predicated upon five qualities

      So this is basically the through process of analysis/division of how humans take in stimuli in the environment?