28 Matching Annotations
  1. Feb 2020
    1. καὶ ἔστιν ὁ μὲν τοιοῦτος νοῦς τῷ πάντα γίνεσθαι, ὁ δὲ τῷ πάντα ποιεῖν, ὡς ἕξις τις, οἷον τὸ φῶς· τρόπον γάρ τινα καὶ τὸ φῶς ποιεῖ τὰ δυνάμει ὄντα χρώματα ἐνεργείᾳ χρώματα. καὶ οὗτος ὁ νοῦς χωριστὸς καὶ ἀπαθὴς καὶ ἀμιγής, τῇ οὐσίᾳ ὢν ἐνέργεια·

      This is the mysterious passage that has been the object of many interpretations in the history of philosophy. The idea of an intelect separate and common to all comes from here. Cf. for example Alexander of Aphrodisias.

    1. Midway between the Being which is indivisible and remains always the same and the Being which is transient and divisible in bodies, He blended a third form of Being compounded out of the twain, that is to say, out of the Same and the Other; and in like manner He compounded it midway between that one of them which is indivisible and that one which is divisible in bodies. And He took the three of them, and blent them all together into one form, by forcing the Other into union with the Same, in spite of its being naturally difficult to mix.

      An original form of mediation. A mediated-Being. This is the Soul - this is the intellect, this is thinking, actually

    1. Mais qu’est-ce donc que je suis ? une chose qui pense. Qu’est-ce qu’une chose qui pense ? c’est une chose qui doute, qui entend, qui conçoit, qui affirme, qui nie, qui veut, qui ne veut pas, qui imagine aussi, et qui sent.

      The fact that thinking is the production of a human being derives from the necessity of knowing what an human being is. Descartes wants to answer the question: who am I. Thus he takes what seems to be the more material and certain thing: thinking. Then he says: I am something who thinks. But actually this is a paralogism.

  2. Dec 2019
    1. 37. Et comme tout ce détail n’enveloppe que d’autres contingents antérieurs ou plus détaillés, dont chacun a encore besoin d’une analyse semblable pour en rendre raison, on n’en est pas plus avancé, et il faut que la raison suffisante ou dernière soit hors de la suite ou séries de ce détail des contingences, quelque infini qu’il pourrait être. 38. Et c’est ainsi que la dernière raison des choses doit être dans une substance nécessaire, dans laquelle le détail des changements ne soit qu’éminemment, comme dans la source, et c’est ce que nous appelons Dieu. (§ 7.)

      Principle of sufficient reason

    1. I term all transcendental ideas, in so far as they relate to the absolute totality in the synthesis of phenomena, cosmical conceptions; partly on account of this unconditioned totality, on which the conception of the world-whole is based—a conception, which is itself an idea—partly because they relate solely to the synthesis of phenomena—the empirical synthesis; while, on the other hand, the absolute totality in the synthesis of the conditions of all possible things gives rise to an ideal of pure reason, which is quite distinct from the cosmical conception, although it stands in relation with it. Hence, as the paralogisms of pure reason laid the foundation for a dialectical psychology, the antinomy of pure reason will present us with the transcendental principles of a pretended pure (rational) cosmology—not, however, to declare it valid and to appropriate it, but—as the very term of a conflict of reason sufficiently indicates, to present it as an idea which cannot be reconciled with phenomena and experience.
    1. 'Then, thou must on similar grounds admit that unity and goodness are the same; for when the effects of things in their natural working differ not, their essence is one and the same.'

      One and Good are the same

    1. Oportet igitur idem esse unum atque bonum simili ratione concedas; eadem namque substantia est eorum quorum naturaliter non est diuersus effectus.

      Identity of Good and One, see also Plotinus

    1. Once you have uttered "The Good," add no further thought: by any addition, and in proportion to that addition, you introduce a deficiency.

      This implies that for ethical reasons the One is better than the many

    1. Hanc autem pluralitatem consequitur ratio diversitatis, secundum quod manet in ea suae causae virtus, scilicet oppositionis entis et non entis. Ideo enim unum plurium diversum dicitur alteri comparatum, quia non est illud.

      Plurality is the cause of diversity. But the first plurality is the division between Being and nonBeing. Plurality is thus based on nonBeing.

    1. εἰ οὖν ὅπερ ἄν τις ἢ εἴπῃ ἢ νοήσῃ τὸ ὄν ἐστι, πάντων εἷς ἔσται λόγος ὁ τοῦ ὄντος,    (30)               οὐδὲν γὰρ ἔστιν ἢ ἔσται [πάρεξ]

      "If anything one thinks or says is what it is, the reason of all things will be one, namely Being; nothing is or will be outside Being." This is the etiological reason for the impossibility of multiplicity.

  3. Nov 2019
    1. Then the idea cannot be like the individual, or the individual like the idea; for if they are alike, some further idea of likeness will always be coming to light, and if that be like anything else, another; and new ideas will be always arising, if the idea resembles that which partakes of it?

      But what if Being is the relationship?

    1. μάλα γὰρ φιλοσόφου τοῦτο τὸ πάθος, τὸ θαυμάζειν: οὐ γὰρ ἄλλη ἀρχὴ φιλοσοφίας ἢ αὕτη, καὶ ἔοικεν ὁ τὴν Ἶριν Θαύμαντος ἔκγονον φήσας οὐ κακῶς γενεαλογεῖν.

      Wonder as begining of philosophy

  4. Oct 2019
    1. En effet, si les corps n’avaient rien d’impérissable, tout ce que nous cesserions de voir cesserait d’être

      perception et existence distincte des corps parce qu'ils ont quelque chose d'impérissable (les atomes)

    1. 31. Nos raisonnemens sont fondés sur deux grands principes, celui de la contradiction, en vertu duquel nous jugeons faux ce qui en enveloppe, et vrai ce qui est oppose ou contradictoire au faux. 32. Et celui de la raison suffisante, en vertu duquel nous considérons qu’aucun fait ne sauroit se trouver vrai ou existant, aucune énonciation véritable, sans qu’il y ait une raison suffisante pourquoi il en soit ainsi et non pas autrement, quoique ces raisons le plus souvent ne puissent point nous être connues.

      Principle of sufficient reason

    1. We here propose to do just what Copernicus did in attempting to explain the celestial movements. When he found that he could make no progress by assuming that all the heavenly bodies revolved round the spectator, he reversed the process, and tried the experiment of assuming that the spectator revolved, while the stars remained at rest. We may make the same experiment with regard to the intuition of objects. If the intuition must conform to the nature of the objects, I do not see how we can know anything of them a priori. If, on the other hand, the object conforms to the nature of our faculty of intuition, I can then easily conceive the possibility of such an a priori knowledge. Now as I cannot rest in the mere intuitions, but—if they are to become cognitions—must refer them, as representations, to something, as object, and must determine the latter by means of the former, here again there are two courses open to me. Either, first, I may assume that the conceptions, by which I effect this determination, conform to the object—and in this case I am reduced to the same perplexity as before; or secondly, I may assume that the objects, or, which is the same thing, that experience, in which alone as given objects they are cognized, conform to my conceptions—and then I am at no loss how to proceed.

      Copernican revolution.

    1. Je supposerai donc, non pas que Dieu, qui est très bon, et qui est la souveraine source de vérité, mais qu’un certain mauvais génie, non moins rusé et trompeur que puissant, a employé toute son industrie à me tromper ; je penserai que le ciel, l’air, la terre, les couleurs, les figures, les sons, et toutes les choses extérieures, ne sont rien que des illusions et rêveries dont il s’est servi pour tendre des piéges à ma crédulité ; je me considérerai moi-même comme n’ayant point de mains, point d’yeux, point de chair, point de sang ; comme n’ayant aucun sens, mais croyant faussement avoir toutes ces choses ; je demeurerai obstinément attaché à cette pensée ; et si, par ce moyen, il n’est pas en mon pouvoir de parvenir à la connoissance d’aucune vérité, à tout le moins il est en ma puissance de suspendre mon jugement : c’est pourquoi je prendrai garde soigneusement de ne recevoir en ma croyance aucune fausseté, et préparerai si bien mon esprit à toutes les ruses de ce grand trompeur, que, pour puissant et rusé qu’il soit, il ne me pourra jamais rien imposer.

      Evil demon

    1. Ainsi, à cause que nos sens nous trompent quelquefois, je voulus supposer qu’il n’y avoit aucune chose qui fût telle qu’ils nous la font imaginer ; et parcequ’il y a des hommes qui se méprennent en raisonnant, même touchant les plus simples matières de géométrie, et y font des paralogismes, jugeant que j’étois sujet à faillir autant qu’aucun autre, je rejetai comme fausses toutes les raisons que j’avois prises auparavant pour démonstrations ; et enfin, considérant que toutes les mêmes pensées que nous avons étant éveillés nous peuvent aussi venir quand nous dormons, sans qu’il y en ait aucune pour lors qui soit vraie, je me résolus de feindre que toutes les choses qui m’étoient jamais entrées en l’esprit n’étoient non plus vraies que les illusions de mes songes. Mais aussitôt après je pris garde que, pendant que je voulois ainsi penser que tout étoit faux, il falloit nécessairement que moi qui le pensois fusse quelque chose ; et remarquant que cette vérité, je pense, donc je suis, étoit si ferme et si assurée, que toutes les plus extravagantes suppositions des sceptiques n’étoient pas capables de l’ébranler, je jugeai que je pouvois la recevoir sans scrupule pour le premier principe de la philosophie que je cherchois.

      Doute and cogito

    1. I am here seated in my chamber with my face to the fire; and all the objects, that strike my senses, are contained in a few yards around me. My memory, indeed, informs me of the existence of many objects; but then this information extends not beyond their past existence, nor do either my senses or memory give any testimony to the continuance of their being. When therefore I am thus seated, and revolve over these thoughts, I hear on a sudden a noise as of a door turning upon its hinges; and a little after see a porter, who advances towards me. This gives occasion to many new reflections and reasonings. First, I never have observed, that this noise coued proceed from any thing but the motion of a door; and therefore conclude, that the present phaenomenon is a contradiction to all past experience, unless the door, which I remember on the other side the chamber, be still in being.

      Cf Latour on science. Coherence of a set of argumentations.

    2. Why we attribute a continued existence to objects, even when they are not present to the senses; and why we suppose them to have an existence DISTINCT from the mind and perception.

      Realism vs. idealism.

    1. Warum ist überhaupt Seiendes und nicht vielmehr Nichts? Das ist die Frage. Vermutlich ist dies keine beliebige Frage. »War- um ist überhaupt Seiendes und nicht vielmehr Nichts?« — das ist offensichtlich die erste aller Fragen. Die erste, freilich nicht in der Ordnung der zeitlichen Aufeinanderfolge der Fragen. Der einzelne Mensch sowohl wie die Völker fragen auf ihrem geschichtlichen Gang durch die Zeit vieles. Sie erkunden und durchsuchen und prüfen Vielerlei, bevor sie auf die Frage sto- ßen: »Warum ist überhaupt Seiendes und nicht vielmehr Nichts?« Viele stoßen überhaupt nie auf diese Frage, wenn das heißen soll, nicht nur den Fragesatz als ausgesagten hören und lesen, sondern: die Frage fragen, d. h. sie zustandbringen, sie stellen, sich in den Zustand dieses Fragens nötigen. Und dennoch! Jeder wird einmal, vielleicht sogar dann und wann, von der verborgenen Macht dieser Frage gestreift, ohne recht zu fassen, was ihm geschieht. In einer großen Verzweif- lung z. B., wo alles Gewicht aus den Dingen schwinden will und jeder Sinn sich verdunkelt, steht die Frage auf.

      "Why are there beings at all instead of nothing? That is the question." Heidegger is probably quoting Hamlet.

    1. , Whether 'tis nobler in the mind to suffer The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune, Or to take arms against a sea of troubles, And by opposing end them? To die: to sleep; No more; and by a sleep to say we end The heart-ache and the thousand natural shocks That flesh is heir to, 'tis a consummation Devoutly to be wish'd. To die, to sleep; To sleep: perchance to dream: ay, there's the rub; For in that sleep of death what dreams may come When we have shuffled off this mortal coil, Must give us pause: there's the respect That makes calamity of so long life;

      There is no peace in death because even death in inside Being. There is no such thing as nothingness. Cf Sartre, La Nausée. Heidegger seems to quote Hamlet at the beginning of his Introduction to metaphysics

    1. Θαύμας δ᾽ Ὠκεανοῖο βαθυρρείταο θύγατρα ἠγάγετ᾽ Ἠλέκτρην: ἣ δ᾽ ὠκεῖαν τέκεν Ἶριν

      Thaumas and Electra, the daughter of Ocean are the parents of Iris. Wonder is the father of mediation.

    1. διὰ γὰρ τὸ θαυμάζειν οἱ ἄνθρωποι καὶ νῦν καὶ τὸ πρῶτον ἤρξαντο φιλοσοφεῖν, ἐξ ἀρχῆς μὲν τὰ πρόχειρα τῶν ἀτόπων θαυμάσαντες, εἶτα κατὰ μικρὸν οὕτω προϊόντες [15] καὶ περὶ τῶν μειζόνων διαπορήσαντες, οἷον περί τε τῶν τῆς σελήνης παθημάτων καὶ τῶν περὶ τὸν ἥλιον καὶ ἄστρα καὶ περὶ τῆς τοῦ παντὸς γενέσεως.

      Wonder is the cause of philosophy. It is in general the cause of thinking - and perhaps the cause of mediation? Thaumas is the father of Iris. Perhaps better: wonder is the way we explain mediation.

  5. Sep 2019
  6. Dec 2018
    1. What is your meaning, Zeno? Do you maintain that if being is many, it must be both like and unlike, and that this is impossible, for neither can the like be unlike, nor the unlike like--is that your position?

      one and multiple

    2. We had come from our home at Clazomenae to Athens, and met Adeimantus and Glaucon in the Agora.

      a specific place. Thinking is being situated. It would be interesting to look at all the incipit of Plato's dialogues

    3. remembers a conversation

      the oral inscription of philosophy