165 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
  2. Jul 2021
    1. Nick Holliman. (2021, May 30). @anthonybmasters @d_spiegel A quick visual summary of data on this week’s article by @anthonybmasters & @d_spiegel The outlook is uncertain, although we have survived a variant once already (B.1.1.7). The data on the effect of variants is analysed as fast as it (reliably) arrives. Https://t.co/vOKmCxYMGT https://t.co/3ZeJJTdRs3 [Tweet]. @binocularity. https://twitter.com/binocularity/status/1398957348492918784

    1. A quick overview of the basics and general history of critical race theory.

    2. Crenshaw and her classmates asked 12 scholars of color to come to campus and lead discussions about Bell’s book Race, Racism, and American Law. With that, critical race theory began in earnest.
    3. The late Harvard Law professor Derrick Bell is credited as the father of critical race theory. He began conceptualizing the idea in the 1970s as a way to understand how race and American law interact, and developed a course on the subject.
    1. Nine of 10 of House Republicans will be white men, calculates David Wasserman of the Cook Political Report, compared to just over one-third of House Democrats.

      117th Congress

    2. Blue districts have attracted the expanding segments of the U.S. population and workforce; half their residents are non-white. Red districts are 27 percent non-white.
  3. Jun 2021
    1. "In Colormute, Pollock(2004) makes specific suggestions for addressing the fear of talking about race: “In all conversations about race, I think, educators should be prepared to do three things:ask provocative questions, navigate predictable debates,and talkmore about talking”(p. 221, italics in original)"

    1. If the 15 point gap between whites and blacks, who are about 80% black, is purely genetic in origin, then the gap between whites and biracials (who are 1/4th genetically as black as self-identified blacks) should be around 3.75 IQ points. Instead, it’s 2.0.

      r

    2. The differences between these groups, which were equivalent to 14.72 IQ points, were primarily (75.59%) due to difference in general cognitive ability (g), consistent with Spearman’s hypothesis.

      race

    1. “Regression would explain why Black children born to high IQ, wealthyBlack parents have test scores 2 to 4 points lower than do White children born to low IQ, poor White parents.” Arthur Jensen.

      race

    2. “If only environmental factors were responsible for the different IQs of different populations, we should expect to find some countries where Africans had higher IQs than Europeans. The failure to find a single country where this is the case points to the presence of a strong genetic factor.” Richard Lynn.

      race

    1. There were attempts to simplify this setup by building specific browsers (such as capybara-webkit and PhantomJS) providing such APIs out-of-box, but none of them survived the compatibility race with real browsers.
    1. The lead author points out that if you make a map of the world showing the net fiscal contribution immigrants make (as shown above), and another map of the world showing the Cito scores of immigrants from those countries, the two maps correlate so strongly it is hard to tell the difference.

      Amazing

    1. Mike: Not even that, it's just getting with my stepdad. I'd always had trouble listening to male authority, just because I didn't have that at all. So every time he would tell me to do something, I'd get so mad. I just want to punch him in the face. And it sucked, man, because he would always try to tell me stuff—he would do it for my own good.Mike: He would never get out of hand talk to me, but I would always explode on him. I would treat him like the parent that I never had who wanted to be back in my life. So you know you could kind of treat him like however you want? That's how I would treat him. And I just started realizing over time my dad just—this guy really cares about us. He's providing for five kids and still doesn't ask for anything.Mike: It just started growing on me and we started getting along and it started getting better. But yeah, I would not get along with my mom, or my dad at all. And my mom was—I feel like a lot of Mexican women and men, they have something against black folks even if you want to or not. I feel like that's racist too, because my mom would always be like, "Why do you hang out with them? Why do you do this? Why do you do that?"Mike: I'm like, "Because they're cool, man. They're like... I feel like these are my people. They've gone through the same struggles, a lot of the same stuff that happened to them. They would happen to me." So I would always bring them over, and I remember one time my mom got so mad she grabbed an orange and threw it at my friend, but my friend was so tall, he just caught it.Mike: These were kids from Nigeria. They're African—these guys are like, "Whoa." So he caught it and then he just said hi to my mom. My mom was so mad that day, man. I didn't come home for like two or three days just because of that. I got a lot of stories. I'm sorry I get out of track.

      Time in the US, Homelife, Parents/ Step-Parents, Expectations

  4. May 2021
  5. Apr 2021
    1. To prevent race conditions and deadlocks, we highly recommend that each of the communication channels is serviced on a separate thread that maintains its own client buffer state and messaging queue inside your application. Servicing all of the pseudoconsole activities on the same thread may result in a deadlock where one of the communications buffers is filled and waiting for your action while you attempt to dispatch a blocking request on another channel.
    1. You can strategise to a degree by trying to block off a potential peninsula (cut off between two mountains for example). This can start a little race to claim this area. e.g. I cut off an area with one of my houses. My opponent places another house deeper into the peninsula claiming it, so I place yet another on the peninsula. This little war does not (and cannot) last long, because you only have four houses each.
  6. Mar 2021
  7. Feb 2021
    1. The rationale is that it's actually clearer to eager initialize. You don't need to worry about timing/concurrency that way. Lazy init is inherently more complex than eager init, so there should be a reason to choose lazy over eager rather than the other way around.
  8. Jan 2021
    1. I've seen prior references to Italians, Irish, and others which were considered non-white in the late 1800's and early 1900's and which are now broadly considered white in the late 1900's. Now this seems to indicate something similar for Jews in America.

      I'm curious what lessons could be drawn here for anti-racism?

  9. Dec 2020
    1. wealth persist across racial groups.

      EXAMINE THE SYSTEMS WHICH HELP TO ENFORCE THIS RACIAL INCOME DIVIDE! Most relate. Fixing these systems could help to bridge the income gap between racial groups. Even laws so ingrained in us.

    1. The key to these divergent trajectories of racial differentiation was thelaw of freedom. It began with legal traditions: in Cuba, the right tomanumission wasfirmly entrenched in the Iberian law of slavery andwas not tied to race, a key difference from the law in both Louisiana andVirginia.

    Tags

    Annotators

  10. Nov 2020
    1. But you can still run into strange race conditions where the browser displays stale data depending on if some other unrelated code has caused a digest update to run after the buggy code or not.
    1. Harding recientemente ha llamado la atención sobre la intersección entre el género y la raza para señalar cómo estas diferentes estructuras de dominación afectan a las mujeres y a los hombres o a blancos en contraste con negros de modos particulares: "... en culturas estratificadas tanto por el género como por la raza, el género siempre resulta ser también una categoría racial y la raza una categoría de género"
  11. Sep 2020
    1. export let client; setContext("client", client);

      Wouldn't this set context to undefined initially? And reassigning a new value to client wouldn't update the value stored in the context, would it? It would only update the let client variable.

      Where does this let client actually get set to the client from async function preload? I guess I need to understand Sapper more to know how this works, but it doesn't seem like it could.

      Update: I think I found the answer (it runs before):

      https://hyp.is/3aHeJgNFEeunkCsh8FVbDQ/sapper.svelte.dev/docs/

      It lives in a context="module" script — see the tutorial — because it's not part of the component instance itself; instead, it runs before the component is created, allowing you to avoid flashes while data is fetched.

    1. Handling race conditions (e.g. an earlier fetch() finishing after a later one, thus overriding download_count with an outdated value)
    1. mahogany-coloured

      While this was not a super unusual color metaphor, this is an interesting descriptor, since mahogany is a colonial hardwood, native to the Americas.

    1. Longer term, the report says the gap must be addressed by expanding healthcare access for all Americans. In New York City, the center of the pandemic, Covid-19 is killing black and Latino people at twice the rate of white patients. One factor is the higher proportion of uninsured people in communities of color.

      This is why I doubt Snowden's claim that most plagues did not discriminate against the poor or rich. The poor will always have it worse as they are forced to congregate with others for income and live in unsanitary conditions, for example

  12. Aug 2020
  13. Jul 2020
  14. Jun 2020
  15. May 2020
  16. Apr 2020
  17. Jan 2020
    1. The thing with the HRIA was that as a condition of receiving funding, all the work, including work in progress, had to be submitted to a searchable database so that everyone else receiving funding could see the work and use it to advance their own work—because above anything else, we had a mandate to get advances and therapies to the patients as quickly as possible. The HRIA still allowed for patent filings, but everything, everything, was cross-licensed for the length of the patent, for a statutory fee that went into effect only after a product went to market.

      As Sci-Fi does, the myriad variables are expertly set by the author. The way this world is constructed, tho, feels so very familiar & in a way that seems beyond the norm for comparably radical imaginings.

  18. Dec 2019
    1. Her hair was the brightest living gold, and, despite the poverty of her clothing, seemed to set a crown of distinction on her head. Her brow was clear and ample, her blue eyes cloudless, and her lips and the moulding of her face so expressive of sensibility and sweetness, that none could behold her without looking on her as of a distinct species, a being heaven-sent, and bearing a celestial stamp in all her features. 22The peasant woman, perceiving that my mother fixed eyes of wonder and admiration on this lovely girl, eagerly communicated her history. She was not her child, but the daughter of a Milanese nobleman. Her mother was a German, and had died on giving her birth. The infant had been placed with these good people to nurse: they were better off then

      In 1831, the foundling Elizabeth's nobility appears to be recognizable in her physiognomy. Her features are described in terms that might be read as typical markers of whiteness: “thin of frame, fair of skin, and possessed of golden hair and blue eyes.”

      During the early 19th century the field of “race science” was already established and growing. For instance, Linnaeus’ Systema naturae (1758) infamously contains a hierarchy of homo sapiens based on skin color.

      In discussions of these contextual sources in the “race science,” scholars have often focused on the Creature as a symbol of the racialized other. This alteration to Elizabeth’s description in 1831 lends further credence to these readings by positioning Elizabeth, the spiritually and racially pure female, as has his ultimate victim.

      See, for instance: Mellor, Anne K. “Frankenstein, Racial Science, and the Yellow Peril” in Frankenstein Norton Critical Edition, 2nd Edition, ed. J. Paul Hunter (New York & London: W.W. Norton & Company, 2012), 481-489.

    1. race usually refers to people of color

      Race often DOES refer to people of color. Maybe that is part of the problem? That we define race by color? A couple of years ago, I taught high school American History using race and class as the lenses through which we viewed our history. We began the year with a discussion on race and its definition. After a LOT of discussion and analysis, the students concluded that "race" is not real, but rather a social construct. As is also discussed in these NYT articles: https://www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate/2015/06/16/how-fluid-is-racial-identity/race-and-racial-identity-are-social-constructs. I wonder whether we should broaden the discussion to the wider issues of diversity, equity and inclusion?

  19. Oct 2019
  20. Feb 2019
    1. The opposition of suburban whites to the welfare state (“entitlements”), beginning with the 1970s tax revolts (Burton rails at having to pay high school taxes and then see his son be forced to go to school in the inner city, and against “welfare freeloaders”), only intensified as the “hard-working” (white) “common man” in his orderly suburban family saw the New Deal dream evaporate. Burton declared in 1974: “I wanted to be somebody”, and in the economic environment symbolized by the oil price shock of that year, his identity became more and more at odds with the desire of the excluded in US society to also “be somebody”. By 1976, Burton had abandoned the Democratic party and the New Deal ethos, seeing in Ronald Reagan someone who could “deliver the nation out of its malaise”, with a reprise of Wallace’s “freshness, independence, backbone and scrappy spirit”. This is not a new story. It is rather a reflection of US history as a whole, where a frontier-spirit, classless liberalism is organically bound up with anti-democratic exclusion and an ethic of private responsibility. It is but one facet of American racialized, gendered neoliberalism.
    1. the intellectual effectiveness exercised today by a given human

      It is sobering to think that no amount of augmentation was going to allow Engelbart in 1962 to even imagine that there might be a problem, however persistent, in referring to a "given human being" as if it could be anyone, when in fact it was such a small and privileged segment of humanity that could participate in the dozens of disciplines to which he refers as a means of intellect augmentation. Perhaps we need to supplement this solving of problems through the application of augmented intellect with a stepping back to consider the shortcomings in our conception of both the problem and the means to resolving it.

  21. Jan 2019
    1. As white women and women and men of color have increasingly participated in public forums, they have begun to theorize lhc differ-ences race and gender make in language use.

      I'm so glad it's come to this head, since I've been making note of these types of differences throughout the piece.

    1. We regularly, in the interests of Plato-worship, disembody language and reason, with the narrow-mindedness Mark Johnson points out in an important recent book, The Body in the Mindl3 Our persistent evasion of the "Q" question makes for a great deal of self-centered, self-serving preaching and a great deal of self-satisfied practice. We do sometimes follow that master of contemptuous, self-satisfied self-absorp-tion, the Platonic Socrates, closely indeed.

      This reminds me of Albert Camus' thoughts on absurdity, and what James Cone says in his book Black Theology and Black Power: "All aspects of this society have participated in the act of enslaving blacks, extinguishing Indians, and annihilating all who question white society's right to decide who is human....Absurdity arises as the black man seeks to understand his place in the white world. The black man does not view himself as absurd; he views himself as human. But as he meets the white world and its values, he is confronted with an almighty No and is defined as a thing. This produces the absurdity."

  22. Nov 2018
    1. Why racial achievement gaps were so pronounced in affluent school districts is a puzzling question raised by the data.

      Portland, OR: Parents' socioeconomic status broken down by race vs. educational attainment (reading & math).

    2. We’ve long known of the persistent and troublesome academic gap between white students and their black and Hispanic peers in public schools.

      Portland, OR: Parents' socioeconomic status vs. educational attainment (reading & math).

    3. Money, Race and Success: How Your School District Compares

      Statistical comparison of educational measures in relation to income and race.

    1. The problem is far worse when used to generalize about groups, such as gender and especially race. When combined with the cultural belief that only the "brainy" are worthy of science training, it becomes a self-reinforcing cycle: only certain white men are inherently "smart enough", as decided primarily by other white men. You'll hear (and I'll bet cash money that someone will argue in the comments) that African-American underrepresentation in science is because they're not "smart" or "motivated" enough, not that black-majority school districts are often underfunded, lacking teachers, supplies, and other necessities for STEM prep — not to mention daily challenges to their authority and intelligence for those who do earn STEM degrees.
  23. Oct 2018
    1. This is even more common among black teens. One-quarter of black teens say they are at least sometimes unable to complete their homework due to a lack of digital access, including 13% who say this happens to them often. Just 4% of white teens and 6% of Hispanic teens say this often happens to them. (There were not enough Asian respondents in this survey sample to be broken out into a separate analysis.)
    1. Once products and, more important, people are coded as having certain preferences and tendencies, the feedback loops of algorithmic systems will work to reinforce these often flawed and discriminatory assumptions. The presupposed problem of difference will become even more entrenched, the chasms between people will widen.
    2. At the same time racism and othering are rendered at the level of code, so certain users can feel innocent and not complicit in it.
    3. In other words. race is deployed as an externally assigned category for purposes of commercial exploitation and social control, not part of self-generated identity for reasons of personal expression. The ability to define one’s self and tell one’s own stories is central to being human and how one relates to others; platforms’ ascribing identity through data undermines both.
  24. Sep 2018
    1. But if the technological Singularity can happen, it will. Even if all the governments of the world were to understand the “threat” and be in deadly fear of it, progress toward the goal would continue. The competitive advantage – economic, military, even artistic – of every advance in automation is so compelling that forbidding such things merely assures that someone else will get them first.

      In this paragraph the author creates an intentional analogy between technological Singularity and nuclear bomb technology. After the catastrophe of Hiroshima and Nagasaki the governments tried to limit the production of nuclear bombs and signed many treaties to ban countries from achieving the needed technology to create such bombs. That proved to be a big failure since many countries such as Pakistan and India were able to create atomic bombs. The same situation applies to the Technological Singularity, as the author has mentioned many countries will not understand the threat and there will be a race towards achieving such technologies.

  25. Jul 2018
    1. It’s this combination, the fetish for strength and the idealization of racially coded innocence, that has historically led authoritarian movements to subvert the rule of law in the name of order.
    1. Whites profit off of an American political and economic system that showers advantages on racial “winners” and oppresses racial “losers.” Yet, DiAngelo writes, white people cling to the notion of racial innocence, a form of weaponized denial that positions black people as the “havers” of race and the guardians of racial knowledge. Whiteness, on the other hand, scans as invisible, default, a form of racelessness. “Color blindness,” the argument that race shouldn’t matter, prevents us from grappling with how it does.
    2. DiAngelo addresses her book mostly to white people, and she reserves her harshest criticism for white liberals like herself (and like me), whom she sees as refusing to acknowledge their own participation in racist systems. “I believe,” she writes, “that white progressives cause the most daily damage to people of color.” Not only do these people fail to see their complicity, but they take a self-serving approach to ongoing anti-racism efforts: “To the degree that white progressives think we have arrived, we will put our energy into making sure that others see us as having arrived.”
    3. And the expectation of “white solidarity”—white people will forbear from correcting each other’s racial missteps, to preserve the peace—makes genuine allyship elusive. White fragility holds racism in place.
    4. DiAngelo attempts to explicate the phenomenon of white people’s paper-thin skin. She argues that our largely segregated society is set up to insulate whites from racial discomfort, so that they fall to pieces at the first application of stress—such as, for instance, when someone suggests that “flesh-toned” may not be an appropriate name for a beige crayon. Unused to unpleasantness (more than unused to it—racial hierarchies tell white people that they are entitled to peace and deference), they lack the “racial stamina” to engage in difficult conversations. This leads them to respond to “racial triggers”—the show “Dear White People,” the term “wypipo”—with “emotions such as anger, fear and guilt,” DiAngelo writes, “and behaviors such as argumentation, silence, and withdrawal from the stress-inducing situation.”
    5. In more than twenty years of running diversity-training and cultural-competency workshops for American companies, the academic and educator Robin DiAngelo has noticed that white people are sensationally, histrionically bad at discussing racism. Like waves on sand, their reactions form predictable patterns: they will insist that they “were taught to treat everyone the same,” that they are “color-blind,” that they “don’t care if you are pink, purple, or polka-dotted.” They will point to friends and family members of color, a history of civil-rights activism, or a more “salient” issue, such as class or gender. They will shout and bluster. They will cry. In 2011, DiAngelo coined the term “white fragility” to describe the disbelieving defensiveness that white people exhibit when their ideas about race and racism are challenged—and particularly when they feel implicated in white supremacy. Why, she wondered, did her feedback prompt such resistance, as if the mention of racism were more offensive than the fact or practice of it?
    1. Sure, education is linked to the workplace. Students grow up to be workers, and the federal government has a role in ensuring states are providing a quality education, especially in districts with many black and brown children. However, to collapse education and labor into a single agency is to also reduce education’s role in developing full human beings. Students are more than widget makers for the economy. And black students, whose ancestors’ bodies were once reduced to instruments of labor in slavery, have the most to lose from a shortsighted, politically-driven merger of the U.S. education and labor departments.
  26. Apr 2018
    1. The socially constructed part of race is not that it is unreal, but that it is invisible in its construction, and that it is being done by people all the time, in action and in understanding. We all are pushing the levers every day.

      Karen Fields is saying that the socially constructed part of race does exist, but it happens behind the scenes, invisibly. She says that all the time people in society are pushing it forward. Fields is arguing that everyone is a part of the socially constructed part of race, and we are contributing to it whether we know it or not. She adds that racism is easier on those who benefit from exclusion when they feel like they are innocent.

  27. Mar 2018
    1. Then, as now, the most reliable path to a progressive politics that produces true justice and human rights is that which begins with building the political power of workers. It is this proposition that has often made elite opponents of white supremacy — both black and white — deeply uncomfortable.

      Antiracism and procapitalism

    1. Beginning in 1972, genetic findings began to be incorporated into this argument. That year, the geneticist Richard Lewontin published an important study of variation in protein types in blood. He grouped the human populations he analyzed into seven “races” — West Eurasians, Africans, East Asians, South Asians, Native Americans, Oceanians and Australians — and found that around 85 percent of variation in the protein types could be accounted for by variation within populations and “races,” and only 15 percent by variation across them. To the extent that there was variation among humans, he concluded, most of it was because of “differences between individuals.”In this way, a consensus was established that among human populations there are no differences large enough to support the concept of “biological race.” Instead, it was argued, race is a “social construct,” a way of categorizing people that changes over time and across countries.It is true that race is a social construct. It is also true, as Dr. Lewontin wrote, that human populations “are remarkably similar to each other” from a genetic point of view.

      The Lewontin blood protein argument against race as a biological phenomenon.

    1. the effect of the color caste system on the North American Negro has been both good and bad, its effect on white America has been disastrous.

      This is an interesting inversion of the usual narrative about segregation (which would say that segregation hurt black Americans, and would rarely discuss its impacts on white Americans). It feels both like it grants agency-- in that black Americans are not being presented as a continually downtrodden group-- and that it is an attempt to legitimize the struggle against segregation, because if segregation is disastrous for white America then it is truly bad for America.

  28. Feb 2018
    1. But what the data shows is we know if we're looking at test scores, if we're measuring the achievement gap, which is the test score gap between black and white students, that gap was the narrowest at the peak of integration in the school integration, which was 1988. As soon as we start to see the segregation increasing again, that achievement gap increases. And we've actually never gotten back to that low point that we were at when schools were their most integrated.

      affect of desgregation

  29. Dec 2017
    1. What I didn’t realize was how bad it would look when seen out of context

      this happened bc of racial discourse

    2. One was a deep frustration among black artists that a theme so central to their history should be explored, in a major museum, by a white female artist. The other was that artists, very often, do not consciously choose their subjects

      racial differences... create mixed ideas of what is okay

    3. or a white woman to paint Emmett Till’s mutilated face communicates not only a tone-deafness toward the history of his murder, but an ignorance of the history of white women’s speech in that murder—the way it cancelled out Till’s own expression, with lethal effect

      connection between ETs murder being bc of the actions of a white women- categorize female whites- ppl thing she is at fault

    1. The considerations which have governed the specification of languages to be taught by the professor of Modern Languages were that the French is the language of general intercourse among nations, and as a depository of human Science is unsurpassed by any other language living or dead: that the Spanish is highly interesting to us, as the language spoken by so great a portion of the inhabitants of our Continents, with whom we shall possibly have great intercourse ere long; and is that also in which is written the greater part of the early history of America.

      I find it very interesting that Jefferson recognized the importance of the Spanish language. Today, many people do not see the importance of speaking Spanish and some even have a negative connotation towards Spanish speakers here in the United States. This does not make sense to me since a large base of this country which is also the back bone is made up oh spanish speaking latinos and latinas. People tend to overlook this, however they do not understand that the best way to communicate with this population is by catering to their language. Even when there are resources available for underserved communities, spanish speakers are often left uninformed or have to rely on their younger children to translate for them. Besides being a business advantage, learning the language is also important to better serve a huge part of the American population, especially since there is no official language of the United States.

    2. What, but education, has advanced us beyond the condition of our indigenous neighbours? and what chains them to their present state of barbarism & wretchedness, but a besotted veneration for the supposed supe[r]lative wisdom of their fathers and the preposterous idea that they are to look backward for better things and not forward, longing, as it should seem, to return to the days of eating acorns and roots rather than indulge in the degeneracies of civilization.

      In this phrase, Jefferson talks about the importance of education and advancement by using the native Americans as an example. He describes them as barbaric and is basically making fun of their ideology to worship their ancestors and their traditional ways. This is not the first time Jefferson expressed his views of Native Americans in such a negative light. For my Art Inside/Out Engagement course, I am doing a project on the Declaration of Independence. The quote that my group decided to use was “He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavored to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.” The discrimination against Native Americans is engraved in the Declaration of Independence of the United States and in the Rockfish Gap Report of the University of Virginia.

  30. Nov 2017
    1. a sound spirit of legislation, which banishing all arbitrary & unnecessary restraint on individual action shall leave us free to do whatever does not violate the equal rights of another.

      I think all would agree that this kind of legislature, being implemented with the aim of promoting freedom and the equal rights of one another, is for the best, yet this idea holds a fair amount of hypocrisy in the time of this documents writing. As they set the foundations of UVA in the ideology of freedom and equality they simultaneously have slaves constructing the grounds. I also picked this quote because I thought it related to my current engagement class, Telling the Truth, where we analyze the interplay between the beauty of a medium of information and the truth. Metaphors comparing this legislature to "a sound spirit" evokes a wholesome mood, yet this beautiful writing in a way hides the deep flaws and hypocritical nature of this statement which claims to establish equality. -Drew Parks

    2. To know his rights; to exercise with order & justice those he retains; to choose with discretion the fiduciaries of those he delegates; and to notice their conduct with diligence with candor & judgment.

      The idea of educating students on their own rights is interesting when considering the unequal rights of individuals of different race, class, and gender. While students may come to know their own democratic rights as upper class white males of the time, they might fail to gain exposure to the lack of rights of others around them. This most likely perpetuated a system of inequality in which the most educated elite who likely assumed powerful roles were allowed to continue institutional discrimination. However, it is very possible that if there were progressive professors in the University at the time that may have been honorable enough to teach students about the universal rights of all humans.

    3. It was the degree of centrality to the white population of the state which alone then constituted the important point of comparison between these places: and the board, after full enquiry & impartial & mature consideration, are of opinion that the central point of the white population of the state is nearer to the central college, than to either Lexington or Staunton by great & important differences, and all other circumstances of the place in general being favorable to it as a position for an University, they do report the central college in Albemarle to be a convenient & proper part of the State for the University of Virginia.

      I think that the fact that the founders of the University elected to put the University of Virginia in the county that had the biggest white population speaks volumes about the men who started our great University and the beliefs that the Founders had. This passage reveals that the Founders wanted a place with a big white population in order to attract rich plantation owner's sons, because those are the kinds of people they wanted attending their University. However now in 2017, that isn't the case, no longer does UVA just attract the rich, white people as the Founders wanted it too when they first started the institution. UVA now is home to a student body rich in diversity and culture and I think that speaks volumes about how far this institution has come. But I would also like to point out, there is still progress that this institution needs to make and steps that must be taken in order to truly make our school the most equal place it can be. -Emily McClung

    4. Also the whole of his Slaves amounting to 57 in number.

      I had previous knowledge that the University has a unique history with slavery, yet I found it interesting how the author chose to list the slaves mentioned here as property alongside the other land acquisitions. The 57 slaves noted in this line were dehumanized and treated as property to be bought and sold. The evidence of slavery literally being in the founding document of this University demonstrates how although the school has a racist past, we can move forward today by recognizing, addressing, and recontextualizing the past dehumanization of individuals. -Komal Kamdar

  31. Oct 2017
    1. healthiness & fertility. It was the degree of centrality to the white population of the state which alone then constituted

      According to this line, the only important characteristics of a piece of land are "healthiness & fertility" and "degree of centrality to the white population." This portion of the text provides important insight into the ethical lens of Jefferson and his peers: something is only worth consideration if it bolsters health, agriculture or white males. The authors presented their guidelines for land consideration as clear-cut, failing to mention the fact that Jefferson was especially inclined towards Charlottesville because of its