29 Matching Annotations
  1. Apr 2019
    1. This wasn’t expected, but also shouldn’t be a huge shock. Despite the US hyping Russia as a threat for decades, Russia hasn’t spent deeply on its military in years, and drawing down from Syria, they don’t have much costly overseas engagement.

      To contextualize, you can still spend a hell of a lot on development, but if you don't have costly mobilizations it can make it look like you aren't spending as much as others; in fact, you are arguably making 'smarter' investments?

  2. Feb 2019
    1. owerful instrument of error and deceit,

      Weak defense much?

    2. yet the complex collective idea which every one thinks on or intends by that name, is apparently very different in men using the same language.

      This sounds like Lanham's strong defense of rhetoric, the idea that meaning is communally negotiated and anchored to socio/political/cultural contexts. Although here Locke is not happy about that.

  3. Jan 2019
    1. StrongDefenseofrhetoricposthumousl

      Lanham says, "The Strong Defense assumes that truth is determined by social dramas, some more formal than others but all man-made. Rhetoric in such a world is not ornamental but determinative, essentially creative" (156). If that defense is not just restricted to "man-made" social dramas but cultural dramas, to dramas rooted in a particular historical and cultural context (joining Rickert's sense of rhetorics), then it can also be opened up to material forces beyond the human.

    2. Semantic contentfulness is not achieved through the thoughtsor performances of individual agents but rather through particular dis-cursive practice

      Is this the Strong Defense of rhetoric again? Meaning arrived at not through empiricism but a communal negotiation?

    1. determinative, essentially creative

      There's a weird tension here for me between the idea of rhetoric as "determinative, essentially creative." I'm perhaps inserting a reading that focuses too much on the similar-but-different word "determinate" rather than "determinative." I don't object to the creative aspect, but identifying something as "determinative" seems to suggest a kind of rigidity antithetical to the fluid, contextual nature of rhetoric that Lanham outlines. I might just be spitting hairs here, but it struck me as odd.

  4. Mar 2018
    1. But she seemed like a different person on other online accounts.
    2. full-time wife and mom on Facebook but lived another life on other social media platforms. With a resemblance to Marilyn Monroe, she called herself an exhibitionist and posted risque photos with a chance for subscribers to see sexier images for $15.99 a month.

      This is not relevant to the successful prosecution of this woman's murderer. Pro-defense effect. Casts the victim in a sketchy light so as to evoke emotion from the jury pool. Attempting to separate the victim from possible jury pool (i.e., harder for jurors to imagine themselves the victim).

  5. May 2017
    1. The good kind is used in good causes, the bad kind in bad causes. Our kind is the good kind; the bad kind is used by our opponents

      It may ignore rhetoric, but it does have its advantages. Factors like your audience, topic, or motive all play role in your usage of the strong or weak defense. And, we've all seen the weak defense beat the strong defense several times this past year.

  6. Mar 2017
    1. who expected rhetoric to act on the imagination to se-cure the triumph of reason.

      Weak defense.

    2. Truth, it was held, presided over a dialectical discussion, and the in-terlocutors had to reach agreement about it by themselves, whereas rhetoric taught only how to present a point of view-that is to say, a partial aspect of the question-and the decision of the issue was left up to a third person

      Weak defense.

    1. We have not here in view the more familiar ways in which words may be used to deceive. In a later chapter, when the function of language as an instrument for the promotion of purposes rather than as a means of !iymbolizing references is fully discussed, we shall see how the intention of the speaker may complicate the situation.

      It seems as though this reading vacillates between weak defense and strong defense more than others.

  7. Feb 2017
    1. as a solution to problems raised by traditional theo-ries of language and meaning.

      So wouldn't presenting rhetoric as a solution be a version of the weak defense for other disciplines?

    1. Our eyes and hands and feet will give us the ~~'.r , same assistance in doing mischief as in doing ~. good; but it would not therefore be better for the "'""- world that all mankind were blind and lame

      A pretty powerful articulation of the weak defense,

    2. Hence it hath become a common topic with rhetoricians, that, in order to be a successful orator, one must be a good ~ . man; for to be good is the only sure way of ci..~ being long esteemed good, and to be esteemed ~ good is previously necessary 10 one's being 6 .... •~ heard with due allention and regard.

      Ah, yes, the weak defense.

    1. hetoric and criticism have some-times been so managed as to tend to the corrup-tion, rather than to the improvement, of good taste and true eloquence. But sure it is equally possible to apply the principles of reason and good sense to this art, as to any other that is culti-vated among men.

      I might be wrong, but... Weak Defense?

  8. Jan 2017
    1. First, to make known one man's (r thoughts or ideas to another; Secondly, to do it with as much ease and quickness as possible; and, Thirdly, thereby to convey the knowledge of things: language is either abused or deficient, when it fails of any of these three.

      Another weak defense of language.

    2. First, One for the recording of our own thoughts. Secondly, The other for the communicating of our thoughts to others

      A weak defense of words?

    1. Tolookatlanguageself-consciouslyistoplaygameswithit;tolookthroughlanguageunselfconsciouslyistoactpurposivelywithit

      To oscillate between the weak and strong defenses.

    2. HisstateddefenseistheWeakone:"Rhetoricismerelyatool,nobadthinginitself.Orrather,itistheboxoftoolsforper-suasiontakentogether,availableforpersuadersgoodandbad"

      A useful articulation of the Weak Defense.

    3. "Virtuosityissomeevidenceofvirtue"(71)

      This phrase is certainly a challenge. And of course there are etymological links between virtue and *virtuosity".

    4. theinterfacebetweenabsoluteandcontingentstatements

      This is a very helpful way to understand the relationship between the Weak and the Strong defenses. That is, what the Weak Defense will treat as an absolute, the Strong Defense will treat as contingent.

    5. endangeringpossibilities

      These "endangering possibilities" are the focus of much of the Enlightenment thinkers we will shortly engage.

  9. Nov 2013
    1. Insofar as the individual wants to maintain himself against other individuals, he will under natural circumstances employ the intellect mainly for dissimulation.

      Seeing the world as a hostile place, we defend with our power to deceive. Competition and survival based in theories of scarcity.

    2. As a means for the preserving of the individual, the intellect unfolds its principle powers in dissimulation, which is the means by which weaker, less robust individuals preserve themselves-since they have been denied the chance to wage the battle for existence with horns or with the sharp teeth of beasts of prey, This art of dissimulation reaches its peak in man.

      The sword of intellect and dissimulation equated to the physical defensive characteristics of all living things for preservation, yet with the unique capacity to be misused. Highlighting the vulnerability of humans and over-reaching amplification of intellect to disguise a deep insecurity that originates in the fundamental physical inferiority of humans among beasts.

  10. Sep 2013
    1. I beg you, then, neither to credit nor to discredit what has been said to you until you have heard to the end what I also have to say, bearing it in mind that there would have been no need of granting to the accused the right of making a defense, had it been possible to reach a just verdict from the arguments of the accuser.

      Postpone judgment, allow me the space to discuss, no matter what. How closely does this defense align with what we might think of as education?