144 Matching Annotations
  1. Nov 2020
    1. Man, for some reason, I really like this answer. I recognize it's a bit more complicated, but it seems so useful. And given that I'm no bash expert, it leads me to believe that my logic is faulty, and there's something wrong with this methodology, otherwise, I feel others would have given it more praise. So, what's the problem with this function? Is there anything I should be looking out for here?

      I think the main thing wrong with it is the eval (which I think can be changed to $("$@") and it's pretty verbose.

      Also, there are more concise ways to do it that would probably appeal more to most bash experts...

      like set -x

      and it does unnecessary things: why save output to a variable? Just let output go to where it would normally go...

      So yeah, I can see why this solution isn't very popular. And I'm rather surprised by all the praise comments it's gotten.

  2. Oct 2020
    1. In React 0.12 time frame we did a bunch of small changes to how key, ref and defaultProps works. Particularly, they get resolved early on in the React.createElement(...) call. This made sense when everything was classes, but since then, we've introduced function components. Hooks have also make function components more prevalent. It might be time to reevaluate some of those designs to simplify things (at least for function components).
  3. Sep 2020
    1. Just throwing in <div class="{$$props.class || ''} otherChildClass"></div> seems the easiest, and it'll avoid undefined classes. I feel like many aren't noticing the undefined values getting inserted in their classes.
  4. Aug 2020
    1. Mateus, J., Grifoni, A., Tarke, A., Sidney, J., Ramirez, S. I., Dan, J. M., Burger, Z. C., Rawlings, S. A., Smith, D. M., Phillips, E., Mallal, S., Lammers, M., Rubiro, P., Quiambao, L., Sutherland, A., Yu, E. D., Antunes, R. da S., Greenbaum, J., Frazier, A., … Weiskopf, D. (2020). Selective and cross-reactive SARS-CoV-2 T cell epitopes in unexposed humans. Science. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abd3871

  5. Jul 2020
  6. Jun 2020
    1. Marshall, J. C., Murthy, S., Diaz, J., Adhikari, N., Angus, D. C., Arabi, Y. M., Baillie, K., Bauer, M., Berry, S., Blackwood, B., Bonten, M., Bozza, F., Brunkhorst, F., Cheng, A., Clarke, M., Dat, V. Q., de Jong, M., Denholm, J., Derde, L., … Zhang, J. (2020). A minimal common outcome measure set for COVID-19 clinical research. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, S1473309920304837. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30483-7

  7. May 2020
    1. In progressive enhancement (PE) the strategy is deliberately reversed: a basic markup document is created, geared towards the lowest common denominator of browser software functionality, and then the designer adds in functionality or enhancements to the presentation and behavior of the page, using modern technologies such as Cascading Style Sheets, Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG), or JavaScript.
    1. Although working together towards a common goal tends to cause an increased feeling of agency, the inflation of control could have many unforeseen consequences.
  8. Apr 2020
    1. What we actually want to do is to escape content if it is unsafe, but leave it unescaped if it is safe. To achieve this we can simply use SafeBuffer's concatenation behavior:
    2. Our helper still returns a safe string, but correctly escapes content if it is unsafe. Note how much more flexible our group helper has become because it now works as expected with both safe and unsafe arguments. We can now leave it up to the caller whether to mark input as safe or not, and we no longer need to make any assumptions about the safeness of content.
    3. Common misuse example and how to fix it
    4. A common mistake is to see those escaped angle brackets, and "improve" the helper by making everything html_safe:
    1. If all you want to do is print the results you might be used to leaving out the -print action. You generally don't want to do that when using -prune.
    2. +1 finally found out why I need -print at end, I can now stop adding \! -path <pattern> in addition to -prune
  9. Mar 2020
    1. Historically, the communitarian bases of the American legal system supported the subordination of individual rights when necessary for the preservation of common good. Quarantine measures were subjected to a deferential review supporting the states' right to substantially limit individual rights for the community's benefit.
    2. The treatment of quarantine reflects the latter. Courts and academics rarely expressed doubt about the validity of quarantine regulations, since the courts presumed that actions taken under the police power were constitutional.10,11 Challenges to the Fourteenth Amendment, usually successful when governmental intervention interfered with individual liberties, were not well received by the courts when communicable disease regulations, including quarantine, were involved.
    3. quarantine was already a well established form of public health regulation, and was considered proper exercise of the police power of the states; the Supreme Court, in its affirmation of this power, noted that the state had the power to quarantine “to provide for the health of the citizens.”10,11 The uncontrollable nature of epidemic diseases moved the Supreme Court to uphold such extreme measures on the basis of the defense of the common good.8
  10. Feb 2020
    1. Image Credit: Detail from "The School of Athens" by Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino (c. 1509–1511).

      Euclid's common notions appear to be grounds for many of Marx's arguments in Ch. 1, but also throughout the book.

      Near the beginning of Ch. 1 of the Elements Euclid lists them [PDF]:

      • Things that are equal to the same thing are also equal to one another (the Transitive property of a Euclidean relation).
      • If equals are added to equals, then the wholes are equal (Addition property of equality).
      • If equals are subtracted from equals, then the differences are equal (Subtraction property of equality).
      • Things that coincide with one another are equal to one another (Reflexive property).
      • The whole is greater than the part.

      Regarding the fifth, also see Aristotle, Metaphysics 8.6 [=1045a]; Topics 6.13 (=150a15-16);

      On the concept of the "whole-before-the-parts" (along with the "whole of the parts" and the "whole in the part"), also see Proclus, El. Theol., prop. 67.

    2. In order to calculate and compare the areas of rectilinear figures, we decompose them into triangles
  11. Jan 2020
  12. Dec 2019
    1. If you need maximum, lowest common denominator portability, use sh instead of Bash. If you need the increased capabilities that it provides, use Bash and use it fully
    1. renew life

      Victor implies that life can be renewed from death, a theme present in biblical scripture. See Gen. 3:19, 18:27; Job 30:19; Eccl. 3:20) and in the Anglican Book of Common Prayer (Burial Rite 1:485, 2:501).

  13. Nov 2019
  14. Aug 2019
    1. According to Polanyi the universe is not a uniform sea, it contains emergent comprehensive entities, with discernable levels of organisation, which via boundary conditions operate independently of the lower levels from which they emerge. These emergent levels realise various purposes. As Pirsig explains, each level of order has a characteristic defining Quality, material, biological, social, and intellectual. Indwelling within articulations enables us to pursue and reflect upon abstract ideals such as truth, goodness, and beauty. For Polanyi a computer, indeed every sort of machine, is contrived to achieve a purpose. A machine can be programmed to achieve this purpose if the desired behaviour can be described in a way that can be simulated by a universal machine. AI offers the prospect of machines which learn without us having to define every detail of its procedures. But they need to do the right thing in every circumstance. This returns us to our problem, because defining criteria for correct behaviour, for making the right choices, amounts to giving a machine “common sense”. Humans excel in making choices in complex situations because we are guided by our tacit awareness.
  15. Feb 2019
    1. As with neoliberalism more generally, New Public Management is invisible, part of a new “common sense” that has somehow become hegemonic, whereby the “entrepreneurial spirit” has infused the public sector, leading to “businesslike government”. As with the claims of neoliberalism more generally as to its positive outputs in terms of prosperity, NPM has never been shown to have been successful even in its own terms. NPM “introduced punishments and rewards to produce better services with lesser staff. Instead of having freed energies and creativity of employees formerly shackled by their bureaucratic turfs, NPM reforms have bound energies into theatrical audit performances at the cost of work and killed creativity in centralizing resources and hollowing out professional autonomy... Fundamental deprivation of the legitimacy of public employees . . .has traumatized many most-committed employees and driven others toward a Soviet-type double standard.” (Juha Siltala, New Public Management : The evidence-based worst practice?, Administration; Vol. 45, No. 4.; 2013 pp. 468-493) Sekera quotes Christopher Pollitt et al., who “after compiling a database of 518 studies of NPM in Europe, determined that “more than 90% of what are seen by experts as the most significant and relevant studies contain no data at all on outcomes” and that of the 10% that had outcomes information, only 44% of those, or 4% of the total, found any improvements in terms of outcomes.” But in the end, the point of NPM is less that of measureable outcomes, and more that of the ideological victory of turning the public and its good into customers exercising their “choices” (see tax revolt example in Duggan), along of course with the radical disempowering of public administration workers and their unions, instituting “cost savings” by cutting their real income and putting more and more of the public sector’s production directly into the profit-making market.
    1. prudence, excel--i Jenee is accorded to those who ferret out the WO; greatest possible number of causes

      He is defining prudence by turning scientific inquiry on its head (or just pointing out that prudence is scientific inquiry on its head).

  16. Jan 2019
    1. there is no guarantee that the generality signified by a word will convey the same idea to all users of the language

      This goes back to my point that there really is no such thing as common knowledge. It's impossible to expect everyone to recall the same things, just like you can't expect words to mean the same thing to everyone.

    2. common knowledge

      The term common knowledge has become a slippery slope, especially in situations where socioeconomic backgrounds and country of origin come in to play.

    1. CV是履历,Resume是简历。Resume,简述于求职相关的教育背景和工作经历,其目的在于说服用人单位雇用自己;CV,Curriculum Vitae事集中说明学术工作,不重视与文化程度和学习成绩无直接关系的资料。CV的完整形式是拉丁文Curriculum Vitae,在美国,CV主要是用于申请学术、教育、科研职位,或者申请奖学金等等,而在欧洲、中东、非洲和亚洲等地,CV则更常用于应征工作。CV的长度由其内容确定,有时可长达十页,年轻专业人的履历一般长度都在2—4页,而老资历的通常也在6—8页。应包括:姓名、地址、电话号码及电子邮件地址;文化程度;受何奖励和大学奖学金;教学经历相关经历;有何论著发表;语言或其它技能,课外活动及个人爱好。Resume,大多只需一页大小,而有两页的对具有广泛的工作经验的人才有典型性。应包括:姓名、地址、电子信箱(可选)和电话号码(当地和固定的);工作岗位(可选) ;教育;获何荣誉奖励;有关功课(可选);经历,列出组织、地址、日期、工作名称、成绩和职责简述。


    1. resume这个词英音美音几乎没什么区别的,发音区别主要在动名词上。名词是摘要、简历的意思,发音是/rezju:'mei/,也就是你从美剧中听到的那种,因为词源是法语,所以发音方式是从法语中来的。动词是重新开始、恢复的意思,有不及物和及物两种,发音是/ri'ziu:m/其实很多动词名词同形的词在词性不一样的时候发音也不一样,动词重音一般在后,名词重音一般在前,类似的有record,contact等等……


  17. Dec 2018
    1. That said, for a thoughtful survey of how the commons, cultural and otherwise, might thrive inside of, or along with, with current conditions I recommend Peter Barnes’s book, Capitalism 3.0: A Guide to Reclaiming the Commons. One of Barnes’s points is that our debates about the future often imagine only two actors: the government and private business. Barnes suggests a third set, common property trusts (as, for example, the kind of land trusts devised by the Nature Conservancy). There is much to say about common property trusts but for now the point is simply that we already have a mix of cultural modes and should continue to have them going forward with, I hope, the commons recognized and strengthened.

      One of the areas I find challenging in addressing Creative Commons culture is how Creative Commons relates to capitalistic culture (or rejects it). Creative Commons can be compatible with open market, but it can also challenge some of the fundamental tenants of it. Throughout the units, as I tried to imagine applications of Creative Commons, or making licensing decisions as a creative and academic, I found that I had questions about artists and how they can earn a living in this model, and how this model supported and challenged my role as a librarian in academe.

  18. Aug 2018
    1. In the context of trade negotiations, a common rulebook for goods would limit the UK’s ability to make changes to regulation in those areas covered by the rulebook. Ifthe Government wanted to make a change, including in light of trade negotiations with other partners, it could discuss this with the EU through the mechanisms set out in chapter 4. However, the UK would retain the freedom to make changes in other areas of regulation if considered desirable domestically.

      Detail of common rulebook proposal - gov could 'discuss' proposed changes with the eu, including in light of other trade deals

  19. Jul 2018
    1. Interestingly, the word Internet is never used in the CCSS reading stan-dards (Leu et al., 2011), despite the fact that the writing standards specify the use of “digital sources,” “technology,” and the “Internet” repeatedly (CCSS, 2010, p.41). Because of this, many will ignore instruction in online reading, thinking that the CCSS only references traditional, offline read-ing comprehension. Many may also fail to integrate reading and writing instruction, an important part of any literacy program.

      There is a lot wrong with the Common Core standards, so I'm glad this article pointed this out. That is a perspective in the standards I had never thought of before and this gave me a new lens to look at it with

  20. May 2018
  21. Mar 2018
    1. Common approaches are being considered in a number of areas, which will help to provide the necessary environmental protections. While the UK Government and the devolved Administrations sometimes make different choices on implementation of some policies, these common rules provide significant benefits, such as making it simple for businesses from different parts of the UK to trade with each other and enabling us to meet our international obligations and, therefore, protect our common resources. This is pertinent to the environmental commitments and protections that he rightly raised.
    2. nvironmental protection is a devolved matter. However, while the UK is a European Union member state, most environmental law in the four countries of the UK is guided by common frameworks set at EU level. This amendment would require the four Governments to work together on proposals to establish minimum common environmental objectives and standards. As such, I hope it will appeal to all parts of the House. UK-wide frameworks will be needed to establish areas of common policy across the UK, even in areas of devolved competence. Crucially, this amendment would insist that devolved legislatures are equal stakeholders in the forming of those common policy areas. I will cover the principle of UK-wide frameworks, and my major concerns about Clause 11, when we get to that point of the Bill. Today, I will focus on the substantive relevance of this issue to the environment.First, I will say a word about why common frameworks are needed. No area of policy will be more affected by the outcome of the common frameworks debate than the environment. According to analysis by the Institute for Government, there are more than 140 distinct policy areas where EU law intersects with devolved powers. The greatest number of these relate to the environment, which is unsurprising given that the EU frameworks have been widely created for environmental policy purposes.Approximately 80% of environmental laws in the UK, including in the devolved nations, have some basis in EU legislation. Transboundary co-operation and common standards are widely recognised as important for the effective protection of the environment and the prevention of unfair regulatory competition. There are persuasive reasons for seeking to maintain common standards across the four nations of these islands post Brexit. Such frameworks would provide a set of minimum common standards and should be jointly agreed between the UK and devolved Governments. They will be important in a range of areas, such as the conservation of wildlife on land and at sea, environmental assessment and the co-ordination of action to address air and water pollution.I shall give some examples of common frameworks. EU legislation relating to the natural environment—including the birds and habitats directives—currently helps to underpin effective environmental action by providing minimum common standards for site and species protection across the four nations. This facilitates the creation of a more ecologically coherent network of protected sites than would otherwise be the case. Such an approach will still be needed for the UK outside the EU, helping to ensure that actions in one jurisdiction complement, and do not counteract, conservation outcomes across these islands.Similarly, the common frameworks provided by EU legislation—relating to the assessment of the likely environmental impacts of plans, programmes and projects—mean that consistent mechanisms are in place for assessing transboundary effects as well as allowing for public participation and transparency in decision-making across the four nations. Co-operation and ​joint agreement on common frameworks that provide minimum standards and shared high-level objectives are therefore needed.

      GUK briefing

    3. I warmly endorse the comments that have already been made on the importance of getting the environmental dimensions right as we leave the European Union
  22. Aug 2017
  23. May 2017
    1. Some of the best cross-partisan conversation online happens on sports forums and sports bulletin boards, because, [the assumption is] “Hey, we’re all Patriots fans first, and Democrats and Republicans second.”

      Interesting to think about...

  24. Apr 2017
    1. Have organizations that I have been a part of supported Common Core? Of course. But that’s not my position.

      The possible origin of why some sites report she supports Common Core.

  25. Mar 2017
    1. We have gradually built up a story.

      storytelling common story

    2. Terry, in his solitary picnic, talked of the difficulty of creating the conditions in which his students will want to connect with others in the CLAVIER network.

      common ground desire to connect. Why reach out?

    3. Marcin and Laura joined me on Thursday to talk about translating CLAVIER into their local cultures. They helped me, we are helping each other attempt to make that translation.

      translation respect of context finding common ground difficulty

    1. Dr. Max Dunbar

      Dr. Maxwell John Dunbar, mentioned later in the text as the author of Environment and Common Sense which was published in 1971, began his “lifelong involvement with the Arctic” in August 1935 during an expedition to map the western Greenland coast (Grainger 1995, 306). Dunbar was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, attended the Merchiston Preparatory School followed by the Dalhousie Castle School, and finally, Fettes College. In 1933, Dunbar began attending the Trinity College in Oxford, England to study zoology where he met ecologist Charles Elton. After meeting Elton, Dunbar was introduced to the Oxford University Exploration Club. Through this club, Dunbar was invited to join the expedition in Greenland. He received a B.A. in 1937 and subsequently attended Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut on a Henry Fellowship (for more information on the Henry Fellowship see Yale University’s webpage https://yale.communityforce.com/Funds/FundDetails.aspx?4438534B376C50326C63483341496C39582F4435696B6F6554694364593150486764566B344156473663736768494B34585863553574432B646D5868384E6275). While studying at Yale University, Dunbar was able to take a trip to explore the glaciers of Alaska. He returned to Oxford, England, when Elton offered him the opportunity to join the 1939 eastern Canadian Arctic patrol. After accepting Elton’s offer, Dunbar enrolled at McGill University in Montreal, Canada as a graduate student. During his time at McGill University, Dunbar experienced the Canadian arctic for the first time by joining the R.M.S Nascopie. Dunbar began serving as the consular representative of the Canadian consulate in Greenland in 1942, and again in 1946. After leaving Greenland, Dunbar was employed by McGill University in the Department of Zoology. After beginning research for the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, he designed the first Canadian arctic research vessel Calanus. In 1947, Dunbar founded the Eastern Arctic Investigations laboratory at McGill University. His active involvement with McGill University continued until he retired and was appointed Professor Emeritus in 1982. He continued his quest for knowledge after “retiring” and published at least 32 articles after 1982 (Grainger 1995, 306-307).


      Grainger, E. H. "Maxwell John Dunbar (1914-1995)." Arctic 48, no. 3 (1995): 306-07. http://www.jstor.org/stable/40511670.

  26. Feb 2017
    1. But suppose on the way to Wal-Mart, you see a random mom-and-pop store that looks interesting. What do you know about its safety standards? Nothing.

      There exists trust. You trust a lot of people you don't know every day -- you also do the opposite and don't shop in stores that look suspicious today.

      You can also trust small business whose owner or previous records you know personally, that also happens a lot today.

      Besides that, in a libertarian world law would exist and solve part of these problems: https://hypothes.is/a/PBirDvnYEeaWvjeIs4H9kg.

    2. Let’s say Wanda’s Widgets has one million customers. Each customer pays it $100 per year, for a total income of $100 million. Each customer prefers Wanda to her competitor Wayland, who charges $150 for widgets of equal quality. Now let’s say Wanda’s Widgets does some unspeakably horrible act which makes it $10 million per year, but offends every one of its million customers.

      If the person doesn't care if it is "offended" then that's ok, it can still buy. If it is offended in a way the common law qualifies as punishable then the person can sue, and lawsuits are expensive for the company. If the offence is not sufficiently serious then the person should either move to a different culture or try to change its culture, it is not a matter of State, but of law and culture.

    3. 1.2: But aren’t there are libertarian ways to solve externalities that don’t involve the use of force?

      Well, this article forgets about law. Law and justice still would exist in a libertarian society.

      I haven't read the rest of the article, but this is probably the answer to most of his criticisms of libertarianism, and it is fair that this guy is missing it, because law is difficult and most libertarians forget about it or think that purely monetary transactions between persons would solve everything, thus making libertarianism a crazy creed (as I've done myself for a time).

  27. Jan 2017
  28. Dec 2016
  29. Sep 2016
    1. it’s easy to argue by induction

      It may be easy to argue by induction, but what is actually going on?

      Let's take a group of three children for a larger example: Abe, Ben and Cindy. Let's denote the situation "Abe has a clear forehead and Ben and Cindy have muddy foreheads" as [OXX], and so on.

      Before the teacher tells them anything, Abe knows that either [XXX] or [OXX] (because he sees the mud on Ben's and Cindy's foreheads). If [OXX] were the case, Ben would know that either [OXX] or [OOX]. If [OOX] were the case, Cindy would know that either [OOX] or [OOO].

      This picture demonstrates the situation.

      The teacher's announcement makes it common knowledge that [OOO] is not possible. Then if Abe supposed [OXX] and provided that Ben supposed [OOX], Cindy would be sure that [OOX] (meaning she has mud on her forehead). After the first call, she doesn't stand up so we know that if Abe supposed [OXX], in that idea Ben could no longer suppose [OOX] and would be instead sure that [OXX] (meaning he has mud on his forehead).

      This example suggests that the children don't need the general notion of common knowledge to efficiently reason whether they have muddy foreheads. It suffices to use any chain "Abe considers possible that Ben considers possible that Cindy considers possible etc.". that visits every child exactly once in an arbitrary order.

    2. “would you like to come up for some intercourse?”

      Incidentally, this straightforward approach is taken by Phoebe towards Chandler in the episode 5x14 titled "The One Where Everyone Finds Out" of the TV show Friends:

      I'm really looking forward to you and me having sexual intercourse.

      As pointed out by James Miller in his video introducing the concept common knowledge, this episode contains a nice informal demonstration of the concept.

    1. And I know how they have suffered more than the pain of exile -- they also know what it’s like to be an outsider, and to struggle, and to work harder to make sure their children can reach higher in America.

      Here again Obama uses the common ground technique to relate himself as a fellow American and to get the sympathetic side of his audience, showing that he too has struggles and suffer just like the every day individual.

    2. So here’s my message to the Cuban government and the Cuban people:  The ideals that are the starting point for every revolution -- America’s revolution, Cuba’s revolution, the liberation movements around the world -- those ideals find their truest expression, I believe, in democracy.

      As President Obama continues his speech over the push for democracy in Cuba, he uses the rhetorical device of common ground to create an environment in which his audience feels as if they are on the same page as the speaker. His comparison of the Cub and American revolution shows that these two events connect us and therefore democracy is possible in both.

    3. And these changes have been welcomed, even though there are still opponents to these policies.  But still, many people on both sides of this debate have asked:  Why now?  Why now?

      Obama used "common ground" to bring together all the oppositions that he may face when discussing the policies. By bringing in something that everyone has been thinking despite the differences they feel, Obama is able to create unity.

    4. There is one simple answer:  What the United States was doing was not working.

      Obama use common ground here to help his cause and befriend the Cubans and continue to build a healthy relationship between the Americans and Cubans.

    5. Creo en el pueblo Cubano.

      Obama addresses the cuban people directly letting them know he believes in them in Spanish. By doing this Obama establishes a common ground with the audience and makes himself seem sincere/ trustworthy about such claims.

    6. Because in many ways, the United States and Cuba are like two brothers who’ve been estranged for many years, even as we share the same blood. We both live in a new world, colonized by Europeans.  Cuba, like the United States, was built in part by slaves brought here from Africa.  Like the United States, the Cuban people can trace their heritage to both slaves and slave-owners.  We’ve welcomed both immigrants who came a great distance to start new lives in the Americas. Over the years, our cultures have blended together.       Dr. Carlos Finlay’s work in Cuba paved the way for generations of doctors, including Walter Reed, who drew on Dr. Finlay’s work to help combat Yellow Fever.  Just as Marti wrote some of his most famous words in New York, Ernest Hemingway made a home in Cuba, and found inspiration in the waters of these shores.  We share a national past-time -- La Pelota -- and later today our players will compete on the same Havana field that Jackie Robinson played on before he made his Major League debut.  (Applause.)  And it's said that our greatest boxer, Muhammad Ali, once paid tribute to a Cuban that he could never fight -- saying that he would only be able to reach a draw with the great Cuban, Teofilo Stevenson.  (Applause.)   So even as our governments became adversaries, our people continued to share these common passions, particularly as so many Cubans came to America.  In Miami or Havana, you can find places to dance the Cha-Cha-Cha or the Salsa, and eat ropa vieja.  People in both of our countries have sung along with Celia Cruz or Gloria Estefan, and now listen to reggaeton or Pitbull.  (Laughter.)  Millions of our people share a common religion -- a faith that I paid tribute to at the Shrine of our Lady of Charity in Miami, a peace that Cubans find in La Cachita. For all of our differences, the Cuban and American people share common values in their own lives.  A sense of patriotism and a sense of pride -- a lot of pride.  A profound love of family.  A passion for our children, a commitment to their education.  And that's why I believe our grandchildren will look back on this period of isolation as an aberration, as just one chapter in a longer story of family and of friendship.

      This section of President Obama's speech is meant to create common ground between Cubans and Americans. This creation of common ground allows Cuban listeners to momentarily put aside the differences between Cuban and American government and culture and focus on the similarities between the two nations. After this creation of common ground, President Obama uses the trust he's built between himself and the Cuban people to open their ears to the issues he wants to talk about.

  30. Mar 2016
    1. Hochberg, M. E., Chase, J. M., Gotelli, N. J., Hastings, A., & Naeem, S. (2009). The tragedy of the reviewercommons.Ecology Letters, 12, 2–4
  31. Jul 2015
    1. State data showed more than 20 million downloads of material from the site as of early June, with a third of downloads initiated from outside New York as districts like Berkeley, California, adopt it.


  32. Jun 2015
    1. immersed in information about the world

      In other words, the Internet.

    2. immersed in information about the world

      In other words, the Internet.

    3. immersed in information about the world

      In other words, the Internet.

    4. ocus on evidence-based writing

      What's more "evidence-based" than annotation?

    5. a command of sequence and detail that are essential for effective argumentative and informative writing.
    6. read the texts with care.

      But what does that mean?

    7. they intentionally do not include a required reading list. Instead, they include numerous sample texts to help teachers prepare for the school year and allow parents and students to know what to expect during the year.

      So the Web could be the text. And Web annotation the means of reading socially.

    8. focus on academic vocabulary:
    9. growing complexity of the texts students must read
    1. > 500 students

      We could probably claim we have (had) this many student users over time.

    2. Web - based solutions that track a student's progress across most/all reading and writing skills and recommend discrete solutions from multiple providers to help build skills based on student performance

      Then again, with the right kind of added infrastructure (tagging of annotations aligned with standards) and extraction of that data for visualization, I don't see why h couldn't fit this category. (At least we would have to say we are MVP stage for this level, though.)

    3. “Solution” is our term for an application, game or website that come s from a single provider and address es some or all reading and writing skills and conte nt areas

      hypothes.is would seem to fit best within this scope.

    4. e have to ensure that our grantees provide broad availability and affordable access to the products they build using our grant funding. We call this Global Access
    5. test bed schools.
    6. Additionally, in order to address teachers’ time limitations, the interface that teachers use to customize the sequence or differentiate practice for students must be simple and user friendly in order for it to ever be used
    7. performanc e data to be exportable
    8. Educators believe that technology needs to help them more easily

      We cannot make these users work for it. Features needs to be built-in.

    9. Just managing distributing and collecting printed copies of 125 student essays per week was overwhelming – and providing edited essays to all students was nearly impossible.

      Responses to student annotations could be seen as micro-lessons in writing.

    10. dearth of products

      Again, this will be key to rhetoric of proposal.

    11. Articulate the weaknesses in the current digital product offering and the gaps between what the market offers and what schools want to buy

      Important to articulate this intervention

    12. innovative courseware solutions
    13. to use writing as a tool for learning, communicating, and facilitating their understanding of the complex texts

      Annotation is not just note-taking (though it can be). If annotation has always been the beginning of critical analyses in literary study, then in its online, public form, it becomes a more advanced stage of the writing process. For one, annotation online has an audience. While we can think of annotation as the start of the ideas developed in a formal essay, we might also imagine how annotations themselves can be essays!

    14. riting to read strategies
    15. o close ly read complex texts from both fiction and non - fiction sources ,

      For which annotation is key.

    16. while communications skills themselves are predicted to be critical to success in all field s in the 21 st century economy (Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2009) .

      Annotation as modeling collaborative writing and review of documents in work places.

    17. Leveraging the capabilities of interactive technology to create an educational experience that isn’t possible in a physical, paper - based world

      leveraging social media, making annotation social

    18. Showing students their perfo rmance in order to generate a sense of ownership and agency

      Profile pages need to act as portfolios to do this.

      And dashboards for group activity could similarly give students a sense of where they're at in relation to classmates.

    19. Behavioral Engagement ,

      Might include the motivation to exhaustively (even if collaboratively) annotate a text: to say, "we mastered this!" as a class.

    20. use desktop computers or laptops to access web - based applications.

      Thank goodness. Love mobile technology, but for deep engagement in writing especially, nothing beats a keyboard.

    21. ability to deploy in a variety of learning environments due to the diversity of implementation approaches that schools utilize .

      Again, LTI is key here. We want to be able to integrate/interoperate with lots of L/CMSs.

    22. Affective Engagement, which includes interest and pride in success.


    23. Cus tomize the learning scope, sequence, and content

      need to partner with a content provider:

      1) publisher/distributor of text exemplars

      2) publisher/distributor of lesson plans inclusive of

    24. performance data
    25. G enerat ing student performance data that can help students, teachers, and parents identify areas for further teaching or practice

      Data, data, data

    26. Providing digital content aligned to teacher - delivered content to r einforce or help students to apply new concepts

      ability to create a set of prefabricated tags for a group, so students can label annotations with concepts, etc. that they are applying (or standards that they are fulfilling).

      differentiated view for instructor?

    27. described a vision for technology - supported learning that consists of rich, dynamic learning experiences both onli ne and off, and technology that enables teachers to engage deeply with their students one - on - one or in small groups.

      from teachers...

    28. (Education Market Research, 2012) .


    29. curriculum software packages


    30. courseware 7 | P a g e (instructional software)

      courseware defined as "instructional software"

    31. Increasing the amount of writing

      annotation naturally does this

    32. give them the capacity to design and deliver personalized instruction to their students .
    33. real - time feedback
    34. instructional arrangement s where children work together to plan, draft, revise, and edit their compositions
    35. collaboration and peer engagement
    36. The iterative, multi - step, and reflective practice of writing is well suited to digital supports and tools, which generate digital artifacts that can be exchanged and also analyzed to reveal a student’s thinking and skil l development (National Research Council , 2001)

      See this study.

    37. Writing helps students at all grade levels (a) better express thoughts, arguments, and ideas, (b) deepen content knowledge, and (c) demonstrate proficiency (Graham & Perrin, 2007) .

      Annotation=writing as comprehension/analysis

    38. However, tools to support students in developing reading and writing skills are lagging far behind,

      ELA tech tools as "what's missing"

    39. help teachers , parents and learners diagnose gaps in students’ knowledge and skill and adapt th e learning experienced based on their progress.

      importance of capturing some kind of data

    40. deep, one - on - one engagement with their teacher and other students tha t is often missing from today’s classrooms.

      SOCIAL annotation

    41. 2. I nstructional content discoverability


    42. formative assessment data
    43. Reinforcement of practice

      Does this mean feedback?

    44. persuasive writing using textual evidence

      Writing from evidence is annotation!

    45. to use writing to support learning in all subjects , including science and social studies ;

      Annotation as writing: key not only to ELA, but sciences as well.

    46. through 8 th - grade

      Why stop here? Can we expect a similar CFP for grades 9-12?

    1. Literacy Design Collaborative (LDC

      REALLY need to connect here.

    2. University of Washington ( $610,819 ) The purpose of this award is to develop tools and resources to support school and district leaders in th e implementation of the Common Core State Standards.

      Curious to see more about what they are up to, but can't find any web presence for the project.

    1. Integrate traditional schooling with after-school, out-of-school, and anytime/anywhere learning opportunities

      Apply Common Core skills like close reading to other content: mainstream media, politics/legislation, etc.

      This is kind of obvious with Rap Genius: students were using traditional humanities skills to analyze lyrics.

    1. “the process through which a person becomes capable of taking what was learned in one situation and applying it to new situations; in other words, learning for ‘transfer . ’”

      What better way to do this than taking a skill- or content-based lesson and applying it to the web as a practice through annotation.

    2. effective democratic participation

      Emphasize annotation as key to civic literary and participation.

    3. collaboration

      Collabora-tive annotation?

    4. the Common Core standards are strongly aligned with deeper learning—and represent an especially promising leverage point for the Program to help advance its goals . 9

      "Deeper learning"=Common Core

    1. portfolios,

      Ding-ding-ding! hypothes.is needs to build out profile page as portfolio-like...

    2. The new Common Core State Standards are an enormous step forward toward the goal of preparing all students for the future: across forty-five states, schools are now required to teach skills like critical thinking and effective communication alongside core academic content.

      So Hewlett is also investing in CC...

  33. May 2015
    1. to interact and collaborate with others.

      This emphasis on collaboration is particularly important in social reading. Through replies, each annotation is actually the beginning of a potential conversation.

    2. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.

      Digital annotation is particularly suited to this type of everyday writing practice.

      In a sense, it's more like posting to Facebook or Twitter than writing an essay. But because it is grounded in text, it encourages more thoughtfulness.

      At the same time, if students are regularly annotating using an application like hypothes.is, then they will surely exceed the word count usually required in a five page essay. Annotation projects might be seen as pre-writing--a collaborative drafting space for ideas and language to be developed later in formal papers--or it might be seen as an end in itself.

    3. through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.

      This is essential to the pedagogy of annotation as well. The first step must be to identify an appropriate selection of text from a document. The annotation itself is the space for analysis.

    4. Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources,

      Students using an annotation application like hypothes.is can literally map their research on a topic in tagged annotations on sources from across the Internet.

    1. Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take.

      Again, the hypothes.is application allows for this kind of intertextual analysis to be activated and visualized in powerful ways. Students can literally link between related themes or moments in various texts studied.

    2. words and phrases

      Digital annotation powerfully visualizes this process, as the application allows the user to isolate a particular word or phrase, and then create a comment specifically on that piece of textual evidence.


      No, annotate this page!

    4. including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words.

      Image Description

      The possibilities of digital writing, given the WYSIWYG interface above, allow for students to integrate a variety of media into their own annotation compositions. Moreover, this use of media is not simply illustrative but as an integral part of the overall argument.

      Image Description

    5. Read closely

      Image Description

      Close reading is a major emphasis of the Common Core Standards, though most English teachers since New Critic I.A. Richards would probably agree that is it essential to any humanities curriculum. As the "Introduction" to the ELA section states:

      Students who meet the Standards readily undertake the close, attentive reading that is at the heart of understanding and enjoying great works of literature.

      Digital annotation, though, is close reading 2.0. The major activity of a service like hypothes.is is "annotation," the highlighting and noting of words, phrases, and sentences, which demands that students keep their thinking and writing "close" to the text and its evidence.

      Moreover, because digital annotation has the potential to be collaborative. It links this mandate for close reading with later calls in the Standards for collaboration. I like to think of hypothes.is as a "A Social Network for Close Reading." Could we make students obsess with annotations on the web like they obsess with Facebook and Twitter posts?...

  34. Feb 2015
    1. One area of great potential is for data whizzes to pair open government data with web crawl data. Government data makes for a natural complement to other big datasets, like Common Crawl’s corpus of web crawl data, that together allow for rich educational and research opportunities. Educators and researchers should find Common Crawl data a valuable complement to government datasets when teaching data science and analysis skills. There is also vast potential to pair web crawl data with government data to create innovative social, business, or civic ventures.

      Elaborating on each sentence of this paragraph could yield a solid unit of a course in data science.

  35. Feb 2014
    1. Property Status Conclusions and Implications Intellectual property is neither ‘scarce,’ nor does the taking of it leave “enough, and as good, left in comm on for others” (the Lockean proviso) (Long, 1995, n. pag.; Locke, 1690, Chap. V, Sect. 27).

      Intellectual property is neither scarce nor leaves enough for the common good. It is not property in the Lockean sense.

  36. Sep 2013
    1. Both ways being possible, the subject can plainly be handled systematically, for it is possible to inquire the reason why some speakers succeed through practice and others spontaneously; and every one will at once agree that such an inquiry is the function of an art.

      Rhetoric as a legitimate system because the inquiry is the function of an art, which can be handled systematically.

    2. [1354a] Rhetoric is the counterpart of Dialectic. Both alike are concerned with such things as come, more or less, within the general ken of all men and belong to no definite science.

      common among men, and not to science