188 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. they construct out of this event representations they they can understand for example the events that lead to a 00:04:49 change of power decline is an alpha male and a replacement by another or other types of things such as bonding relationships between individuals in the group the only thing they can do is they can't 00:05:00 express that knowledge you know to anyone else whereas a human child watching let's say a dog fight and represent that dog fight in action for example by taking two 00:05:12 models of dogs and having them fight even if they can't speak children can do this or they might get down on their hands and knees and act out the fight right but but no other creature can do this this is uniquely human they no one 00:05:26 else can as it were act out an event representation we call this event reenactment

      !- definition : event reenactment - a unique human feature, a Common Human Denominator

  2. Aug 2022
  3. Jul 2022
    1. 5.5 Logic, reason, and common sense are your best tools for synthesizing reality and understanding what to do about it.

      5.5 Logic, reason, and common sense are your best tools for synthesizing reality and understanding what to do about it.

  4. Jun 2022
    1. Under the new rules, consumers will no longer need a different charging device and cable every time they purchase a new device, and can use one single charger for all of their small and medium-sized portable electronic devices. We have also added provisions on wireless charging being the next evolution in the charging technology and improved information and labelling for consumers

    1. no matter what we've looked at so we've studied everything from you know again what you mean by a successful life uh your our aspirations for the future of the country um 00:16:09 what how do we want to treat one another uh what do you want out of our key institutions like education and the workplace criminal justice these things and it's just like we've got so much more in common i know it's so easy to say right and people try 00:16:22 to say across all demographics we share a lot in common what i think collective illusions help us understand is why doesn't it feel like that and i think this is important because 00:16:34 you know there's an old in social psychology there's a thomas theorem right which is if it's real in our imaginations it becomes real in its consequences so it doesn't matter that we actually share so 00:16:47 much common ground if we believe we are divided then our behavior will act accordingly right and the consequences become self-fulfilling so i think this is a critical time for us to understand a concept like collective illusions 00:16:59 because not only does it mean perhaps there's actually some common ground for us to build a free and and flourishing society together but that the way we would deal with some of our problems is different like if we 00:17:12 really are divided so be it right there are ways to bridge honest differences and still get somewhere but if it is a collective illusion then what we do next is different and sometimes leaning into an illusion as if it's 00:17:24 private opinion can literally make the illusion stronger [Music] yeah i i would rather people have a kind of best self bias and the other person like see the best in them and be biased 00:17:37 and be wrong than the other way or that other kind of error because you you're you're so right it's true that when you actually lead with the bias of we're divided you take ambiguous stimuli and you're 00:17:49 more likely to view negativity in that it's like why why are you angry at me and it's like no i actually just have a neutral face right now you know like do you know you're hitting on a really important point right which is 00:18:02 despite what most people think most situations are pretty pretty ambiguous right like and so we are projecting a lot of assumptions in interactions and so if i am coming into it thinking all out 00:18:15 sequel someone i'm just meeting probably disagrees with me on really important things and in fact i might not even think their their view might be i might think is even immoral or whatever i am i am the way i'm engaging with them 00:18:29 is likely to produce the very outcome that i didn't want and so it matters that we get this right and you know i think what's so unfortunate and we can talk more about this but like it's really dangerous when you know 00:18:42 two-thirds of americans admit to self-silencing right now and you know i know kato had done that research we've we've replicated that it's it's it's a thing and it cuts across all demographics it's just like 00:18:53 we're we're just not being honest with each other about what we think in part because we believe most people don't agree with us right like and so if we can get back to just having conversations treating one another with respect i think we'll be shocked at the 00:19:06 common ground that we find when we have those conversations

      In summary, the collective illusion hides the enormous common ground we share. By buying into the collective illusion, it becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy creating the very antagonism which it holds to exist.

      From a Deep Humanity perspective, this research validates the approach of collectively finding the Common Human Denominators (CHD).

  5. May 2022
    1. What prospects are there to reconfigure great powers’ approach to geopolitical security in a way that aids containment of the hyperthreat? Possible angles include:

      Othering needs to be critically examined from a Deep Humanity lens so that we can begin to see ourselves as one united but diverse human family instead of multiple fractured families.

    2. Given wide-ranging concerns about globalization, the performance of international organizations, and perceptions that the so-called “liberal rules-based order” holds lingering colonial power dimensions, an overarching conclusion is that the post-World War II global architecture, designed before the advent of CEC or the internet, is outdated and ripe for redesign.16 A new neutral rules-based order could be established, one that is based on ecological survival and safe Earth requirements. Akin to the 2015 Paris Agreement, this might be acceptable to all nations because all are threatened by the CEC hyperthreat. It is an approach that builds on environmental peacekeeping rationale.

      Again, like the above point, some kind of global Deep Humanity training that results in gaining appreciation of the Common Human Denominators (CHD) is critical for open communications and finding common ground for dialogue.

    3. Operation Sapiens Star, explained below, which focuses on humans as a species with common interests and an inevitably shared future. This may help overcome other national, cultural, social, gender, religious, or ethnic divides.

      Finding the common ground, the so called "Common Human Denominators" (CHD) is essential to prioritizing commonalities to establish open communication channels.

  6. Apr 2022
    1. An alternative kind of note-taking was encouraged in the late Middle Agesamong members of new lay spiritual movements, such as the Brethren of theCommon Life (fl. 1380s–1500s). Their rapiaria combined personal notes andspiritual reflections with readings copied from devotional texts.

      I seem to recall a book or two like this that were on the best seller list in the 1990s and early 2000s based on a best selling Christian self help book, but with an edition that had a journal like reflection space. Other than the old word rapiaria, is there a word for this broad genre besides self-help journal?

      An example might be Rhonda Byrne's book The Secret (Atria Books, 2006) which had a gratitude journal version (Atria Books, 2007, 978-1582702087).

      Another example includes Rick Warren's The Purpose Driven Life (Zondervan, 2002) with a journal version (Zondervan, 2002, 978-0310807186).

      There's also a sub-genre of diaries and journals that have these sort of preprinted quotes/reflections for each day in addition to space for one to write their own reflections.


      Has anyone created a daily blogging/reflection platform that includes these sorts of things? One might repurpose the Hello Dolly WordPress plugin to create journal prompts for everyday writing and reflection.

  7. Mar 2022
    1. the tragedy of the commons is a multiplayer prisoner's dilemma. And she said that people are only prisoners if they consider themselves to be. They escape by creating institutions for collective action. And she discovered, I think most interestingly, that among those institutions that worked, there were a number of common design 00:12:04 principles, and those principles seem to be missing from those institutions that don't work.

      collaborative institutions relying on common design principles are seen helping to avoid the tragedy of commons

    1. But now the government of Ukraine has called on ICANN to disconnect Russia from the internet by revoking its Top Level domain names

      What is striking about this request and EFF's argument against is how this goes against "common carrier" principles—although this phrase isn't specifically used. In the net neutrality wars, "common carrier" status means that the network pipes are dumb...they neither understand nor promote/demote particular kinds of traffic. Their utility is in passing bits from one location another in the service of broader connectivity. "Common carrier" is a useful phrase for net neutrality in the United States...as a phrase, it may not translate well to other languages.

    1. You know, when you look at the real power balance, if the Europeans stick together, if the Americans and the Europeans stick together and stop this culture war and stop tearing themselves apart, they have absolutely nothing to fear -- the Russians or anybody else.

      Indeed, if we can unite ALL cultures together because of the Common Human Denominators (CHD) that is the hallmark of being human, this is the cultural shift that needs to happen to navigate the existential polycrisis we now face. Deep Humanity praxis is a framework for exactly this.

      Within the diversity of cultural lens' are common human denominators that unite all of the subclasses of homo sapien Left vs Right Russian elites vs Ukraine and the West Straight vs LBGTQ+ West vs Arabic Black vs White

  8. Jan 2022
    1. In fact, most people believe that to build a RESTful API you can simply create an API based on URLs and HTTP verbs. This is absolutely false. This misunderstanding is going around for too long.
    1. The English common law was "immemorial" custom which ran to a "time whereof the memory of man runneth not to the contrary." "In the profound ignorance of letters which formerly overspread the whole west- em world," Sir William Blackstone noted in 1765, "letters were intirely traditional, for this plain reason, that the nations among which they pre- vailed had but little idea of writing. Thus the British as well as the Gallic druids committed all their laws as well as learning to memory; and it is said of the primitive Saxons here, as well as their brethren on the conti- nent, that leges

      sola memoria et usu retinebant.

  9. Nov 2021
    1. it was assumed that rational thought was value free it was just you know about what was true in the world and so 00:26:06 on and it's not because you're concerned with empathy and morality when you're thinking and and with emotion rational thought is really value-based 00:26:19 now whoa let's go back one there's a further view Descartes assumed that all rationality was the same for everybody that it was universal that what made us 00:26:34 human beings was being rational and logical and that therefore everybody had the same mode of reasoning now if that's true then all you have to do let's say 00:26:47 in politics is tell something somebody to facts and everybody will reason to the same conclusion right sure not true that is if enlightenment reason were 00:27:01 right that would happen it doesn't happen it turns out that it is not the case that all concepts are you are universal and that all of them are 00:27:13 accessible to everybody and then there's another view of you coming out of the postmodern thought that says no concepts are universal they're all arbitrary that's also false many concepts are 00:27:26 universal and many are not a very and it's an empirical question which is which and they vary from language to language and that's important you need to know that it is not the case that 00:27:41 everything with all thought is universal and it's not the case that that's all language particular or particular that is you need to know empirically what part is shared with other people who 00:27:53 speak other languages and come from other cultures and what part is not and that is an important empirical study so the big myth is this but there is some objective rational structure to the 00:28:07 world out there and that human reason can fit it directly and characterize it literally without frames or metaphors and reason about it adequately with formal logic alone that's just false the 00:28:21 world is real that is whatever it is our bodies and brains provide understandings of the world which depend on frames metaphors image schemas prototypes narratives all of those things and it is 00:28:35 that that permits us to create

      Rational thought and emotions are entwined at the deepest level. Also, what Lakoff says about universals is very important as we consider how we unite and depolarize politics. We need to find the common denominators, but this is not such a simple task.

  10. Oct 2021
    1. A common good (CG) process begins with an initiator proposing the production of a common good. Then, during the predefined lifetime of the process, funders who care about this common good may pledge funds for its production, being reassured that their money will only be used retroactively, had the common good been eventually produced — no risk taken. Executors who wish to produce the common good may do so, being reassured that they will be compensated by the pledged funds had they been successful. And profit-seeking investors may buy a portion of the potential reward from executors (in the form of per-executor tokens that are made redeemable against the future reward had they been successful), and by that provide them with liquid funding for operation. Finally, if and when executors achieve the desired outcome, as decreed by a predefined judge, the pledged funds are released as a reward to the successful executors and the investors who bought their tokens. If no success has been reached after some predefined limit of time, the funds go back to the funders who provided them. Executors and investors only see profit, and funders only spend it, if and only when the common good is produced.

      A trustless conditional reward model for production of common goods.

    2. Today, countries, municipalities and NGOs are the entities that supposedly take care of common goods, but their capacity to do so is very limited due to their centralized structure. They are limited by the relative ineffectiveness of centralized constructs — in sense-making, scalable action, engagement and alignment of interests, and more severely, by the personal interests of the people steering them, which often override their interest to take care for the benefit of the community they are in charge of steering. Indeed, neglecting such common goods is one of the biggest problems of humanity in almost every possible domain and circle we can think of.

      Pith articulation of the central problem of central, hierarchical human governance systems.

    1. A recent survey found that only 14% of people they surveyed in the United States talk about climate change. A previous Yale study found that 35% either discuss it occasionally or hear somebody else talk about it. Those are low for something that over 70% of people are worried about.

      Conversation is not happening! There is a leverage point in holding open conversations where we understand each other’s language of different cultural groups. Finding common ground, the common human denominators (CHD) between polarized groups is the lynchpin.

    2. For a talk at one conservative Christian college, Dr. Hayhoe – an atmospheric scientist, professor of political science at Texas Tech University, and the chief scientist for The Nature Conservancy – decided to emphasize how caring about climate change is in line with Christian values and, ultimately, is “pro-life” in the fullest sense of that word. Afterward, she says, people “were able to listen, acknowledge it, and think about approaching [climate change] a little differently.”

      We often talk about the same things, share the same values, have the same common human denominators, but couched in different language. It is critical to get to the root of what we have in common in order to establish meaningful dialogue.

    3. Climate scientist Katharine Hayhoe stresses the need for finding shared values, rather than trying to change someone’s mind, as a basis for productive conversations

      What first appears as difference may actually emerge from consciousnesses that have more in common than one first realizes. Finding the common ground, what we refer to as the common human denominators (CHD) within the open source Deep Humanity praxis becomes the critical climate change communication leverage point for establishing genuine communication channels between politically polarized groups.

      This is aligned to the Stop Reset Go project and its open source offshoot, Deep Humanity praxis that seeks conversations and personal and collective journeys to appreciate Common Human Denominators that are salient for all participants. It also underscores the value of integrating with the Indieverse Knowledge system, with its focus on symathessy embedded directly into its codebase.

    4. I was speaking in Iowa, and I was asked, “How do you talk to people in Iowa about polar bears?” I said, “You don’t; you talk to them about corn.” If we begin a conversation with someone with something we already agree on, then the subtext is: “You care about this, and I care too. We have this in common.”

      This stresses the importance of applying Deep Humanity wisely by finding the most compelling, salient and meaningful common human denominators appropriate for each conversational context. Which group are we interacting with? What are the major landmarks embedded in THEIR salience landscape?

      The BEing journeys we craft will only be meaningful and impactful if they are appropriately matched to the cultural context.

      The whole mind- body understanding of how we cognitively construct our reality, via Deep Humanity BEing journeys, can help shift our priorities.

    5. I am frequently shamed for not doing enough. Some of that comes from the right side of the [political] spectrum, but increasingly a larger share of that shaming comes from people at the opposite end of the spectrum, who are so worried and anxious about climate impacts that their response is to find anyone who isn’t doing precisely what they think they should be doing and shame them.

      Love, or recognizing the other person in the other tribe as sacred, is going to connect with that person because we are, after all, all of us are human INTERbeings, and love is the affective variable that connects us while shame is a variable that DISconnects us. Love is , in fact, one of our most powerful common human denominators.

  11. Sep 2021
    1. What happens to this graph when we overlay pure capitalism instead of a mixed economy? What if this spectrum was put on a different axis altogether? What does the current climate of the United states look like when graphed out on it. Which parts have diminished over the past 50 years with the decrease in regulation?

      four quadrant diagram of market goods, club goods, common goods, and public goods graphed along the axes of excludability and rivalry

      Some of these areas benefit heavily by government intervention and regulation.

      We need the ability to better protect both common and public goods.

      definitions:

      • rivalry: does use by one person physically preclude use by others?
      • excludability: do laws prohibit access to these goods?
  12. Aug 2021
    1. The First Amendment precludes lawmakers from forcing platforms to take down many kinds of dangerous user speech, including medical and political misinformation.

      Compare social media with the newspaper business from this perspective.

      People joined social media not knowing the end effects, but now don't have a choice of platform after-the-fact. Social platforms accelerate the disinformation using algorithms.

      Because there is choice amongst newspapers, people can easily move and if they'd subscribed to a racist fringe newspaper, they could easily end their subscription and go somewhere else. This is patently not the case for any social media. There's a high hidden personal cost for connectivity that isn't taken into account. The government needs to regulate this and not the speech portion.

      Social media should be considered a common carrier and considered as such. It was an easier and more logical process in the telephone, electricity and other areas to force this as the cost of implementation for them was magnitudes of order higher. The data formats and storage for social should be standardized (potentially even in three or more formats) and that should be the common carrier imposed. Would this properly skirt the First Amendment issues?

  13. Jun 2021
  14. May 2021
    1. Historically, the uncertainty principle has been confused[5][6] with a related effect in physics, called the observer effect, which notes that measurements of certain systems cannot be made without affecting the system, that is, without changing something in a system.
  15. Apr 2021
    1. because while dealing with interactive programs one often come across numerous hidden traps which doesn’t usually happen with ordinary sh-scripts. Though fortunately or may be not, but most of these problems generally turn up within first five minutes of the work under the script. The symptoms typically look like that author can’t pass the authentication from the script.
    2. Really you are not the first to run into such a problem
    1. by an Arizona man or another person's attempt to run over a Pakistani woman in a Huntington, N.Y., parking lot. It

      Well, someone needs to educate these people

  16. Mar 2021
    1. This tendency is known as the “actor-observer effect”. What this means is that people often attribute their own behavior to situational causes, while observers attribute the actor's behavior to the personality or disposition of the actor. For example, an actor's common reason to be late is due to the situational reason, traffic. Observers’ lack of contextual knowledge about the traffic, i.e. common ground, leads to them attributing the lateness due to ignorance or laziness on the actor's part. This tendency towards dispositional attribution is especially magnified when the stakes are higher and the situation is more complex. When observers are relatively calm, the tendency towards dispositional attribution is less strong.[25]

      [[actor-observer effect]]

    2. Common ground in communication has been critical in mitigating misunderstandings and negotiations.

      All the fun of watching the Newlywed Game is in seeing the communication and mis-communication in realizing how much common ground a couple has or doesn't.

    3. It comprises the collection of "mutual knowledge, mutual beliefs, and mutual assumptions" that is essential for communication between two people.

      I've seen a few people with websites that have a grouping of some of their past posts to help orient new readers into their way of thinking and understanding to help provide common grounding for new readers.

      Colin Walker is an example that has had one in the past, but it looks like the move from WordPress to his new system, the original link to that data is gone now. His page was called "required" and an archived version of his example(s) can be found archived here: https://web.archive.org/web/2020*/https://colinwalker.blog/required/

    1. *For the uninitiated, I spent years working in product and design in news media companies before becoming a journalist.

      It would be wonderful if people had spaces on their websites for adding in this sort of personal context with respect to what they were writing about.

  17. Feb 2021
    1. The upper limit of what’s possible will increase only with each collaborator you empower to contribute their best work to your shared priorities.
    1. Additional testing of pipeline portability is currently being conducted as a part of the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health (GA4GH) workflow portability challenge

      For more on how this went and an update on where the platform has developed to in Feb 2021 can be viewed in this video from CWLcon2021 https://youtu.be/vV4mmH5eN58

  18. Jan 2021
  19. Nov 2020
    1. Man, for some reason, I really like this answer. I recognize it's a bit more complicated, but it seems so useful. And given that I'm no bash expert, it leads me to believe that my logic is faulty, and there's something wrong with this methodology, otherwise, I feel others would have given it more praise. So, what's the problem with this function? Is there anything I should be looking out for here?

      I think the main thing wrong with it is the eval (which I think can be changed to $("$@") and it's pretty verbose.

      Also, there are more concise ways to do it that would probably appeal more to most bash experts...

      like set -x

      and it does unnecessary things: why save output to a variable? Just let output go to where it would normally go...

      So yeah, I can see why this solution isn't very popular. And I'm rather surprised by all the praise comments it's gotten.

  20. Oct 2020
    1. In React 0.12 time frame we did a bunch of small changes to how key, ref and defaultProps works. Particularly, they get resolved early on in the React.createElement(...) call. This made sense when everything was classes, but since then, we've introduced function components. Hooks have also make function components more prevalent. It might be time to reevaluate some of those designs to simplify things (at least for function components).
  21. Sep 2020
    1. Just throwing in <div class="{$$props.class || ''} otherChildClass"></div> seems the easiest, and it'll avoid undefined classes. I feel like many aren't noticing the undefined values getting inserted in their classes.
  22. Aug 2020
    1. Mateus, J., Grifoni, A., Tarke, A., Sidney, J., Ramirez, S. I., Dan, J. M., Burger, Z. C., Rawlings, S. A., Smith, D. M., Phillips, E., Mallal, S., Lammers, M., Rubiro, P., Quiambao, L., Sutherland, A., Yu, E. D., Antunes, R. da S., Greenbaum, J., Frazier, A., … Weiskopf, D. (2020). Selective and cross-reactive SARS-CoV-2 T cell epitopes in unexposed humans. Science. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abd3871

  23. Jul 2020
  24. Jun 2020
    1. Marshall, J. C., Murthy, S., Diaz, J., Adhikari, N., Angus, D. C., Arabi, Y. M., Baillie, K., Bauer, M., Berry, S., Blackwood, B., Bonten, M., Bozza, F., Brunkhorst, F., Cheng, A., Clarke, M., Dat, V. Q., de Jong, M., Denholm, J., Derde, L., … Zhang, J. (2020). A minimal common outcome measure set for COVID-19 clinical research. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, S1473309920304837. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30483-7

  25. May 2020
    1. In progressive enhancement (PE) the strategy is deliberately reversed: a basic markup document is created, geared towards the lowest common denominator of browser software functionality, and then the designer adds in functionality or enhancements to the presentation and behavior of the page, using modern technologies such as Cascading Style Sheets, Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG), or JavaScript.
    1. Although working together towards a common goal tends to cause an increased feeling of agency, the inflation of control could have many unforeseen consequences.
  26. Apr 2020
    1. What we actually want to do is to escape content if it is unsafe, but leave it unescaped if it is safe. To achieve this we can simply use SafeBuffer's concatenation behavior:
    2. Our helper still returns a safe string, but correctly escapes content if it is unsafe. Note how much more flexible our group helper has become because it now works as expected with both safe and unsafe arguments. We can now leave it up to the caller whether to mark input as safe or not, and we no longer need to make any assumptions about the safeness of content.
    3. Common misuse example and how to fix it
    4. A common mistake is to see those escaped angle brackets, and "improve" the helper by making everything html_safe:
    1. If all you want to do is print the results you might be used to leaving out the -print action. You generally don't want to do that when using -prune.
    2. +1 finally found out why I need -print at end, I can now stop adding \! -path <pattern> in addition to -prune
  27. Mar 2020
    1. Historically, the communitarian bases of the American legal system supported the subordination of individual rights when necessary for the preservation of common good. Quarantine measures were subjected to a deferential review supporting the states' right to substantially limit individual rights for the community's benefit.
    2. The treatment of quarantine reflects the latter. Courts and academics rarely expressed doubt about the validity of quarantine regulations, since the courts presumed that actions taken under the police power were constitutional.10,11 Challenges to the Fourteenth Amendment, usually successful when governmental intervention interfered with individual liberties, were not well received by the courts when communicable disease regulations, including quarantine, were involved.
    3. quarantine was already a well established form of public health regulation, and was considered proper exercise of the police power of the states; the Supreme Court, in its affirmation of this power, noted that the state had the power to quarantine “to provide for the health of the citizens.”10,11 The uncontrollable nature of epidemic diseases moved the Supreme Court to uphold such extreme measures on the basis of the defense of the common good.8
  28. Feb 2020
    1. Image Credit: Detail from "The School of Athens" by Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino (c. 1509–1511).

      Euclid's common notions appear to be grounds for many of Marx's arguments in Ch. 1, but also throughout the book.

      Near the beginning of Ch. 1 of the Elements Euclid lists them [PDF]:

      • Things that are equal to the same thing are also equal to one another (the Transitive property of a Euclidean relation).
      • If equals are added to equals, then the wholes are equal (Addition property of equality).
      • If equals are subtracted from equals, then the differences are equal (Subtraction property of equality).
      • Things that coincide with one another are equal to one another (Reflexive property).
      • The whole is greater than the part.

      Regarding the fifth, also see Aristotle, Metaphysics 8.6 [=1045a]; Topics 6.13 (=150a15-16);

      On the concept of the "whole-before-the-parts" (along with the "whole of the parts" and the "whole in the part"), also see Proclus, El. Theol., prop. 67.

    2. In order to calculate and compare the areas of rectilinear figures, we decompose them into triangles
  29. Jan 2020
  30. Dec 2019
    1. If you need maximum, lowest common denominator portability, use sh instead of Bash. If you need the increased capabilities that it provides, use Bash and use it fully
    1. renew life

      Victor implies that life can be renewed from death, a theme present in biblical scripture. See Gen. 3:19, 18:27; Job 30:19; Eccl. 3:20) and in the Anglican Book of Common Prayer (Burial Rite 1:485, 2:501).

  31. Nov 2019
  32. Aug 2019
    1. According to Polanyi the universe is not a uniform sea, it contains emergent comprehensive entities, with discernable levels of organisation, which via boundary conditions operate independently of the lower levels from which they emerge. These emergent levels realise various purposes. As Pirsig explains, each level of order has a characteristic defining Quality, material, biological, social, and intellectual. Indwelling within articulations enables us to pursue and reflect upon abstract ideals such as truth, goodness, and beauty. For Polanyi a computer, indeed every sort of machine, is contrived to achieve a purpose. A machine can be programmed to achieve this purpose if the desired behaviour can be described in a way that can be simulated by a universal machine. AI offers the prospect of machines which learn without us having to define every detail of its procedures. But they need to do the right thing in every circumstance. This returns us to our problem, because defining criteria for correct behaviour, for making the right choices, amounts to giving a machine “common sense”. Humans excel in making choices in complex situations because we are guided by our tacit awareness.
  33. Feb 2019
    1. As with neoliberalism more generally, New Public Management is invisible, part of a new “common sense” that has somehow become hegemonic, whereby the “entrepreneurial spirit” has infused the public sector, leading to “businesslike government”. As with the claims of neoliberalism more generally as to its positive outputs in terms of prosperity, NPM has never been shown to have been successful even in its own terms. NPM “introduced punishments and rewards to produce better services with lesser staff. Instead of having freed energies and creativity of employees formerly shackled by their bureaucratic turfs, NPM reforms have bound energies into theatrical audit performances at the cost of work and killed creativity in centralizing resources and hollowing out professional autonomy... Fundamental deprivation of the legitimacy of public employees . . .has traumatized many most-committed employees and driven others toward a Soviet-type double standard.” (Juha Siltala, New Public Management : The evidence-based worst practice?, Administration; Vol. 45, No. 4.; 2013 pp. 468-493) Sekera quotes Christopher Pollitt et al., who “after compiling a database of 518 studies of NPM in Europe, determined that “more than 90% of what are seen by experts as the most significant and relevant studies contain no data at all on outcomes” and that of the 10% that had outcomes information, only 44% of those, or 4% of the total, found any improvements in terms of outcomes.” But in the end, the point of NPM is less that of measureable outcomes, and more that of the ideological victory of turning the public and its good into customers exercising their “choices” (see tax revolt example in Duggan), along of course with the radical disempowering of public administration workers and their unions, instituting “cost savings” by cutting their real income and putting more and more of the public sector’s production directly into the profit-making market.
    1. prudence, excel--i Jenee is accorded to those who ferret out the WO; greatest possible number of causes

      He is defining prudence by turning scientific inquiry on its head (or just pointing out that prudence is scientific inquiry on its head).

  34. Jan 2019
    1. there is no guarantee that the generality signified by a word will convey the same idea to all users of the language

      This goes back to my point that there really is no such thing as common knowledge. It's impossible to expect everyone to recall the same things, just like you can't expect words to mean the same thing to everyone.

    2. common knowledge

      The term common knowledge has become a slippery slope, especially in situations where socioeconomic backgrounds and country of origin come in to play.

  35. Dec 2018
    1. That said, for a thoughtful survey of how the commons, cultural and otherwise, might thrive inside of, or along with, with current conditions I recommend Peter Barnes’s book, Capitalism 3.0: A Guide to Reclaiming the Commons. One of Barnes’s points is that our debates about the future often imagine only two actors: the government and private business. Barnes suggests a third set, common property trusts (as, for example, the kind of land trusts devised by the Nature Conservancy). There is much to say about common property trusts but for now the point is simply that we already have a mix of cultural modes and should continue to have them going forward with, I hope, the commons recognized and strengthened.

      One of the areas I find challenging in addressing Creative Commons culture is how Creative Commons relates to capitalistic culture (or rejects it). Creative Commons can be compatible with open market, but it can also challenge some of the fundamental tenants of it. Throughout the units, as I tried to imagine applications of Creative Commons, or making licensing decisions as a creative and academic, I found that I had questions about artists and how they can earn a living in this model, and how this model supported and challenged my role as a librarian in academe.

  36. Aug 2018
    1. In the context of trade negotiations, a common rulebook for goods would limit the UK’s ability to make changes to regulation in those areas covered by the rulebook. Ifthe Government wanted to make a change, including in light of trade negotiations with other partners, it could discuss this with the EU through the mechanisms set out in chapter 4. However, the UK would retain the freedom to make changes in other areas of regulation if considered desirable domestically.

      Detail of common rulebook proposal - gov could 'discuss' proposed changes with the eu, including in light of other trade deals

  37. Jul 2018
    1. Interestingly, the word Internet is never used in the CCSS reading stan-dards (Leu et al., 2011), despite the fact that the writing standards specify the use of “digital sources,” “technology,” and the “Internet” repeatedly (CCSS, 2010, p.41). Because of this, many will ignore instruction in online reading, thinking that the CCSS only references traditional, offline read-ing comprehension. Many may also fail to integrate reading and writing instruction, an important part of any literacy program.

      There is a lot wrong with the Common Core standards, so I'm glad this article pointed this out. That is a perspective in the standards I had never thought of before and this gave me a new lens to look at it with

  38. May 2018
  39. Mar 2018
    1. Common approaches are being considered in a number of areas, which will help to provide the necessary environmental protections. While the UK Government and the devolved Administrations sometimes make different choices on implementation of some policies, these common rules provide significant benefits, such as making it simple for businesses from different parts of the UK to trade with each other and enabling us to meet our international obligations and, therefore, protect our common resources. This is pertinent to the environmental commitments and protections that he rightly raised.
    2. nvironmental protection is a devolved matter. However, while the UK is a European Union member state, most environmental law in the four countries of the UK is guided by common frameworks set at EU level. This amendment would require the four Governments to work together on proposals to establish minimum common environmental objectives and standards. As such, I hope it will appeal to all parts of the House. UK-wide frameworks will be needed to establish areas of common policy across the UK, even in areas of devolved competence. Crucially, this amendment would insist that devolved legislatures are equal stakeholders in the forming of those common policy areas. I will cover the principle of UK-wide frameworks, and my major concerns about Clause 11, when we get to that point of the Bill. Today, I will focus on the substantive relevance of this issue to the environment.First, I will say a word about why common frameworks are needed. No area of policy will be more affected by the outcome of the common frameworks debate than the environment. According to analysis by the Institute for Government, there are more than 140 distinct policy areas where EU law intersects with devolved powers. The greatest number of these relate to the environment, which is unsurprising given that the EU frameworks have been widely created for environmental policy purposes.Approximately 80% of environmental laws in the UK, including in the devolved nations, have some basis in EU legislation. Transboundary co-operation and common standards are widely recognised as important for the effective protection of the environment and the prevention of unfair regulatory competition. There are persuasive reasons for seeking to maintain common standards across the four nations of these islands post Brexit. Such frameworks would provide a set of minimum common standards and should be jointly agreed between the UK and devolved Governments. They will be important in a range of areas, such as the conservation of wildlife on land and at sea, environmental assessment and the co-ordination of action to address air and water pollution.I shall give some examples of common frameworks. EU legislation relating to the natural environment—including the birds and habitats directives—currently helps to underpin effective environmental action by providing minimum common standards for site and species protection across the four nations. This facilitates the creation of a more ecologically coherent network of protected sites than would otherwise be the case. Such an approach will still be needed for the UK outside the EU, helping to ensure that actions in one jurisdiction complement, and do not counteract, conservation outcomes across these islands.Similarly, the common frameworks provided by EU legislation—relating to the assessment of the likely environmental impacts of plans, programmes and projects—mean that consistent mechanisms are in place for assessing transboundary effects as well as allowing for public participation and transparency in decision-making across the four nations. Co-operation and ​joint agreement on common frameworks that provide minimum standards and shared high-level objectives are therefore needed.

      GUK briefing

    3. I warmly endorse the comments that have already been made on the importance of getting the environmental dimensions right as we leave the European Union
  40. Aug 2017
  41. May 2017
    1. Some of the best cross-partisan conversation online happens on sports forums and sports bulletin boards, because, [the assumption is] “Hey, we’re all Patriots fans first, and Democrats and Republicans second.”

      Interesting to think about...

  42. Apr 2017
    1. Have organizations that I have been a part of supported Common Core? Of course. But that’s not my position.

      The possible origin of why some sites report she supports Common Core.

  43. Mar 2017
    1. We have gradually built up a story.

      storytelling common story

    2. Terry, in his solitary picnic, talked of the difficulty of creating the conditions in which his students will want to connect with others in the CLAVIER network.

      common ground desire to connect. Why reach out?

    3. Marcin and Laura joined me on Thursday to talk about translating CLAVIER into their local cultures. They helped me, we are helping each other attempt to make that translation.

      translation respect of context finding common ground difficulty

    1. Dr. Max Dunbar

      Dr. Maxwell John Dunbar, mentioned later in the text as the author of Environment and Common Sense which was published in 1971, began his “lifelong involvement with the Arctic” in August 1935 during an expedition to map the western Greenland coast (Grainger 1995, 306). Dunbar was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, attended the Merchiston Preparatory School followed by the Dalhousie Castle School, and finally, Fettes College. In 1933, Dunbar began attending the Trinity College in Oxford, England to study zoology where he met ecologist Charles Elton. After meeting Elton, Dunbar was introduced to the Oxford University Exploration Club. Through this club, Dunbar was invited to join the expedition in Greenland. He received a B.A. in 1937 and subsequently attended Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut on a Henry Fellowship (for more information on the Henry Fellowship see Yale University’s webpage https://yale.communityforce.com/Funds/FundDetails.aspx?4438534B376C50326C63483341496C39582F4435696B6F6554694364593150486764566B344156473663736768494B34585863553574432B646D5868384E6275). While studying at Yale University, Dunbar was able to take a trip to explore the glaciers of Alaska. He returned to Oxford, England, when Elton offered him the opportunity to join the 1939 eastern Canadian Arctic patrol. After accepting Elton’s offer, Dunbar enrolled at McGill University in Montreal, Canada as a graduate student. During his time at McGill University, Dunbar experienced the Canadian arctic for the first time by joining the R.M.S Nascopie. Dunbar began serving as the consular representative of the Canadian consulate in Greenland in 1942, and again in 1946. After leaving Greenland, Dunbar was employed by McGill University in the Department of Zoology. After beginning research for the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, he designed the first Canadian arctic research vessel Calanus. In 1947, Dunbar founded the Eastern Arctic Investigations laboratory at McGill University. His active involvement with McGill University continued until he retired and was appointed Professor Emeritus in 1982. He continued his quest for knowledge after “retiring” and published at least 32 articles after 1982 (Grainger 1995, 306-307).

      References

      Grainger, E. H. "Maxwell John Dunbar (1914-1995)." Arctic 48, no. 3 (1995): 306-07. http://www.jstor.org/stable/40511670.

  44. Feb 2017
    1. But suppose on the way to Wal-Mart, you see a random mom-and-pop store that looks interesting. What do you know about its safety standards? Nothing.

      There exists trust. You trust a lot of people you don't know every day -- you also do the opposite and don't shop in stores that look suspicious today.

      You can also trust small business whose owner or previous records you know personally, that also happens a lot today.

      Besides that, in a libertarian world law would exist and solve part of these problems: https://hypothes.is/a/PBirDvnYEeaWvjeIs4H9kg.

    2. Let’s say Wanda’s Widgets has one million customers. Each customer pays it $100 per year, for a total income of $100 million. Each customer prefers Wanda to her competitor Wayland, who charges $150 for widgets of equal quality. Now let’s say Wanda’s Widgets does some unspeakably horrible act which makes it $10 million per year, but offends every one of its million customers.

      If the person doesn't care if it is "offended" then that's ok, it can still buy. If it is offended in a way the common law qualifies as punishable then the person can sue, and lawsuits are expensive for the company. If the offence is not sufficiently serious then the person should either move to a different culture or try to change its culture, it is not a matter of State, but of law and culture.

    3. 1.2: But aren’t there are libertarian ways to solve externalities that don’t involve the use of force?

      Well, this article forgets about law. Law and justice still would exist in a libertarian society.

      I haven't read the rest of the article, but this is probably the answer to most of his criticisms of libertarianism, and it is fair that this guy is missing it, because law is difficult and most libertarians forget about it or think that purely monetary transactions between persons would solve everything, thus making libertarianism a crazy creed (as I've done myself for a time).

  45. Jan 2017
  46. Dec 2016
  47. Sep 2016
    1. it’s easy to argue by induction

      It may be easy to argue by induction, but what is actually going on?

      Let's take a group of three children for a larger example: Abe, Ben and Cindy. Let's denote the situation "Abe has a clear forehead and Ben and Cindy have muddy foreheads" as [OXX], and so on.

      Before the teacher tells them anything, Abe knows that either [XXX] or [OXX] (because he sees the mud on Ben's and Cindy's foreheads). If [OXX] were the case, Ben would know that either [OXX] or [OOX]. If [OOX] were the case, Cindy would know that either [OOX] or [OOO].

      This picture demonstrates the situation.

      The teacher's announcement makes it common knowledge that [OOO] is not possible. Then if Abe supposed [OXX] and provided that Ben supposed [OOX], Cindy would be sure that [OOX] (meaning she has mud on her forehead). After the first call, she doesn't stand up so we know that if Abe supposed [OXX], in that idea Ben could no longer suppose [OOX] and would be instead sure that [OXX] (meaning he has mud on his forehead).

      This example suggests that the children don't need the general notion of common knowledge to efficiently reason whether they have muddy foreheads. It suffices to use any chain "Abe considers possible that Ben considers possible that Cindy considers possible etc.". that visits every child exactly once in an arbitrary order.

    2. “would you like to come up for some intercourse?”

      Incidentally, this straightforward approach is taken by Phoebe towards Chandler in the episode 5x14 titled "The One Where Everyone Finds Out" of the TV show Friends:

      I'm really looking forward to you and me having sexual intercourse.

      As pointed out by James Miller in his video introducing the concept common knowledge, this episode contains a nice informal demonstration of the concept.

    1. And I know how they have suffered more than the pain of exile -- they also know what it’s like to be an outsider, and to struggle, and to work harder to make sure their children can reach higher in America.

      Here again Obama uses the common ground technique to relate himself as a fellow American and to get the sympathetic side of his audience, showing that he too has struggles and suffer just like the every day individual.

    2. So here’s my message to the Cuban government and the Cuban people:  The ideals that are the starting point for every revolution -- America’s revolution, Cuba’s revolution, the liberation movements around the world -- those ideals find their truest expression, I believe, in democracy.

      As President Obama continues his speech over the push for democracy in Cuba, he uses the rhetorical device of common ground to create an environment in which his audience feels as if they are on the same page as the speaker. His comparison of the Cub and American revolution shows that these two events connect us and therefore democracy is possible in both.

    3. And these changes have been welcomed, even though there are still opponents to these policies.  But still, many people on both sides of this debate have asked:  Why now?  Why now?

      Obama used "common ground" to bring together all the oppositions that he may face when discussing the policies. By bringing in something that everyone has been thinking despite the differences they feel, Obama is able to create unity.

    4. There is one simple answer:  What the United States was doing was not working.

      Obama use common ground here to help his cause and befriend the Cubans and continue to build a healthy relationship between the Americans and Cubans.

    5. Creo en el pueblo Cubano.

      Obama addresses the cuban people directly letting them know he believes in them in Spanish. By doing this Obama establishes a common ground with the audience and makes himself seem sincere/ trustworthy about such claims.

    6. Because in many ways, the United States and Cuba are like two brothers who’ve been estranged for many years, even as we share the same blood. We both live in a new world, colonized by Europeans.  Cuba, like the United States, was built in part by slaves brought here from Africa.  Like the United States, the Cuban people can trace their heritage to both slaves and slave-owners.  We’ve welcomed both immigrants who came a great distance to start new lives in the Americas. Over the years, our cultures have blended together.       Dr. Carlos Finlay’s work in Cuba paved the way for generations of doctors, including Walter Reed, who drew on Dr. Finlay’s work to help combat Yellow Fever.  Just as Marti wrote some of his most famous words in New York, Ernest Hemingway made a home in Cuba, and found inspiration in the waters of these shores.  We share a national past-time -- La Pelota -- and later today our players will compete on the same Havana field that Jackie Robinson played on before he made his Major League debut.  (Applause.)  And it's said that our greatest boxer, Muhammad Ali, once paid tribute to a Cuban that he could never fight -- saying that he would only be able to reach a draw with the great Cuban, Teofilo Stevenson.  (Applause.)   So even as our governments became adversaries, our people continued to share these common passions, particularly as so many Cubans came to America.  In Miami or Havana, you can find places to dance the Cha-Cha-Cha or the Salsa, and eat ropa vieja.  People in both of our countries have sung along with Celia Cruz or Gloria Estefan, and now listen to reggaeton or Pitbull.  (Laughter.)  Millions of our people share a common religion -- a faith that I paid tribute to at the Shrine of our Lady of Charity in Miami, a peace that Cubans find in La Cachita. For all of our differences, the Cuban and American people share common values in their own lives.  A sense of patriotism and a sense of pride -- a lot of pride.  A profound love of family.  A passion for our children, a commitment to their education.  And that's why I believe our grandchildren will look back on this period of isolation as an aberration, as just one chapter in a longer story of family and of friendship.

      This section of President Obama's speech is meant to create common ground between Cubans and Americans. This creation of common ground allows Cuban listeners to momentarily put aside the differences between Cuban and American government and culture and focus on the similarities between the two nations. After this creation of common ground, President Obama uses the trust he's built between himself and the Cuban people to open their ears to the issues he wants to talk about.

  48. Mar 2016
    1. Hochberg, M. E., Chase, J. M., Gotelli, N. J., Hastings, A., & Naeem, S. (2009). The tragedy of the reviewercommons.Ecology Letters, 12, 2–4
  49. Jul 2015
    1. State data showed more than 20 million downloads of material from the site as of early June, with a third of downloads initiated from outside New York as districts like Berkeley, California, adopt it.

      EngageNY

  50. Jun 2015
    1. immersed in information about the world

      In other words, the Internet.

    2. immersed in information about the world

      In other words, the Internet.

    3. immersed in information about the world

      In other words, the Internet.

    4. ocus on evidence-based writing

      What's more "evidence-based" than annotation?

    5. a command of sequence and detail that are essential for effective argumentative and informative writing.
    6. read the texts with care.

      But what does that mean?

    7. they intentionally do not include a required reading list. Instead, they include numerous sample texts to help teachers prepare for the school year and allow parents and students to know what to expect during the year.

      So the Web could be the text. And Web annotation the means of reading socially.

    8. focus on academic vocabulary:
    9. growing complexity of the texts students must read
    1. > 500 students

      We could probably claim we have (had) this many student users over time.

    2. Web - based solutions that track a student's progress across most/all reading and writing skills and recommend discrete solutions from multiple providers to help build skills based on student performance

      Then again, with the right kind of added infrastructure (tagging of annotations aligned with standards) and extraction of that data for visualization, I don't see why h couldn't fit this category. (At least we would have to say we are MVP stage for this level, though.)

    3. “Solution” is our term for an application, game or website that come s from a single provider and address es some or all reading and writing skills and conte nt areas

      hypothes.is would seem to fit best within this scope.

    4. e have to ensure that our grantees provide broad availability and affordable access to the products they build using our grant funding. We call this Global Access
    5. test bed schools.
    6. Additionally, in order to address teachers’ time limitations, the interface that teachers use to customize the sequence or differentiate practice for students must be simple and user friendly in order for it to ever be used
    7. performanc e data to be exportable
    8. Educators believe that technology needs to help them more easily

      We cannot make these users work for it. Features needs to be built-in.

    9. Just managing distributing and collecting printed copies of 125 student essays per week was overwhelming – and providing edited essays to all students was nearly impossible.

      Responses to student annotations could be seen as micro-lessons in writing.

    10. dearth of products

      Again, this will be key to rhetoric of proposal.

    11. Articulate the weaknesses in the current digital product offering and the gaps between what the market offers and what schools want to buy

      Important to articulate this intervention

    12. innovative courseware solutions
    13. to use writing as a tool for learning, communicating, and facilitating their understanding of the complex texts

      Annotation is not just note-taking (though it can be). If annotation has always been the beginning of critical analyses in literary study, then in its online, public form, it becomes a more advanced stage of the writing process. For one, annotation online has an audience. While we can think of annotation as the start of the ideas developed in a formal essay, we might also imagine how annotations themselves can be essays!

    14. riting to read strategies
    15. o close ly read complex texts from both fiction and non - fiction sources ,

      For which annotation is key.

    16. while communications skills themselves are predicted to be critical to success in all field s in the 21 st century economy (Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2009) .

      Annotation as modeling collaborative writing and review of documents in work places.

    17. Leveraging the capabilities of interactive technology to create an educational experience that isn’t possible in a physical, paper - based world

      leveraging social media, making annotation social

    18. Showing students their perfo rmance in order to generate a sense of ownership and agency

      Profile pages need to act as portfolios to do this.

      And dashboards for group activity could similarly give students a sense of where they're at in relation to classmates.

    19. Behavioral Engagement ,

      Might include the motivation to exhaustively (even if collaboratively) annotate a text: to say, "we mastered this!" as a class.

    20. use desktop computers or laptops to access web - based applications.

      Thank goodness. Love mobile technology, but for deep engagement in writing especially, nothing beats a keyboard.

    21. ability to deploy in a variety of learning environments due to the diversity of implementation approaches that schools utilize .

      Again, LTI is key here. We want to be able to integrate/interoperate with lots of L/CMSs.

    22. Affective Engagement, which includes interest and pride in success.

      liking/upvoting?

    23. Cus tomize the learning scope, sequence, and content

      need to partner with a content provider:

      1) publisher/distributor of text exemplars

      2) publisher/distributor of lesson plans inclusive of