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  1. Dec 2023
  2. Jul 2023
    1. Quartal Harmony and sus ChordsQuartal chords can have a variety of uses. Sometimes they imply quartal harmonyand other times they are merely used to create interesting voicings of tertian chords; bothare staples of modern jazz keyboard harmony. There are many Preludes with isolatedchords voiced in fourths or with a right-hand figuration using fourths, and even thesequick references, along with Kapustin’s other devices, create a modern jazz context forhis musical ideas. Most of the examples discussed below feature more extensive use ofquartal techniques, and most use tertian harmony with quartal chord voicings
  3. Jun 2023
    1. The A Section: A Two-Scale Approach
    2. A Single-Scale ApproachThe chord structure of the A sections of rhythm changes can be reduced to the fundamentalframework shown in Figure 19.5.While mm. 1–4 of any A section feature a tonic prolongation, mm. 5–8 are morecomplicated even at the background level. For instance, the predominant in mm. 6, 14,and 30 can take the form of major 7th or dominant 7th chords. Also, the tonally closed256 INTERMEDIATEFIGURE 19.5 Fundamental Harmonic Frameworks
    3. Another relatively simple technique used by Jones in his solo involves the arpeggiation offour-part chords
    4. diminished 7th chords
    5. incomplete diminished 7th (mm. 24 and 98)
    6. The solo is unified through the use of similar melodic devices at the same locations withinthe form. For instance, in mm. 4, 12, and 28 of the form, Jones frequently employs adom7(≥5) chord (mm. 4, 12, 36, 92, 100, and 108).
    7. Chapter 5 expands the repository of harmonic structures to 35 five-part chords. They aredivided into five categories: major, minor, dominant 7th, suspended dominant, and inter-mediary

      Chordal extensions consist of different forms of the ninth, the eleventh, and the thirteenth and can be divided into two broad categories: diatonic and chromatic. Diatonic extensions enhance the structure of chords, whereas chromatic extensions modify that structure in a considerable way. The ninth has three distinct forms: a diatonic major 9th, a chromatic ≤9th, and a chromatic ≥9th. The eleventh has two forms: a diatonic perfect 11th and a chromatic ≥11th. The thirteenth has two forms: a diatonic major 13th and a chromatic ≤13t

    8. The intermediary category contains three modes: Dorian, Locrian, and Locrian Ω2
    9. In jazz terminology, the term “voicing” refers to the arrangement of notes within a chord.That arrangement can be either close or open. In a close voicing the arrangement ofnotes is the most packed possible. In an open voicing, the arrangement of notes is

      intervallically more diverse. The most common method of generating an open voicing is to drop certain notes from a close-position chord down an octave. In a “drop 2” voicing, the second note, counting from the top note, is dropped down an octave. “Drop 2” refers to voicings above the bass in which the bass note is not counted as one of the voices being “dropped.” Each chord in Figure 4.15 includes three “drop 2” voicings because the three notes above the bass can be rotated three times.

      see figure 4.15 on p 47

    10. Chapter 4 establishes the foundation of jazz harmonic syntax. Fourteen four-part chordsare introduced and their functional status is examined
    1. Chords that are not built on superimposed layers of thirds are still to be in-vestigated. They are of three kinds in principle:Fig. 5.1. Infrastructure, superstructure, and developed chord

      the major sixth chord (C6) C-E-G-A • the minor sixth chord (Cm6) C-E b-G-A • the “sus4” chord (C7sus4 or just C7sus, “sus” meaning “suspended”) C-F-G-B b. The first two are usually seen as enriched perfect chords, in which case the sixth is considered an enrichment, like the ninth, eleventh, or thirteenth. The third case is less straightforward and depends on the context. In a tonal situation, the “sus4” chord is a form of suspension.10 In other contexts, it will be considered a specific chord. The question is asked of the distinction between the fourth and eleventh on the one hand, and the sixth and thirteenth on the other hand. How do we decide that F in a C chord is a fourth or eleventh or A a sixth or thirteenth? The reality shows that it is a total mess in the practice of jazz musicians. When a figuring including “4” or “11” (even more so with “6” or “13”) occurs, it is impossible to know for sure what exact degree the author is referring to. It seems to me that the rule should be this: if there is a fourth then there is no third, and if there is a sixth then there is no seventh. Implicitly, this comes down to considering that the fourth is a substitute for the third (as mentioned before, this is easy to understand in a tonal system) and the sixth a substitute for the seventh. This is a consequence of chords being built up on superimposed layers of thirds (which confirms the structuring nature of such a build-up, by the way). For F to be an eleventh, the third (E or E b) must have existed beforehand. The same applies for A to be a thirteenth: a seventh, B or B b, must have existed beforehand. Yet, the “7/6” figuring often occurs, which contradicts this rule (the “13” figuring should include the seventh implicitly). This does not reveal a different approach to that chord but a lack of rigor in figuring practices, with the implicit idea behind it that, as jazz is a type of music based on oral traditions and practices, any localized ambiguity can be clarified at a later stage.

  4. May 2023
  5. Mar 2023