206 Matching Annotations
  1. Nov 2019
    1. I often wish for this. I don't understand why this hasn't been added.

      Ugly workaround for now:

      # Note, even though we don't need or use arguments passed to this selector, you *must* pass in an
      # argument to prevent it from matching the :id selector and giving a "Unable to find id :parent (Capybara::ElementNotFound)" error.
      # Example: el.first(:parent, 1)
      # You may also need match: first if el matches multiple elements to avoid Capybara::Ambiguous
      Capybara.add_selector(:parent) do
        xpath { ".//.." }
      end
      
    1. “Why don’t you assume you’ve written your book already — and all you have to do now is find it?”

      That is heartening...

    1. Cloud kitchen, a newly disrupted concept has sneaked in the food industry from the back door. The way investors are supporting cloud kitchen startups is something to study. Reports suggest that the Cloud kitchen concept is marching ahead at the highest CAGR among the other segment in the restaurant industry.

  2. Oct 2019
    1. “To measure the head, the height, etc., does not indeed mean that we are establishing a system of pedagogy, but it indicates the road which we may follow to arrive at such a system, since if we are to educate an individual, we must have a definite and direct knowledge of him.”

      This is obviously done incorrectly in schools nowadays, referring to the large class sizes and common core putting restrictions on mostly everything. This raises the question, though, does homeschooling produce a better pedagogy? Or is it dependent on the specific educator?

    2. But in spite of all these tendencies, Scientific Pedagogy has never yet been definitely constructed nor defined. It is something vague of which we speak, but which does not,[Pg 2] in reality, exist. We might say that it has been, up to the present time, the mere intuition or suggestion of a science which, by the aid of the positive and experimental sciences that have renewed the thought of the nineteenth century, must emerge from the mist and clouds that have surrounded it.

      It is interesting to think about the hugely varying ideas that restrict the existence of a Scientific Pedagogy. Not even those that oppose each other through a research standpoint, but also those that are constrained by religious beliefs.

  3. Jul 2019
  4. Mar 2019
    1. offline society

      "Offline Society" I like this phase. It should be included in the language about the teach-outs. Most logically, related to the actionable items section.

    2. joint teach-out will showcase a selection of individual voices and personal narratives of those from Puerto Rico affected by the crisis

      I think that this is important. It's nice for the audience to view and experience the voices and experience of people. I wonder how this can also be applied to other teach-outs. Maybe the teach-out on climate change for example could involve a visit to a local farm. Farmer(s) could be interviewed and that material could enrich the conversation. I puts a face on the issue. Climate change alone is not inspiring enough but when the face by someone who is drastically impacted by it is a child or low-income farmer, it has a more impact.

  5. Feb 2019
    1. At the moment we are experimenting alot with documentation - documentation is not just a 'how to' but it plays many roles, as text books, as proxy marketing material for software, as a process for developing communities of expertise, as self help guides, as a ladder to the next level of expertise in a specific subject, as sales material for developers, as support material for developers, as support material for workshops... there are a lot of corners documentation feeds into and we are trying out many of them.
    2. So if you are figuring on hitting the jackpot and make a name for yourself through the traditional channels, and you are dampening efforts by others to write docs for the same project, do a quick ideological and reality check first. Then contribute to, and encourage as many people as possible to contribute to, free documentation about your project.
  6. Sep 2018
    1. shall submit to the mayor and the speaker of the council a copy

      For things like reporting on standardized customer service training, why not also require agencies to report to the Public Advocate in addition to the speaker of the council?

  7. May 2018
    1. One could argue that perhaps what we see in this history is not the creation ofobjects as an ontological element but rather the development of a language to such alevel of complexity that it is finally able to describe objects that already exist in theworld outside of language. Against this objection, it must be noted that what we witnessin this history, what drives it forward, is the difficulty of relating language to world,whether it is a simulated world or a new world of computer graphics. Moreover, theexamples presented here and in the textbooks and manuals for object-oriented pro-gramming demonstrate the often-difficult art of defining the objects that will constitutea given system
    2. None of these objects, e.g., bits, functions, classes, and even the object thatSmalltalk invented, exist as objects outside of language. This is not to say that they areonly linguistic or that they do not really exist. The digital real exists and exerts itselfwithin its ossification into object form, but in the real, there are no objects, merely avast field of electric difference. Likewise, it is not to say that everything is language orthat everything is material. A discourse that does not affect the electronic system withinthe machine can never flip a bit. Conversely, for electric difference to mean anything, itmust be delimited as an object, process, or other data type within language. Program-ming is a process and system of representing and simultaneously hiding the real inlanguage.

      Esta muy potente idea tendría que ver con el interpretacionimo en la relación entre lenguaje y realidad.

    3. Smalltalk also advanced this metaphor of computation as objects along anotherrelated track that turned computation into a self-referential system of interactingcomputers. Kay (1996) describes this understanding of objects in relation to computers.Smalltalk is a recursion on the notion of computer itself. Instead of dividingBcomputer stuff^into things each less strong than the whole—like data structures,procedures, and functions which are the usual paraphernalia of programminglanguages—each Smalltalk object is a recursion on the entire possibilities of thecomputer. Thus its semantics are a bit like having thousands and thousands ofcomputer all hooked together by a very fast network. Questions of concreterepresentation can thus be postponed almost indefinit
    4. Math and computation are obviously related, but thequestion that simultaneously unites the two and inscribes their difference is whether mathexplains a fundamentally computational world or the other way arou
    5. Math and computation are obviously related, but thequestion that simultaneously unites the two and inscribes their difference is whether mathexplains a fundamentally computational world or the other way arou
    6. These developments were not only a change in metaphors but also produced changes inthe underlying code of the compiler

      Esto también pasó con Grafoscopio. Los procesos escriturales cambiaron el código subyacente que soportaba la escritura misma de textos.

    7. Ultimately, while the compilability of a program and its set of rules for translationinto binary code constrain the possibilities of computer programs and language, the useof programs to communicate between humans and the metaphors and abstractionspermitted by object-oriented languages produce languages that approximate the com-plexity and creativity ofBreal languages.^
    8. ms. Thus, the point isnot to suggest that the object is somehow an inevitable and necessary outcome ofthis process of linguistic abstraction. Rather, this history demonstrates how thecomputational object, as one possible outcome for a process of abstraction, offersa number of critical insights into the relationship between objects, language, andthe real

      Se puede pensar en la deconstrucción futura de los elementos ya presentados para (de)construir sistemas de computo, específicamente el sistema total y monolenguaje de Pharo/Smalltalk, particularmente a la luz de la interacción con sistemas externos, como Pandoc, Fossil, usando lenguajes como Javascript y/o Lua, desde ejemplos que surgieron en los ejercicios y proyectos de edición y publicación digital. Así, el sistema que tenemos, con Grafoscopio, si bien es relativamente auto-contenido y presenta una única manera de pensar respecto a los sistemas de computo (que es el de la programación Orientada a Objetos), también hace puentes, desde las necesidades reales, con otros sistemas de computo y paradigmas informáticos.

  8. Mar 2018
    1. What is claimed is:

      Seguir leyendo...

    2. It can be complex to sort out lithium ion batteries based on the battery chemistry and conventional methods cannot effectively recycle lithium ion batteries with mixed chemistries because different procedures are required to separate the respective compounds for reuse as active cath ode material.
    3. While 97% of lead acid batteries are recycled, such that over 50 percent of the lead supply comes from recycled batteries, lithium ion batteries are not yet being recycled widely.
    4. In short, recycling of lithium ion batteries not only protects the environment and saves energy, but also presents a lucrative outlet for battery manufacturers by providing an inexpensive Supply of active cathode material for new batteries.
    5. Additionally, battery disposal would require that fresh metals be mined for cathode material, and mining has a much bigger environmental impact and cost than simple recycling would.
    6. Recycling of the charge material in the lithium batteries both reduces waste volume and yields active charge material for new batteries
  9. www.nature.com.wdg.biblio.udg.mx:2048 www.nature.com.wdg.biblio.udg.mx:2048
    1. Moreover, the chemistry of recycling will become more important than ever and let’s hope that chemists can successively give a second life to wastes. Undoubtedly, sustainable batteries can be made and bring major advances in the protection of our environment, provided we realize such an effort is only worthwhile if we use CO2-free electricity.
    2. Until an alter-native can be found, it will be necessary to design batteries with suf-ficient confinement in the event of cell malfunction
    3. Although ‘recycling chemistry’ is not particularly fashionable today, it encompasses a discipline that is very important for the future of our planet.
    4. The recycling process of e-waste should reduce scrap volume, separate battery components and enrich valuable metals, and eliminate or reduce the danger of waste release to the environment.
    5. Several hundred thousand tons of batteries are sold annually; this constitutes an ‘urban mine’ for the recovery of thousands of tons of metal with cost advantages over direct mining.
    6. These challenges call for a collaborative effort between inorganic, organic and biochemists to develop innovative and diversified syn-thetic approaches to optimize existing materials and design new materials for batteries.
    7. A great advantage of the Li-ion battery, as opposed to Pb–acid, Ni–Cd and Ni–metal hydride batteries, is its versatility with respect to the wide range of positive and nega-tive electrodes that can be used, which offers possibilities in terms of designing new high-performance electrodes based on low-cost
    8. the only viable path towards a ‘greener and more sustainable’ battery is rooted in our ability to design electroactive materials that have comparable performances to today’s electrodes, but cost less energy and release less CO2 during production.
    9. It is essential to consider sustainability, renewability and ‘green chemistry’4 when selecting materials for storage devices (for example, electrodes, catalysts), especially when used in applications with large markets and volume (vehicles, grid).
    10. It is therefore essential to incorporate material abun-dance, eco-efficient synthetic processes and life-cycle analysis into the design of new electrochemical storage systems.
    1. In short, we require methods to establish the health record of the battery, analogous to personal health records for human beings.
    2. New methods must be developed that will allow batteries to be controlled and traced so that they can be used for more than one application.
    3. We need new analytical methods, optimized to probe specific battery chemistries, so that new technologies can be brought to the market more rapidly to meet societal demands.
    4. n terms of sustainability, rechargeable aqueous Na-ion tech-nology is attractive. But cost expectations have yet to be realized, raising the question of whether aqueous systems can ever be made cheaper than non-aqueous systems
    5. Future batteries could have, in addition to the positive/negative out-puts, an extra analyser output
    6. an we draw inspiration from the medical field and all the tool-ing that is currently used during surgery or in implants, and from the increased use of sensors in advanced manufacturing?
    7. Another burning question concerns the visualization of electron transfer and redox processes at even shorter length scales. The study of nucleation/growth kinetics of phases containing peroxide-like species by EPR imaging in the layered lithium-rich oxides is a first step, even though the resolution has been limited to micrometres.
    8. The challenge is significant, but, given the critical role of these pro-cesses in battery cycle and calendar life, attempts to develop new tools to attack this issue must be worth the risk.
    9. Although the use of a non-aqueous-based electrolyte pushes up the cost, this finding has opened new avenues for explora-tion83, including the use of inorganic86 or organic inks87 in aqueous systems, with potential cost and energy-density advantages for grid-scale storage.
    10. New approaches are sorely needed. Cheaper separators must also be developed84, and concepts such as membrane-free separators must be pursued.

      Zn

    11. Replacing Li by more abundant metals Na, Mg and Ca.
    12. Although some of these (with schematics shown in Fig. 2) are in the very early stages of commercialization, there is no clear-cut winner; several advances have, however, been made, and so optimism must prevail, motivating continued research and development of all of these technologies
    13. But these advances do not address concerns about lim-ited Li reserves, which result from the predicted increased battery demands
    14. These reserves are indeed limited, but Li can be recycled by hydrometallurgy, although the economics of such a process has yet to be worked out
    15. The material fabrication step is by far the most problematic,
    16. the electrification of transport requires much cheaper and longer-lasting batteries.
    17. Sustainability and cost concerns require that we greatly increase the battery lifetime and consider second lives for batteries.
    18. we must integrate sustainability of battery materials into our research endeavours, choosing chemistries that have a minimum footprint in nature and that are more readily recycled or integrated into a full circular economy.

      Baterías ecológicas.

  10. Feb 2018
    1. The fact that not being able to discern exactly when the FPS began shows how the whole question of genre is about feel. It's about the point when a body of similar works has mapped out the boundaries of what they're interested in - what they are and what they aren't - and when there's no clear leader any more.
    2. Most genres bubble up outside the mainstream industry, built by modders and tinkerers, amateurs and enthusiasts. In these 'folk games' it's sometimes hard to find a single originator or author, instead groups of people feeding from each other, freely copying, rearranging and rebuilding to develop and refine a core concept. The best ones find audiences and rapidly grow, even as they're still evolving
    3. The point is that the general concept of the battle royale has grown almost naturally from wider culture, the evolving nature of online tech and modding scenes
    4. That transformation, in which a new genre has originated, is a fascinating mirror of the wonderful way ideas merge and evolve, spread and multiply, skating through inspiration and invention, copying and stealing.
    1. However, this assumption of an essentially “outsider” researcher, though true in many cases, deserves a degree of scrutiny and problematizing. In some cases, researchers come from the communities that they research (even if they are now part of an academic or other similar institution), in some cases researchers are not formally affiliated to a larger institution and may be performing work for local benefit at a local level (on behalf of a community group, for instance) and in some instances a researcher may be “between cultures” (for example, being originally from a Global South nation but having lived in a Global North one for a long period of time).

      [...] It does, however, point to the way in which reflexivity and use of the embodied identity can be a tool for disrupting colonial and otherwise oppressive research forms. By interrogating one’s one variable social positioning, and thereby troubling the “objectivity” of the knowledge one generates as a result, the wider system of social inequality which the research exists in can be, to some extent, grappled with.

      Es el caso mío en HackBo.

    1. La pregunta sigue siendo, sin embargo, cómo hacer explícita la política onto-epistémica de la traducción que ocurre entren mundos bajo condiciones de conexión parcial que son, al mismo tiempo, relaciones asimétricas
    2. ’. Es esto quizás otra forma de pensar en lo que es el ‘diseño’ sin tener que invocar este concepto. Siguiendo esta idea, no hablaríamos de diseño sino de conversaciones para la coordinación del accionar y el emocionar (‘coordinaciones de coordinaciones conductuales’), y el espacio relacional generado por lo comunal sería el espacio por excelencia para ello, llamémoslo conversaciones para la acción (Winnograd y Flores), diseño, o simplemente conversaciones para el vivir y en el vivir comunal.
    3. ay una gran necesidad de métodos que permitan el diseño colaborativo a lo largo de períodos más largos de lo habitual, que construyan a partir de los roles cambiantes de los diseñadores en esta temporalidad extendida (más allá de ser, digamos, iniciadores o facilitadores) y que tomen en serio la naturaleza distribuida de la agencia del diseño, incluyendo, hay que añadir, a los nohumanos. La articulación de prácticas de diseño-en-uso en el contexto de actividades colectivas de diseño de más larga duración es particularmente importante en este momento.

      En este sentido, Grafoscopio y otras infraestructuras comunitarias (ejp: los wikis) han permitido el trabajo extendido en el tiempo desde dinámicas colaborativas, basadas en la resiliencia de las comunidades. Sin embargo, las posibilidades de reconfiguración y agencia han estado limitadas por las barreras tecnológicas y cognitivas que dichas infraestructuras embebían. Esta fue una de las preocupaciones originales de la tesis y hay también una preocupación final sobre cómo lo que hemos logrado hasta el momento permite ese diálogo pasado, presente y futuralidad desde la resiliencia.

    4. En todas estas experiencias la ‘comunidad’ es entendida en términos profundamente históricos, abiertos y no esencialistas. En todo caso, hay un énfasis en la creación de nuevos espacios para lo comunal. De ello se desprende que la realización de lo comunal es, siempre, un proceso histórico abierto. En el lenguaje de Maturana y Varela las comunidades, como sistemas sociales, son entidades autopoiéticas de tercer orden definidas por un sistema particular de relaciones entre los componentes que, a través de su dinámica recursiva, crean el sistema que es la comunidad. Esta ‘clausura operacional’ (a menudo codificada por los lugareños en términos de ‘la defensa de nuestra cultura’) se mantiene a lo largo de la relación de la comunidad con su entorno (el contexto sociopolítico y ecológico, en términos generales). En esta forma de relacionamiento siempre en marcha (acoplamiento estructural), las comunidades pueden sufrir cambios estructurales de distintos tipos (e.g., mediante la adopción de las TIC); sin embargo, el sistema básico de relaciones tiene que ser mantenido por la comunidad para preservar su autopoiesis, es decir, su capacidad de autocreación. La autonomía es el nombre dado a este proceso
    5. ‘caminar la palabra’, un concepto desarrollado por la minga social y comunitaria de los nasa para señalar la necesidad de hacerse visible, denunciar y tejer conocimientos, resistencias y estrategias de manera colectiva con otros movimientos. Las alianzas requieren la creación de inter-conocimiento y traducción entre movimientos y mundos para permitir la inteligibilidad y una medida de coordinación (
    6. ¿Es posible pensar en configuraciones no totalizantes que no se comporten como sistemas convencionales pero que, sin embargo, actúen como un todo? Dicho de otra manera, el pensamiento de sistemas se basa en la idea de que el todo surge de la interacción de las partes. Durante las últimas tres décadas las teorías de emergencia y auto-organización han puesto de relieve el hecho de que estos procesos dan lugar a sistemas complejos que no son fijos ni estáticos sino abiertos y adaptables y, a menudo, existen dentro de condiciones de inestabilidad y lejos del equilibrio

      O en equilibrio dinámico.

    7. Para los posestructuralistas puede ser cuestionable el uso de este concepto que, como la estructura, la identidad o la esencia, ha sido fuertemente criticado y deconstruido por sus conexiones con la organicidad, la totalización y el comportamiento a la manera de una ley, sin siquiera mencionar las aplicaciones militares-industriales posibilitadas por el análisis de sistemas. Esta crítica es importante; sin embargo, es otro ejemplo de la manera como el posestructuralismo deconstruye demasiado y no reconstruye lo suficiente. Las nociones de redes y entramados (assemblages) han sido, por supuesto, importantes agendas reconstructivas (e.g., Latour 2007; de Landa 2006) pero es justo decir que la cuestión de las totalidades (wholes), la forma y la coherencia sigue sin resolverse en la teoría social. La teoría de la complejidad ofrece pistas útiles en este sentido. Como Mark Taylor (2001) señalara al discutir estos conceptos “después de considerar la lógica de las redes debe quedar claro que los sistemas y las estructuras —sean biológicas, sociales o culturales— son más diversas y complejas que lo que los críticos deconstructivos piensan. Los sistemas de auto-organización emergentes actúan como un todo pero no totalizan [...] En vez de reprimir las diferencias [como temen los deconstructivistas] la actividad global [i.e., sistémica] aumenta la diversidad de la que dependen la creatividad y la vida productiva” (
    8. La generación de condiciones favorables para proyectos de vida colectivos exige la creación de entornos favorables mediante la “infraestructuración” apropiada. Las infraestructuras habilitantes —el resultado del co-diseño— tienen la intención de contrarrestar las infraestructuras desfuturizantes que están en la base de la mayoría de las actividades modernas —su subversión desde el interior (e.g., a través del reequipamiento, entendido en sentido amplio) o desde el exterior (nuevos diseños)—. Hacer el co-diseño posible y probable requiere que se establezca una multiplicidad de elementos, desde la investigación, la experimentación y la creación de prototipos hasta plataformas, redes locales y herramientas orientadas

      a la comunidad. Un aspecto interesante del marco es la idea de que las capacidades del diseño difuso también pueden ser acrecentadas a través de estas herramientas y prácticas y que esto podría ser un paso importante para hacer que el co-diseño sea eficaz. Las soluciones habilitantes surgirán de acuerdo con la fuerza de las herramientas y las metodologías de co-diseño. «Las soluciones habilitantes son sistemas de producto-servicio que proporcionan los instrumentos cognitivos, técnicos y organizativos que aumentan las capacidades de las personas para lograr un resultado que valoran» (Manzini 2015: 167-168). Se originan en una pregunta aparentemente sencilla: ¿cómo podemos alcanzar la vida que queremos vivir?

      La idea de infraestructuras habilitantes está vinculada fuertemente con la indagación de mi investigación. La primera personas de esta pregunta y de la mía indica la intensión de que estas infraestructuras habiliten a sus creadores/usuarios en lugar de a quiénes las disponen para ser usadas, pero que apropian su plusvalía.

      Todas las infraestructuras habilitan. La pregunta es a quién. Acá también hay un vínculo de pasar de las acciones a las infraestructuras, como diría Antonio LaFuente y como venimos haciendo permanentemente desde comunidades hacker.

    9. . El diseño mismo se convierte en un proyecto en transición y se une a otros proyectos teórico-políticos que buscan enriquecer nuestro entendimiento de la vida y de lo humano.
    10. Este espacio ya está siendo poblado por muchas diminutas islas de transición en las que la insostenibilidad y la desfuturización son mantenidas a raya. Pero todavía hay un largo camino por recorrer hasta que tales islas den lugar a los nuevos continentes donde la vida puede volver a florecer.

      De las islas a los archipiélagos, a los continentes.

    11. Una de las piedras angulares del enfoque es construir la resiliencia de la comunidad como “un proyecto de diseño colectivo” (Hopkins 2011: 45). Uno de los principales aportesde la iniciativa es repensar la resiliencia a través de prácticas de localización.
    12. Esta metafísica es sustituida por una ontología en la que los humanos no ‘descubren’ el mundo sino que lo constituyen, ya sea a través de la enacción (Varela), el lenguaje (Winograd y Flores), las mallas y tejidos (Ingold) o la ineluctable proyección y articulación con las cosas (e.g., Fry, Willis, Tonkinwise). Las diversas lecturas representan diversos intentos por desarrollar enfoques no dualistas del conocimiento, la cognición y el diseño. De esta manera también van más allá de la crítica hacia formulaciones alternativas.
    13. implica una concepción expandida del ser y podría fomentar un tipo de pensamiento de diseño y la creación de prototipos que encarnen lo nuevo que está emergiendo o quiere emerger. Este tipo de presenciación, como argumentan los autores, es propicio para un espacio de transición donde nuevos tipos de ‘practicantes de primera línea’, que operen desde posibilidades de futuro genuinas, aprovechen las configuraciones socio-naturales emergentes y donde la gente pueda crear nuevas conexiones comunales. Dichos profesionales de primera línea se darían cuenta de que «el verdadero poder surge de reconocer los patrones que se están formando y de ubicarse en ellos» (Scharmer 2009: 32). Abordarían, sin ambigüedad, el juicio de Varela de que la ciencia moderna no entiende la experiencia —ahondando en la experiencia (de forma no dualista) como una verdadera fuente para el diseño—. Su marco comprende una serie de etapas (desde descargar, ver y sentir lo nuevo hasta la presenciación, la cristalización, producción de prototipos y ejecución) que implican ‘dejar ir’, ‘dejar llegar’, enactuar y encarnar lo emergente. Estos cambios tienen lugar dentro de un espacio social de creación (presenciación) y destrucción (‘ausenciación’) colectivas que requiere una transformación personal significativa hacia modos de ser más relacionales.
    14. La pregunta fundamental del diseño ontológico —“¿Cómo nuestras herramientas son parte del trasfondo en el que podemos preguntarnos qué es ser humano?” (Winograd y Flores 1986: 163)— se vuelve más complicada; debe ampliarse, al menos, considerando cómo cambia el entendimiento que tienen los diseñadores sobre lo ‘humano’ y sobre los ‘mundos’ cuando aparecen muchos tipos de no humanos y los entramados heterogéneos de vida que los no humanos contribuyen a traer a la existencia.
    15. Las rupturas son momentos en los que se interrumpe el modo habitual de ser-en-el-mundo; cuando ocurre una descomposición de este tipo nuestras prácticas consuetudinarias y el papel de nuestras herramientas en su mantenimiento quedan expuestas y aparecen nuevas soluciones de diseño;

      [...] avanzan hacia una perspectiva de interacciones sociales modeladas y contextualizadas —es decir, una perspectiva que destaca nuestra participación activa en ámbitos de interés común

      Al proponer nuevas metáforas y artefactos (cfg: [artículo][gf-primer-articulo]) se instauran estas rupturas metodológicas.

      [gf-primer-articulo]: http://mutabit.com/repos.fossil/grafoscopio/doc/tip/Docs/Es/Articulos/Libertadores/bootstrapping-objeto-investigacion.pdf

    16. Como digo en broma, parafraseando, ‘denme una maloca y levantaré un mundo relacional’ (incluyendo las interrelaciones profundas entre los humanos y los no humanos); al contrario, denme una casa en los suburbios y levantaré un mundo de individuos descomunalizados, separados del mundo natural. Por eso el diseño genera, inevitablemente, las estructuras de posibilidad humanas (y de otros seres de la Tierra). El problema con el diseño moderno, sin embargo, es que ha estructurado la insostenibilidad como la forma dominante de ser
    17. ¿Por qué el diseño podría considerarse «ontológico»? La respuesta inicial a esta pregunta es sencilla: «encontramos la cuestión profunda del diseño cuando reconocemos que al diseñar herramientas estamos diseñando formas de ser» (Winograd y Flores 1986: xi). Si entendemos por diseño «la interacción entre el entendimiento y la creación» (Winograd y Flores 1986: 4), podemos decir que es ontológico porque es una conversación sobre posibilidades. Una forma más para llegar a la dimensión ontológica del diseño es abordando «la pregunta más amplia de cómo una sociedad engendra invenciones cuya existencia altera dicha sociedad» (Winograd y Flores 1986: 4-5). Las tecnologías digitales (como la imprenta, el automóvil o la televisión en el pasado) son, por supuesto, casos dramáticos de innovaciones radicales que abrieron ámbitos de posibilidades sin precedentes; transformaron todo un conjunto de prácticas cotidianas. Cada herramienta y tecnología es ontológica en el sentido de que, por muy humilde o insignificante que sea, inaugura una serie de rituales, formas de hacer y modos de ser (Escobar 1994). Las tecnologías son lo que Haraway llamó «actores materiales-semióticos” (1991) que contribuyen a dar forma a lo que es ser humano.Un segundo sentido en el que el diseño es ontológico, ya insinuado por Winograd y Flores, es que al diseñar herramientas los humanos diseñamos las condiciones de nuestra existencia y, a su vez, las condiciones de nuestro diseño. Diseñamos herramientas y estas herramientas nos diseñan. ‘El diseño diseña’ es la fórmula apta y corta dada a esta circularidad por Anne-Marie Willis:

      «hemos diseñado nuestro mundo y el mundo replica diseñándonos»

      Esta podría ser la cita para introducir toda la tesis.

      La pregunta mía es más puntual, pero igualmente cercana: ¿Cómo cambiamos los artefactos digitales que nos cambian?

    18. Un principio general que me parece útil es que una ontología relacional es aquella dentro de la cual nada preexiste a las relaciones que la constituyen. En estas ontologías la vida es interrelación e interdependencia de principio a fin, siempre y en todo momento. El budismo tiene una de las nociones más sucintas y poderosas en este sentido: nada existe por sí mismo, todo interexiste; intersomos e interexistimos con todo en el planeta. Este principio de ‘interser’ ha sido ampliamente desarrollado en el pensamiento budista,23 pero, como he insistido, también caracteriza de facto muchas tradiciones culturales históricas. Una forma diferente de ver este asunto, desde la perspectiva de la biología fenomenológica, es la noción de la “coincidencia ininterrumpida de nuestro ser, nuestro hacer y nuestro conocer” (Maturana y Varela 1987: 35) que ya mencioné; en otras palabras, existe una profunda conexión entre la acción y la experiencia que, a su vez, infunde cierta circularidad en todo conocimiento y que Maturana y Varela resumen con la máxima “Todo lo que se hace es conocimiento y todo lo que se conoce es hacer [o diciendo que] cada acto de conocimiento origina un mundo” (1987: 26). Esta coincidencia de ser/hacer/conocer implica que estamos profundamente inmersos en el mundo junto con otros seres sensibles que son, igual e ineluctablemente, conocedores-hacedores como nosotros.

      Habría una pregunta aún sobre conocimientos móviles y conocimientos fijos y la convergencia hacia ellos en culturas distintas. Por ejemplo, la existencia y descubrimiento en paralelo del cero, por parte de aztecas y árabes.

  11. Jan 2018
    1. Es importante destacar que ninguno de los autores que estoy revisando está llamando a un rechazo total de la racionalidad cartesiana ni de la razón centrada en el sujeto, tan discutidas por los filósofos intramodernos de la modernidad (e.g., Habermas 1987); más bien, piden el debilitamiento de su posición dominante y el desplazamiento de su centralidad en el diseño del mundo y nuestras vidas. Est

      [...] la práctica de la transformación realmente tiene lugar en el proceso de enactuar otros mundos/prácticas —es decir, en un cambio radical de las formas como encontramos cosas y personas (e.g., Spinosa et al. 1997)—, no sólo en teorizarlos. Además, en estas críticas encontramos pistas hacia este camino, ya sea que la práctica renovada sea budista, ecológica, política, decolonial o desde un enfoque reimaginado del diseño.

      Seguramente los detractores encontrarán que no ocupar el centro es casi una forma de negación. Este trozo aclara que de eso no que se trata.

      Por otro lado, las materialidades nuevas, pero cercanas a lo logocéntrico, pueden facilitar la transición hacia la repolitización y lo enactivo como formas de reflexión. Ver: https://hyp.is/mpjAWgXgEeitIDstH5w0ew/maestriadesarrollo.com/sites/default/files/publicaciones/autonomia-y-diseno-arturo-escobar-ok.pdf

    2. A pesar de sus esfuerzos, ¿continúan las tendencias recientes sosteniendo, de alguna manera, un entendimiento intramoderno (fundamentalmente euroamericano) del mundo, como los teóricos decoloniales podrían argumentar? ¿Siguen estas tendencias críticas funcionando dentro de una episteme renovada pero todavía principalmente Occidental/moderna?
    3. El primer punto es que el problema no es que los dualismos existan; después de todo muchas sociedades se han estructurado en torno a las dualidades, aunque en la mayoría de los casos estas dualidades son tratadas en términos de complementariedad de pares no jerárquicos (e.g., la dualidad yin/yang). El problema es la forma como son tratadas esas divisiones culturalmente, en particular las jerarquías establecidas entre los pares de cada binario y las consecuencias sociales, ecológicas y políticas de esas jerarquías. En el argot de la perspectiva decolonial latinoamericana esta característica se conoce como ‘colonialidad’ y es considerada central para el sistema mundo moderno/colonial que nació con la conquista de América y que erigió al mundo europeo en la cúspide de la civilización. Una característica central de esta colonialidad del poder es la clasificación jerárquica de las diferencias, lo cual conduce a la supresión, devaluación, subordinación o, incluso, destrucción de formas de conocimiento y ser que no se ajustan a los dictados de la forma dominante de la modernidad de origen europeo. En términos de género, la colonialidad cimentó la separación entre lo humano/civilizado (el mundo europeo), clasificado también en términos de género, y lo no-humano/no-civilizado (los mundos no-modernos de los pueblos racializados), los cuales solo podían ser descritos en términos de sexo biológico.
    4. La pregunta que tendremos que hacernos de forma cada vez más refinada es si podemos imaginar y crear formas alternativas de ser, hacer, y conocer sin perder la capacidad de entender y maniobrar hábilmente en los meandros de la constelación moderna de ciencia, real, individuo, y economía. Se necesitaría una transformación ontológica relativamente profunda de nuestra parte para alcanzar esta meta.

      El hacktivismo puede ser una manera de explorar dicha maniobrabilidad desde lo relacional, pues a pesar de estar basado en premisas de ciencia y técnica racionalista, no renuncia a su caracter relacional, crítico, ni político.

    5. Algunas de estas tendencias, además de mostrar cómo la hegemonía del conocimiento moderno trabaja para invisibilizar otros saberes y formas de ser o para convertirlos en alternativas no creíbles a lo que existe (Santos 2007), ponen de relieve los vínculos entre las prácticas hegemónicas de la ciencia y la violencia y la opresión en contextos no occidentales.
    6. ¿qué haría falta para que los diseñadores operaran sin una visión puramente objetivista y única de lo real?; ¿para que abrazaran la idea de que las prácticas del diseño también pueden contribuir a crear múltiples sentidos de ‘lo que existe’?; ¿para que tomaran en serio la idea de que la realidad es un flujo constante y continuo de formas e intensidades de todo tipo? V
    7. Sólo tenemos el mundo que generamos con otros y sólo el amor nos ayuda a generarlo» (1987: 248).3 La noción budista de ‘co-surgimiento dependiente’, el concepto de ‘emergencia’ de la teoría de la complejidad y otras nociones afines concuerdan con esta opinión. Estos son principios de relacionalidad.

      cfg: Amor en la obra de Maturana y Varela.

    8. Tal vez el mejor punto de partida para mi propósito es la máxima de que enfrentamos problemas modernos para los cuales ya no hay soluciones modernas. Hablando ontológicamente uno puede decir que la crisis es la crisis de un mundo particular, o conjunto de prácticas de hacer mundo, que podemos llamar la forma dominante de la euro-modernidad (capitalista, racionalista, liberal, secular, patriarcal, blanca, o lo que sea) o, como ya he mencionado, el mundo de un solo mundo —el mundo que se ha arrogado para sí el derecho a ser ‘el’ mundo, sometiendo a todos los otros mundos a sus propios términos o, peor aún, a la no existencia. Si la crisis es causada, fundamentalmente, por esta ontología de un solo mundo se deduce que enfrentar la crisis implica transiciones hacia el pluriverso. Esto es, precisamente, lo que subraya otra de las principales premisas de las epistemologías del sur al afirmar que la diversidad del mundo es infinita; de manera sucinta, el mundo se compone de múltiples mundos, múltiples ontologías o ‘reales’ que están lejos de haber sido agotados por la experiencia eurocéntrica o de haber sido reducidos a sus términos.
    9. el espacio vital que asegura la pervivencia como pueblo, como cultura en convivencia con la naturaleza y los espíritus. El territorio es nuestro verdadero libro histórico que mantiene viva la tradición de quienes habitamos en él. Representa y describe los principios y prácticas de nuestra cultura. Implica la posesión, control y dominio del espacio físico y espiritual. Como espacio colectivo de existencia, posibilita la convivencia armónica entre los pueblos. Fundamenta la cosmovisión indígena como razón de nuestra pervivencia”.

      De ahí la importancia de los hackerspaces como territorio: lugar de memoria y convivencia.

    10. El diseño ha tenido una existencia cómoda y celebrada dentro de lo que usualmente llamamos, de una forma despreocupada, la ‘era moderna’. Esta era, sin embargo, es una compleja constelación de procesos que co-evolucionan, incluyendo una episteme particular, un conjunto de formas sociales (entre las que el capitalismo y la colonialidad ocupan un lugar preponderante) y una arquitectura ontológica estructurada en torno a los dualismos fundadores de naturaleza/cultura y Occidente/no-Occidente. Esta formación onto-epistémica y social está en la base del diseño. Liberar al ‘hombre diseñador’ de este complejo de fuerzas para que pueda volver a jugar un papel más constructivo en la praxis del estar vivo, está íntimamente ligado con la desaparición del Hombre como centro de todo conocimiento y como medida de la vida.
    11. Pero la pregunta de la relación entre el diseño y la creación de órdenes sociales profundamente desiguales, insensibles y destructivos parece seguir siendo el ‘problema perverso’ del diseño.
    12. Muchas personas consideran que la teoría de sistemas vivos es la base del diseño para la conservación, regeneración y cuidado de los sistemas naturales; estos objetivos involucran ‘sembrar’ todos los sistemas socionaturales con diversidad y crear resiliencia a través de redes inteligentes, aprovechando el potencial de autoorganización de los sistemas naturales y sociales. Algunos teóricos de la ecología van en contra de la dominancia del diseño experto y claman por [...] un proceso profundamente participativo en el que los lenguajes y las barreras técnico/disciplinarias se transformen hacia una comprensión compartida del problema del diseño. El diseño ecológico cambia las viejas reglas sobre qué importa al conocimiento y quién cuenta como conocedor. Sugiere que la sostenibilidad es un proceso cultural más que experto y que todos debemos adquirir una competencia básica en la formación de nuestro mundo [...] Durante demasiado tiempo hemos esperado que las profesiones del diseño transformen un mundo considerado como inerte de tal forma que funcione. La alternativa es tratar de catalizar, suavemente, las potencialidades de auto-diseño de la naturaleza (van der Ryn y Cowan 2007: 147, 130).

      [...] El enfoque de diseño ontológico de Ehrenfeld (2008: 21) lo lleva a concluir que la sostenibilidad puede ser posible a través del diseño, pero para que esto ocurra debe tener lugar una “convulsión cultural”. Podemos colocar esta declaración en la misma clase que las convocatorias a las transiciones civilizadoras que discutiré en el Capítulo 4. Para muchos movimientos sociales étnico-territoriales la sostenibilidad involucra la defensa de toda una forma de vida, un modo de ser-saber-hacer. Estas son algunas de las contribuciones más importantes a la red de conversaciones recurrentes que componen la crisis ecológica y los intentos por corregirla

      Quizás las primeras prácticas para ese diseño que se inspira en lo local y lo vivo pasen por dinámicas que potencien individuos y pequeñas comunidades, como el proyecto de trabajo en abierto que surgió del reciente encuentro con bibliotecas públicas.

    13. Este libro busca ser un aporte a la cultura crítica del diseño en momentos en que los diseñadores están redescubriendo las capacidades de la gente para dar forma a sus mundos a través de herramientas y soluciones colaborativas. Es, sin embargo, una contribución desde América Latina a la conversación transnacional sobre diseño, es decir, una contribución que se deriva de las experiencias y luchas epistémicas y políticas contemporáneas en América Latina.
    14. La inspiración para esta propuesta viene de la idea de que la autonomía es la característica más fundamental de lo vivo; en la jerga de Maturana y Varela, que explico en los capítulos 3 y 6, la autonomía es la clave de la autopoiesis o auto-creación de los sistemas vivos. Esta idea servirá de ancla parcial para proponer una práctica particular y una forma de pensar sobre la relación entre el diseño, la política y la vida, que llamaré ‘diseño autónomo’.
    15. El diseño ontológico surge de una observación aparentemente simple: que al diseñar herramientas (objetos, estructuras, políticas, sistemas expertos, discursos, incluso narrativas) estamos creando formas de ser. Una idea clave en este sentido es lo que Anne Marie Willis ha llamado “el doble movimiento de diseño ontológico” (2006), a saber, la toma de conciencia de que diseñamos nuestro mundo y que, al hacerlo, nuestro mundo nos diseña —en pocas palabras, que el diseño diseña—

      Este texto está relacionado con la pregunta central de mi tesis, cómo cambiamos los artefactos que nos cambian, dualidad de la modificación recíproca entre comunidades y artefactos, es decir, que el diseño diseña.

      El marco teórico también se aproxima, desde la crítica a Jonas a la dualidad estructura agencia y la posibilidad humana de cambiar los artefactos e instituciones que nos humanizan de maneras particular, es decir de elegir otras formas de ser humano en y con el mundo.

    16. mi principal preocupación es con la diferencia y cómo es invisibilizada, rearticulada en discursos que no le son propios, o normalizada. Este ha sido el ‘problema central’ que ha resonado en toda mi vida intelectual, en gran parte, de manera intuitiva. También tiene que ver con ‘vivir sin miedo con y dentro de la diferencia’, como señalan las feministas del Sur Global con frecuencia (e.g., Trinh 1989; Milczarek-Desai 2002; Lugones 2010a), es decir, con la práctica ética y política de la alteridad, que implica una profunda preocupación por la justicia social, la igualdad radical de todos los mundos y seres y la no jerarquía entre ellos.
    1. . First, as has been underlined above, one needs to take into account both actors’ inward oriented and outward oriented communicative practices. In addition, it is understood that media representation today goes far beyond coverage by mainstream media as it relies on actors’ multi-layered media ensemble. Second, instead of arguing for a straightforward causal correlation between ‘media attention’ and social standing, this research reveals a more eclectic process: a spiral of legitimation that is based on the relation between the organization’s internal communicative figuration and the communicative figuration related to the public discourse around the political qualities of contemporary media technologies and infrastructures

      En el caso de HackBo, la comunicación "hacia adentro" ocurre principalmente en la forma de mensajería instantánea (Telegram) y la lista de correo comunitaria. Sin embargo la comunicación es ocasional y referida principalmente a asuntos operativos (pagar los servicios a arriendos) con uno que otro logro por parte de los miembros del espacio en sus logros individuales o dentro de pequeños grupos y no como todo un equipo. Se ha combinado un poco esas dos formas de comunicación, mencionando actividades del mes y recordando el pago de servicio.

      Otras iniciativas (DataSur, GIG) han intentando un boletín mensual de actividades, que sin embargo ha fallado y el uso de Discurse por parte de OKFN empezó con mucha actividad pero ha decaído. El foro de Manjaro (también basado en Discurse) logra una comunicación más fluida y ritmos comunitarios más visibles.

      Una labor de bootstrapping más adecuada podría ocurrir desde indicadores del pulso comunitario, basados en visualizaciones de datos sobre repositorios de código y bots que medien comunicaciones comunitarias. Tal vez unas gráficas que resuman y detonen ciertas actividades. Esto podría pasar en varias comunidades. Acá los chatbots serían importantes y ocurrirían en paralelo, pero debería iniciarse por estadísticas de las actividades que ya ocurren en la comunidad. Para el caso del Data Week podrían ser cosas como:

      • Más de 300 horas de aprendizaje y más de 70 personas formadas.
      • 40 personas en la de correo.
      • 21 personas en el canal de mensajería.
      • 3 Libros abiertos y reproducibles (con más de 400 páginas) (Manual de Grafoscopio, Manual de Periodismo de Datos, Pasos para una Biblioteca Digital de Bogotá).
      • Entradas al blog:
      • Artículos externos:
      • Trinos:
    2. The Club’s media ensemble and interactions with rel-evant actors perpetuate each other and co-determine the Club’s abil-ity to politicize media technologies and infrastructures. The dynamic at hand that best describes this process will be referred to as a spiral of legitimation.According to Mark Suchman, legitimacy is practically the basis of poli-tics as it addresses the forces ‘that constrain, construct, and empower organizational actors

      Acá también se ve una espiral de legitimación relativamente débil. La sociedad civil ocupa lugares relativamente invisibles en el contexto colombiano y los activistas no han logrado mayor visibilidad y legitimación respecto a instancias donde se ejerce el poder, a pesar de su continua resistencia a maneras de dicho ejercicio unilaterales y arbitrarias.

  12. Dec 2017
    1. Right from the start the Club had close affiliations with the then newly founded alternative tageszeitung (‘daily newspaper’), commonly referred to as taz, one of the Club’s co-founders (Wau Holland) being a column-ist during the mid-1980s. In addition, the hacker organization has pub-lished its own Datenschleuder magazine since 1984 (still ongoing) and was very active in enlarging bulletin boards systems (BBS) in Germany throughout the 1980s. Consequently, the Club’s media ensemble relied on practices related to analogue and digital media and comprised both coverage by and access to news outlets

      Acá de nuevo el acceso a medios ha sido desde los individuos y no desde los espacios colectivos y/o las filiaciones a los mismos. En parte es por el solipsismo de los medios en Colombia y por extremismos en la configuración política de las infraestructuras para los mismos. En mi caso, por ejemplo, no veo por qué publicar en el portal de otros, cuando se puede publicar en el de uno y federar en los medios ajenos. Acotres individuales más flexibles respecto a las infraestructuras y obrando a nombre propio, se han posicionado mejor.

      La idea reciente sobre una editorial de código abierto, podría cambiar esto, ofreciendo voces individuales asociadas a colectivos, al mismo tiempo que mantiene el caracter político de la infraestructura. La implementación de dicho proyecto sin embargo está limitada en recursos temporales y económicos.

    2. Richard Ericson and his colleagues (1989) make a useful distinc-tion between media access and media coverage. By access, they mean the news space, time and context to reasonably represent one’s own perspec-tive, whereas coverage entails news space and time but not necessarily the context for favourable representations (Ericson etal. 1989: 5). This distinction is vital because it demonstrates that media access—as with access to all kinds of resources at institutional levels—remains a politi-cal question (Freedman 2014). While media coverage simply denotes the amount and prominence of attention and visibility a group receives, media access indicates that an actor has a particular standing and is treated as an actor with a serious voice in the media

      Nosotros tenemos acceso a los medios, pero no cubrimiento.

    3. a lower number of partici-pating members also meant a lower number of differing opinions; which, in turn, enabled the group to keep the frames of relevance more focused and to make decisions in a timely manner. Accordingly, performing direct digital action in the form of hacking was directly related to com-municative practices, as they later played an important role in relation to organizing, coordinating and executing the Club’s political project

      [...] This communicative figuration within the hacker organization formed the Club’s basis for executing well-orchestrated hacks, emphasizing that for the hacker organization media technologies and infrastructures are not simply instruments for acting politically but are political matters in themselves

      El tamaño pequeño de la comunidad y la recurrencia de algunos de sus miembros en los eventos tipo Data Week y Data Rodas nos ha dado una agilidad de acción/reacción similar, así como la madurez progresiva de las infraestructuras, lo cual se refleja en los cortos tiempos en los que asumimos proyectos relativamente más complejos, como el Manual de Periodismo de Datos y la hackatón de Biblioteca Digital de Bogotá, usando saberes, prácticas e infraestructuras desarrolladas en nuestros encuentros previos cara a cara y cristalizados progresivamente en las infraestructuras.

      La siguiente fase estará relacionada con diversificar los caminos recorridos por los asistentes a los encuentros para cristalizar sus saberes y aportar desde los mismos, con un currículo que incluya más prontamente los espectros de licenciamiento y uso de repositorios y documentación, además de los habituales temas de visualización de datos.

      A pesar del incremente de la agilidad, hay un desafío permanente respecto a la visibilidad y alcance de estas iniciativas.

    4. In other words, with the increasing relevance of practices related to media technologies and infra-structures for social arrangements in general, and for political engage-ments in particular, media technologies and infrastructures increasingly become sites of political struggle in their own right (Kubitschko 2017). It is in this context that scholarly interest in ‘hacker cultures’—owing to the diversity of hacker collectives the plural is essential—has grown considerably in the past decade. While governmental institutions and mainstream media often use ‘hacking’ as an umbrella term for com-puter-related crime, these depictions are contrasted with insightful research that highlights hackers’ interaction with contemporary political landscapes.

      Las infraestructuras constituyen territorios políticos.

    1. Prescreening can also involve collecting data to identify and eliminate participants.

      It might be important to expand on this idea by describing how it is still important to consider that the experimenter still has a representative random sample for their study after prescreening

  13. Nov 2017
    1. Makingrightsclaimsinorbysayinganddoing‘I,we,theyhavearightto’isnotfoundedinisolationorasifitsprangfromnowhere:citizensubjectsareoftenordinaryratherthanheroicsubjectswhohavestruggledtoarticulate,claim,andmaketheserightsthroughmultipleandoverlappinglegalorders.Thedisappearanceorabsenceofthefigureofacitizenthatwehaveinheritedandwhocanmakeclaimsto‘I,we,theyhavearightto’isnotsimplyapoliticsoftradition:itisalsoapoliticsofacitizentocome.
    2. Rather,andthisisDerrida’sintervention,theactbringsthepeople,itspoliticalsubject,intobeingthroughtheact.Thepeopleadeclarationnamesdonotexist.Derridawrites,‘[People]donotexistasanentity,itdoesnotexist,beforethisdeclaration,notassuch.Ifitgivesbirthtoitself,asfreeandindependentsubject,aspossiblesigner,thiscanholdonlyintheactofthesignature.Thesignatureinventsthesigner.’

      [...] By bringing into play a chain of events, delegation, representation, naming, signature, and citations, a declaration enacts a signature that restores, by right, to political subjects their subjectivity.

      En este sentido, son Grafoscopio y el Data Week, quienes convocan a la comunidad alrededor de ellos mismos.

    3. Weareconcernedthatthedividebetweentheenactmentandinscriptionofdigitalrightsremainsdangerouslyopen.Thosewhoseattempttoinscriberightsinlawworkwiththeassumptionthattheirenactmentwillfollowtheirinscription.Thosewhoseactsenactdigitalrightsworkwiththeconvictionthattheirinscriptionwillfollowtheirenactment.WithRancière,wecansaythattheirinscriptionisapreludetotheirenactmentwhiletheirenactmentinspirestheirinscription.Thosewhoaremakingdigitalrightsclaimsinsayingsomething(inscription)areonaseparatebutnecessarilyrelatedpathfromthosewhoaremakingdigitalrightsclaimsbysayingsomething(enactment).Letusconsidermorecloselymakingrightsclaimsinsayingsomethingandbysayingsomething.

      Enlazar con esto.

    4. Thissensibilityisalsoakeytounderstandinghowthesedeclarationsarecumulativelybringingapoliticalsubject,asyetunnamed,intobeing.

      Las declaraciones podrían a dialogar las fuerzas imaginarias, legales y performativas. Presuponen un principio en el cual el "ser es enunciado", en lugar de habitado o vivido, y habría que limitarlas en ese sentido, sin desconocer que parte de lo habitado y/o vivido, que puede ser enunciado, nos hermana en la condición humana y que otras cosas nos hermanan cuando las habitamos o vivimos juntos, así no las podamos enunciar.

    5. Rancièrecallsbringingthesetwoaspectsofrightstogetherasdissensus.Itisdissensusratherthanconsensusbecausepoliticsisalwaysacontestationoverwhoiscountedandwhatcounts.ForRancière,apoliticalsubjectinvolvesthecapacityforstagingsuchscenesofdissensus.Thus,‘politicalsubjectsarenotdefinitecollectivities.Theyaresurplusnames,namesthatsetoutaquestionoradisputeaboutwhoisincludedintheircount.’

      Conceiving the enactment of rights as dissensus is more powerful than understanding dissent as civil disobedience. For all its illustrative history, civil disobedience still evokes a reactionary politics, whereas dissensus is creative and affirmative. Although significant as a specific act, civil disobedience is rather too narrow to understand political acts in general. Staging dissensus brings into play the imaginary, performative, and legality of rights all at once and constitutes subjects as citizen subjects of power. Julian Assange, Edward Snowden, Anonymous, Aaron Swartz, and Open Rights are not only definite individuals or collectives of civil disobedience but stand for a political subjectivity enacting rights as the staging of dissensus. This is what we gather from their acts. When they enact rights that they do not have and the rights that they should have, they bring into being political subjects who cannot be known in advance. Their acts are contestations over who is counted as political and what counts as politics. To put it slightly differently, the performative and imaginary force of rights lies in the double movement between their inscription and enactment.

      Acá estaría el derecho a scrappear como una forma de reapropiación de los bienes comunes y de repolitización de lo publico.

    6. Itisalsotemptingtointerpretthem

      It is also tempting to interpret them as hacktivists. But when we interpret their digital acts through the Internet, they embody all the characteristics of citizen subjects: they enact citizenship as subjects of power with responsibility in ways that are instantly recognizable and yet cannot be bounded by their identity as military or security personnel. If the performative force of their code is louder than their words, the imaginary force of their words is not so weak, either.

    7. Wewanttoreadtheemergenceandtransformationsofthedigitalrightsmovementfromtheperspectiveofdigitalactsasoneofthenecessaryelementsformakingdigitalrightsclaims.Whethertheseactscumulativelyconstituteadigitalrightsmovementcomparabletoothersocialmovementswillconcernscholarsintheforeseeablefuture,andwecannotaddressthatquestionhere.Instead,wewanttogatherfromdisparateanddisperseddigitalactstherecognitionofadimlyemergingfigureasthesubjectofdigitalrights.Itistheemergenceofthisspecificpoliticalsubjectivityarounddigitalrightsandtheclaimsthroughwhichithasemerged—andtheopeningsandclosingsithasinstigated—thatformsthecentralquestionofthisbook.
    8. Twodecadeslater,CAE’sviewon‘electroniccivildisobedience’seemsbothprescientandnaïve

      It seems prescient in face of the emergence and transformation of hacktivist groups such as Anonymous, Demand Progress, and WikiLeaks, which have developed new political subjectivities. Also, it can hardly be said that such hacking remains the domain of ‘teenagers’, let alone American teenagers.[14] CAE’s idea that a technocratic avant-garde may emerge as a political subject has also been borne out in some ways. Their idea of small cells of subjects of politics can also be said to anticipate the emergence of hacktivist groups,[15] composed of ‘activist, theorist, artist, hacker, and even a lawyer . . . knowledge and practice should mix’. Yet it seems naïve at the same time for its rigid turn away from streets and squares as sites of dissent. Time and again, contemporary events have shown us the importance of streets and squares for enacting dissent, and even simply mentioning Tahrir Square, Taksim Square, Maidan Square, Occupy Wall Street, or Puerta del Sol immediately emphasizes this point without belabouring it. Moreover, as we have argued throughout this book, to imagine cyberspace as separate and independent from an ostensible physical space is both empirically questionable and theoretically indefensible.

    9. Whoisthesubjectofthesedigitalrights?Sinceweareinterestedintheprocessesthroughwhichtheserightsareenactedratherthantheirsubstance,ourquestionof‘who’concernsthatofpoliticalsubjectivitythroughtheInternet.[4]Aswehaveexpresseditinvariousways,‘who’doesnotcorrespondtoanalreadyformedpoliticalsubjectbutafigure:Howisapoliticalsubjectbeingconstitutedasaclaimantofdigitalrights?Wehaveillustratedthroughoutthisbookthatdigitalactstraversemultiplenationalbordersandlegalorders.Yetmakingrightsclaimsthattraversebordersisoftenaddressedthroughsovereignregionalornationallegalordersandtheirparticularunderstandingofrights.

      So the question of ‘who’ the subject is of digital rights is both an analytical but also an urgent political question that requires addressing. If we use ‘citizen’ as the subject of these rights, clearly it does not capture how both the enactment of the political subject and of cyberspace cut across national borders and legal orders. Today, the citizen functions as a member of a nation-state, and there are no corresponding rights and obligations beyond the nation-state that can govern subjects whose acts traverse international spaces. [...] What we gather from Rancière and Derrida is the importance of refusing to make a choice between the citizen and the human as the subject of digital rights. Instead, we anticipate a new figure of a citizen yet to come as the subject of digital rights.

    10. Witnessing,hacking,andcommoningarethreedigitalactsthathavebecomepossibleoverthepastfewyearsandhavecreatedopeningsforbeingdigitalcitizensinorbymakingrightsclaims.Theresignificationofexistingortheintroductionofnewconventionsmadetheseactspossible:Bitcoin,copyleft,CreativeCommons,Digg,GitHub,GNN,GNU,WikiLeaks,andmanyothers.Nodoubtsomeoftheseconventionswillbereplacedordisplacedbyothers.Somewillbecomedefunct.Somewillperhapspersistasatestamenttothedigitalcommons.Therewillcertainlybenewconventions.Whatenduresistheperformativeforcethathasgoneintomakingtheseopeningspossible.IfweunderstandcyberspaceasaspaceofrelationsbetweenandamongbodiesactingthroughtheInternet,witnessing,hacking,andcommoningresignifyorinventconventionsandmakepossibletheemergenceofnewwaysofbeingcitizensubjectsincyberspace.

      [...] As we discussed earlier, just as many efforts are being expended on closings as these openings, cajoling and coercing them in various submissive ways and generally blocking possibilities. The digital commons is certainly a new frontier for struggles over commodification.[83] The main challenges to these creative forces emanate from state-security apparatuses and commerciallegal apparatuses. The main challenges to these creative forces emanate from state-security apparatuses and commerciallegal apparatuses. We have covered some of these closings, but here we want to restate the importance of open versus closed conventions of the Internet. Much has been said about Facebook, Flickr, Google, Tumblr, Twitter, and YouTube and their activities for tracking the conduct of people for advertising revenues and collecting big data. Let us emphasize that among one of the most important reasons that both state and corporate apparatuses are able to do this is because these are designed as proprietary and closed conventions. Unlike open conventions such as WordPress or Wikimedia, these conventions require submitting to end-user licences and user contracts that not only severely restrict actions but also appropriate their results as data. There is a massive difference between the digital commons created by open-source code and its increasing zoning, appropriation, sequestration, and enclosure through closed conventions. [...] Let us remember that cyberspace is a fragile if not a precarious space. This makes its protection as an open-source digital commons a political question—a question that those who are making digital rights claims are enacting with increasing effectiveness but also with urgency.

    11. Copyrightderivesitslegalforcefromlawsthatprotectexclusiverightstoandcontrolofintellectualproperty.EvenifitsoriginscanbetracedtoearlymodernEurope(sixteenthtoeighteenthcenturies),itismoderninthesensethattheformationofintellectualproperty—thatis,theconversionofcreativeproductssuchaswords,data,images,andsoundintopropertyforexchange—isaresultoftheaccumulationofcapitalinmodernsocieties.

      This is what Lyotard highlighted as the commodification of knowledge in what he then called computerized societies. The conversion of intellectual or, more broadly, cultural capital into economic capital is possible under the protection of copyright laws. This is the force of copyright law. Since it introduces a tension between creativity and calculability, it is doubtful that copyright law either protects or encourages creativity. Instead, creativity is commodified by copyright. The performative force of copyright is that both the creator and consumer must—knowingly and unknowingly—repeat and iterate it. The force of copyright law would be nothing if it were not performed. That is the reason why maintaining its imaginary force requires enormous energy: copyright mobilizes massive efforts to maintain its legal, performative, and imaginary force. If creativity were not commodified, copyright would not exist. Commodification transforms the use value of things into exchange value for being sold and bought.

    12. Colemanarguesthatbymostlycircumventingcopyrightlawswiththeircommitmenttothefreecirculationofintellectualproperty,hackerscontradicttheexistingliberalconceptionofintellectualpropertyastherighttoexcludeandcontrol.Yetbyadvancingvaluesofcivillibertiesandpromotingindividualautonomyand,aboveall,acommitmenttofreespeech,hackersarethemostardentpromotersofliberalvalues.Thus,forColeman,hackersoccupybothacentralandmarginal—wemightsayaparadoxical—placewithintheliberaltradition.

      [...] Coleman says that hackers ‘tend to value a set of liberal principles: freedom, privacy, and access.’ It is difficult for us to see freedom, privacy, and access as either values or principles, though they express certain values. From our point of view, things such as freedom, privacy, and access are rights, and, like all rights, they are born of social and political struggles, and these struggles both predate and are wider than what liberalism implies. Thus, we wonder whether it is possible to understand hacking cultures in ethical and aesthetic terms without also considering their broader politics. The joy (deep hack mode) that hackers experience in creating a collaborative culture by sharing their skills and talents is wonderful, but understanding the ways in which this joy can be assimilated into obedient, submissive, or subversive ways of being hackers requires a broader perspective.

    13. Forus,probablythemostpertinentdistinctionisbetweenprogrammersandhackers.Inorbysayingsomethingincodeperformsbothillocutionaryandperlocutionaryacts.

      The difference between programmers and hackers is, however, the effects of their acts, which have dramatically changed over time. Programmers are those— either employed by software companies or working independently—who make a living by writing code, which includes anything between snippets (short code) and apps. Hackers may also program code in this fashion, but the culture that gives them the name emanates from a distinct set of ethical and aesthetic values that combine to create a different kind of politics than programming does. This difference is hard to express, but it is also the difference that is of interest to us. It is hard to express perhaps because so much has been said and written about hackers—mostly negative. As a consequence, a unified, typically clandestine, selfish, young, male, and outlaw image has become dominant, which more recent studies have shown is grotesquely simplified. We want to argue that hackers are those whose acts break conventions of programming.

  14. Oct 2017
    1. Asweaffirminchapter2,wethinkthatthecitizensubjectisnottheexclusivepropertyofthenation-state.Onthecontrary,thenation-statemayhavebecomealiabilityforupholdingthesubjectofpowerwehaveinherited.AsAllanwrites,manyoftheissuesthatcitizenjournalismraisesare‘setagainstthebackdropofincidentsaroundtheglobewherethenation-state’sideologicalappropriationofcitizenship—fromoutrightattacksonitslegitimacytothesteadyerosionofitsprotections,typically(andironically)inthenameofnationalsecurity—hasmadejournalismasastruggleover“therighttobearwitness”.’[39]Citizenwitnessingisanongoingandcrucialaspectofdemocraticcitizenship.TheInternet,bycreatingopeningsfordigitalcitizens,hasmadecitizenwitnessinganindispensablepartofapoliticalimaginary.Thisisnotwithoutitsdangersandperils(co-optation,assimilation,infiltration,taming,blocking,filtering,andsoon),butthat’swhatalsomakesitasiteofpoliticalstruggles.

      El Estado Nación no tiene un monopolio sobre la noción de ciudadano (sujeto de derechos y deberes) y por el cotrario, puede estar impidiendo dicha noción. Incluso, si otros no se ven como sujetos o desde la perspectiva de los derechos, esto puede marcar un diálogo sobre los puntos en común que se tienen con ellos, por el simple hecho de que otros hemos heredado dicha noción.

      Recuerdo un capítlo de Mr Robot en el que, Darlene, la hermana de Eliot, alegaba ser un sujeto de derechos y sus interlocutores del FBI le decían que no lo era bajo una nueva ley (Patriot Act?).

    2. TheethicaldimensionbecomesevenclearerwhenAssangesays,‘Thosewhoarerepeatedlypassiveinthefaceofinjusticesoonfindtheircharactercorrodedintoservility.’[33]Toputitinourwords,citizensubjects,preciselybecauseoftheircapacitytojudge,arenotmerelyobedient(orservile)butalsosubversive.Thisisbecausesubmissiontoconventionsrequiresusingjudgementonthetermsofsubmission.Althoughthecitizensubjectsubmitstoconventions,becauseofthiscapacity,thecallofsubversiontoruptureaconventionalwaysretainsitsforce.Assangeclearlyappealsheretoanaspectofjournalisticethics—bearingwitness—butheresignifiesitpoliticallybyidentifyingitasacalltoact.ThedebateoverwhetherWikiLeaksisaplatformforjournalismorwhistle-blowingoverlooksthatitprimarilyenableswitnessing—thattheworldmayknow(differently).Itisoftenarguedthatsuchwhistle-blowingexposesclassifiedsecretsandendangerstheintelligenceworkofthestate.Butwhatwhistle-blowingexposesisthattherearethosewhofinditintolerabletowitnessabusesandmisusesofauthorityandnotsharethem.Ifbankersdeceive,soldiersmassacre,agenciessnoop,anddiplomatslie,citizenshavetherighttoknowthat.Citizenshavearighttoknowwhatstateandcorporateauthoritiesaredoingin,andoftenwith,theirname.WikiLeaksandwhistle-blowingingeneralareessentiallyclaimingthisrighttoknow.

      [...] Their primary orientation is not towards the ethics of a profession but the right to witness and share acts of injustice

      Vincular lo ético a lo político a través de la plataforma. Queda la pregunta aún de si hay alguna agenda oculta en el proceso curatorial de Wikileaks. Aplica el derecho a saber también a ellos en la medida en que son agentes de extremo poder?

      Un ejemplo de atestiguar y compartir frente a la injusticia reciente: https://twitter.com/angelamrobledo/status/923306719891066885

    3. ‘takethecurrenttechnologicallandscapeasgiven.’[75]Instead,shecallsformechanismsthatpreserve‘roomfortheactsoftacticalevasionandsituatedcreativity’thatallowcitizensubjectsto‘tinker,repurpose,andadapt’andpush‘againstthosestructures,sometimesconformingtothemandsometimesfindingwaystoworkaroundthem.’[76]CitingJonathanZittrain,Cohennoteshisprincipleofthe‘generativity’oftechnologies,whichreferstothecapacityofatechnologytoallowitsuserstotinker,revise,andmakenewthingsthatwereneveranticipatedbytheirdesigners
    4. Bynotonlyciting,repeating,anditeratingbutalsoresignifying,citizensubjectscan,andasweshallseeinchapter6indeeddo,breakconventionsandtakeresponsibility.Criticssuchasthosecitedaboveoftenslipintodeterministandstructuralistaccountsoftheworkingsofplatformsbyinferringthatusersaredeceivedandunwittinglysubmittotheresultsofsearchqueries,newsfeeds,ortrendsandthattheseareforces‘shaping’themandsocieties.

      Es decir que la pregunta de investigación de la tesis está en diálogo con la formas de ser ciudadano en la medida en que no se asume un determinismo tecnológico, sino se presume, de entrada, que podemos cambiar las tecnologías que nos cambian y por tanto somos agentes de dicho cambio.

    5. Thatthesedemandshaveemergedinthespanofonlyafewyearsatteststowhatwecallthe‘closings’ofcyberspace.ThesedemandsandtheirclosingsareeffectsofthewayinwhichactingthroughtheInternethasresignifiedquestionsofvelocity,extensity,anonymity,andtraceability.Velocitycallsforregularandongoingvigilanceaboutrapidlychangingtechnologies,protocols,practices,platforms,andrulesaboutbeingdigital;extensitycallsforawarenessofwhereandtowhomdigitalactionsreach;anonymitycallsforlimitingandprotectingexposureandbeingcautiousaboutthepresumedidentitiesofothers;andtraceabilitycallsformanaginghowactionsaretracked,analysed,manipulated,andsortedbyunknownothersandforunknowablepurposes.Allofthesedemandsspringnotfromparticipating,connecting,andsharingalonebuttherelationsbetweenandamongbodiesactingthroughtheInternet,whichismadeupofconventionsconfiguredbytheactionsofdispersedanddistributedauthorities.Itistotheseconfiguringactions,whichwecalltheclosingsofcyberspace,thatweturntointhenextchapter,withafocusonfiltering,tracking,andnormalizing.
    6. Toputitbluntly,fromourperspective,popularcriticshavebecometooconcernedaboutcyberspacecreatingobedientsubjectstopowerratherthanunderstandingthatcyberspaceiscreatingsubmissivesubjectsofpowerwhoarepotentiallycapableofsubversion.
    7. Howcanthecallingtoparticipatethatwehaveidentifiedproducedigitalcitizenswhoseactsexceedtheirintentions?Toputitdifferently,atensionexistsbetweenthewaysinwhichthefigureofthedigitalcitizenisconceivedinhegemonicimaginariesandlegaldiscoursesandhowsheisperformativelycomingintobeingthroughactionsthatequiphertobeacitizeninwaysthatarenotacknowledgedoralwaysintended.
    8. Mossbergeretal.,forexample,understanddigitalcitizenshipastheabilitytofullyparticipateinsocietyonline,whichrequiresregularaccesstotheInternet,withadequatedevicesandspeeds,technologicalskillsandcompetence,andinformationliteracy.[21]Equippingthusincludesnotonlyhardware,suchasinstallingcomputersinclassroomsandlibrariesandexpandinghigh-speedbroadbandservices,butalsodevelopingskillsandcapabilitiesthroughtrainingcoursesincomputing,coding,andprogramming

      Una de las cosas que hemos hecho es apropiarnos de los ciclos de actualización tecnológica para ponerlos en nuestras manos sin andar corriendo detrás de la última actualización.

    9. ForHalfordandSavage,whetherliberatingordividing,cyberspace(orwhattheyrefertoasthe‘Web’)isalwaysconsideredasanalreadygivenspace,anditssubjectsareseparate,independent,andpreformedratherthanperformed.Ratherthanassumingthat‘pre-formedsocialgroups“use”(ordon’tuse)technologies’,theyidentifya‘morecomplexprocessofmutualinteractionandstabilisation’wheredigitaltechnologiesarenotseparatedfromsocialprocessesbutinsteadinvolvedinconstitutingsubjectsindiverseandpervasiveways.[16]Inotherwords,theyadvancethattheWebisnotindependentfromtheactionsofsubjects.

      [...] What they identify as complex social processes between digital technologies and the formation of subjects, we specify as the digital acts through which citizen subjects are called upon by legality, performativity, and imaginary.

    10. ThepremiseofthisbookisthatthecitizensubjectactingthroughtheInternetisthedigitalcitizenandthatthisisanewsubjectofpoliticswhoalsoactsthroughnewconventionsthatnotonlyinvolvedoingthingswithwordsbutdoingwordswiththings.
    11. Thisindividualisautonomousnotbecauseitisseparateorindependentfromsocietybutasitsproductretainsthecapabilitytoquestionitsowninstitution.Castoriadissaysthatthisnewtypeofbeingiscapableofcallingintoquestiontheverylawsofitsexistenceandhascreatedthepossibilityofbothdeliberationandpoliticalaction.

      Esta parte se conecta con Fuchs y la dualidad agencia estructura

    12. Onthecontrary,citizensubjectsperformativelycomeintobeinginorbytheactofsayinganddoingsomething—whetherthroughwords,images,orotherthings—andthroughperformingthecontradictionsinherentinbecomingcitizens.
    13. ThisistheprincipalreasonwhyweneedtoinvestigatenotonlythingsdoneinorbyspeakingthroughtheInternetbutalsothingssaidinorbydoingthingsthroughtheInternet.
    14. ‘Theforceoftheperformativeisthusnotinheritedfrompriorusage,butissuesforthpreciselyfromitsbreakwithanyandallpriorusage.Thatbreak,thatforceofrupture,istheforceoftheperformative,beyondallquestionoftruthormeaning.’[22]Forpoliticalsubjectivity,‘performativitycanworkinpreciselysuchcounter-hegemonicways.Thatmomentinwhichaspeechactwithoutpriorauthorizationneverthelessassumesauthorizationinthecourseofitsperformancemayanticipateandinstatealteredcontextsforitsfuturereception.’[23]Toconceiveruptureasasystemicortotalupheavalwouldbefutile.Rather,ruptureisamomentwherethefuturebreaksthroughintothepresent.[24]Itisthatmomentwhereitbecomespossibletodosomethingdifferentinorbysayingsomethingdifferent.

      Acá los actos futuros guían la acción presente y le dan permiso de ocurrir. Del mismo modo como el derecho a ser olvidado es un derecho futuro imaginado que irrumpe en la legislación presente, pensar un retrato de datos o campañas políticas donde éstos sean importantes, le da forma al activismo presente.

      La idea clave acá es hacer algo diferente, que ha sido el principio tras Grafoscopio y el Data Week, desde sus apuestas particulares de futuro, que en buena medida es discontinuo con las prácticas del presente, tanto ciudadanas, cono de alfabetismos y usos populares de la tecnología.

    15. Moreover,ourconcernwiththeInternetisnotthespeakingsubjectassuchbuthowmakingrightsclaimsbringscitizensubjectsintobeing.Howdodigitalactsbringcitizensubjectsintobeing?DoestheInternetintroducearadicaldifferenceforunderstandingcitizensubjects?DoesthelanguageoftheInternet—code—worklikenaturallanguage?
  15. Sep 2017
    1. Ifthecomputerizationofsocietyraisessuchquestions,theanalysisoftheproduction,dissemination,andlegitimationofknowledge,onwhichithasaprofoundeffect,cannotberestrictedtounderstandingcomputerizationascommunicationorcomputer-mediatedcommunication.Rather,theobjectofinvestigationoughttobelanguagegamesthatbecamepossiblethroughwhatLyotardsawasnetworkedcomputers
    2. WhatwefindinLyotard—albeitinincipientform—isthatratherthanconceivingaseparateandindependentspace,thepointistorecognizethatpowerrelationsincontemporarysocietiesarebeingincreasinglymediatedandconstitutedthroughcomputernetworksthateventuallycametobeknownastheInternet.
    3. TheanathemaforLessigisthelossofthisfreedomincyberspace.Inrealspace,governingpeoplerequiresinducingthemtoactincertainways,butinthelastinstance,peoplehadthechoicetoactthiswayorthatway.Bycontrast,incyberspaceconductisgovernedbycode,whichtakesawaythatchoice.Incyberspace,‘iftheregulatorwantstoinduceacertainbehavior,sheneednotthreaten,orcajole,toinspirethechange.Sheneedonlychangethecode—thesoftwarethatdefinesthetermsuponwhichtheindividualgainsaccesstothesystem,orusesassetsonthesystem.’[37]Thisisbecause‘codeisanefficientmeansofregulation.Butitsperfectionmakesitsomethingdifferent.Oneobeystheselawsascodenotbecauseoneshould;oneobeystheselawsascodebecauseonecandonothingelse.Thereisnochoiceaboutwhethertoyieldtothedemandforapassword;onecompliesifonewantstoenterthesystem.Inthewellimplementedsystem,thereisnocivildisobedience.’[38]WhatLessigsuggestsisthatcyberspaceisnotonlyseparateandindependentbutconstitutesanewmodeofpower.Youconstituteyourselfasasubjectofpowerbysubmittingtocode.

      En este caso particular la bifurcación es política a través del código, porque otros lugares del ciberespacio pueden ser creados ejerciendo este poder de bifurcar, si se entienden los códigos.

      En una charla de 2008, con Jose David Cuartas, le mencionaba cómo las libertades del software libre son teóricas, si no se entiende el código fuente de dicho software (las instrucciones con las que opera y se construye). Las prácticas alrededor del código, asi como los entornos físicos, comunitarios, simbólico y computacionales, donde dichas prácticas se dan, son importantes para alentar (o no) estas comprensiones y en últimas permitir que otros códigos den la posibilidad del disenso y de construir lugares distintos. De ahí que las infraestructuras de bolsillo sean importantes, pues estas disminuyen los costos de bifuración y construcción desde la diferencia.

    4. Wehaveidentifiedthisasthecontradictionbetweensubmissionandsubversionorconsentanddissent.JacquesRancièrecapturesthisasdissensus.[27]Wewillreturntodissensusinchapter7.Second,whilearticulatingaparticulardemand(forinclusion,recognition),performingcitizenshipenactsauniversalrighttoclaimrights.Thisisthecontradictionbetweentheuniversalismandparticularismofcitizenship.

      Estos reclamos por el reconocimiento han tomado diferentes formas en las prácticas del Data Week. ¿Quiénes son nuestros supuestos interlocutores? ¿Por quién queremos ser reconocidos desde nuestras prácticas alternas? Yo diría que se trata de algún tipo de configuración insitucional: empresa, academía y sobre todo gobierno, pues si bien no todos estamos en los dos primeros lugares, si es cierto que todos habitamos el territorio colombiano. Uno de los esfuerzos de la Gobernatón, por ejemplo, fue pensar una manera de reparto más equitativo de los recursos públicos entre comunidades de base diversas y no sólo en aquellas enagenadas por el discurso de la innovación.

    5. Ifmakingrightsclaimsisperformative,itfollowsthattheserightsareneitherfixednorguaranteed:theyneedtoberepeatedlyperformed.Theircomingintobeingandremainingeffectiverequiresperformativity.Theperformativeforceofcitizenshipremindsusthatthefigureofthecitizenhastobebroughtintobeingrepeatedlythroughacts(repertoires,declarations,andproclamations)andconventions(rituals,customs,practices,traditions,laws,institutions,technologies,andprotocols).Withouttheperformanceofrights,thefigureofthecitizenwouldmerelyexistintheoryandwouldhavenomeaningindemocraticpolitics.
    6. Therightsthatthecitizenholdsarenottherightsofanalready-existingsovereignsubjectbuttherightsofafigurewhosubmitstoauthorityinthenameofthoserightsandactstocallintoquestionitsterms.Thisistheinescapableandinheritedcontradictionbetweensubmissionandsubversionofthefigureofthecitizenthatcanbeexpressedinaparadoxicalphrase:submissionasfreedom.

      submission as freedom.

      Ser sujeto de derechos en un estado (someterse al poder del mismo), implica también la posibilidad de sublevarse y pensar en otras formas de ciudadanía.

    7. IfwefocusonhowpeopleenactthemselvesassubjectsofpowerthroughtheInternet,itinvolvesinvestigatinghowpeopleuselanguagetodescribethemselvesandtheirrelationstoothersandhowlanguagesummonsthemasspeakingbeings.Toputitdifferently,itinvolvesinvestigatinghowpeopledothingswithwordsandwordswiththingstoenactthemselves.ItalsomeansaddressinghowpeopleunderstandthemselvesassubjectsofpowerwhenactingthroughtheInternet.
    8. Givenitspervasivenessandomnipresence,avoidingorshunningcyberspaceisasdystopianasquittingsocialspace;itisalsocertainthatconductingourselvesincyberspacerequires,asmanyactivistsandscholarshavewarned,intensecriticalvigilance.Sincetherecannotbegenericoruniversalanswerstohowweconductourselves,moreorlesseveryincipientorexistingpoliticalsubjectneedstoaskinwhatwaysitisbeingcalleduponandsubjectifiedthroughcyberspace.Inotherwords,toreturnagaintotheconceptualapparatusofthisbook,thekindsofcitizensubjectscyberspacecultivatesarenothomogenousanduniversalbutfragmented,multiple,andagonistic.Atthesametime,thefigureofacitizenyettocomeisnotinevitable;whilecyberspaceisafragileandprecariousspace,italsoaffordsopenings,momentswhenthinking,speaking,andactingdifferentlybecomepossiblebychallengingandresignifyingitsconventions.Thesearethemomentsthatwehighlighttoarguethatdigitalrightsarenotonlyaprojectofinscriptionsbutalsoenactment.

      ¿A qué somos llamados y cómo respondemos a ello? Esta pregunta ha sido parte tácita de lo que hacemos en el Data Week.

    9. digitalactsresignifyfourpoliticalquestionsabouttheInternet

      anonymity, extensity, traceability, and velocity.

      El primero y el tercero ha estado permanentemente en el discurso de colectivos a los que he estado vinculado (RedPaTodos, HackBo, Grafoscopio, etc)

    10. Wearguethatmakingrightsclaimsinvolvesnotonlyperformativebutalsolegalandimaginaryforces.Wethenarguethatdigitalactsinvolveconventionsthatincludenotonlywordsbutalsoimagesandsoundsandvariousactionssuchasliking,coding,clicking,downloading,sorting,blocking,andquerying.
    11. WedevelopourapproachtobeingdigitalcitizensbydrawingonMichelFoucaulttoarguethatsubjectsbecomecitizensthroughvariousprocessesofsubjectivationthatinvolverelationsbetweenbodiesandthingsthatconstitutethemassubjectsofpower.WefocusonhowpeopleenactthemselvesassubjectsofpowerthroughtheInternetandatthesametimebringcyberspaceintobeing.Wepositionthisunderstandingofsubjectivationagainstthatofinterpellation,whichassumesthatsubjectsarealwaysandalreadyformedandinhabitedbyexternalforces.Rather,wearguethatcitizensubjectsaresummonedandcalledupontoactthroughtheInternetand,assubjectsofpower,respondbyenactingthemselvesnotonlywithobedienceandsubmissionbutalsosubversion.
    12. citizenshipasasiteofcontestationorsocialstruggleratherthanbundlesofgivenrightsandduties.[41]Itisanapproachthatunderstandsrightsasnotstaticoruniversalbuthistoricalandsituatedandarisingfromsocialstruggles.Thespaceofthisstruggleinvolvesthepoliticsofhowwebothshapeandareshapedbysociotechnicalarrangementsofwhichweareapart.Fromthisfollowsthatsubjectsembodyboththematerialandimmaterialaspectsofthesearrangementswheredistinctionsbetweenthetwobecomeuntenable.[42]Whowebecomeaspoliticalsubjects—orsubjectsofanykind,forthatmatter—isneithergivenordeterminedbutenactedbywhatwedoinrelationtoothersandthings.Ifso,beingdigitalandbeingcitizensaresimultaneouslytheobjectsandsubjectsofpoliticalstruggl
    13. Butthefigureofcyberspaceisalsoabsentincitizenship

      -> But the figure of cyberspace is also absent in citizenship studies as scholars have yet to find a way to conceive of the figure of the citizen beyond its modern configuration as a member of the nation-state. Consequently, when the acts of subjects traverse so many borders and involve a multiplicity of legal orders, identifying this political subject as a citizen becomes a fundamental challenge. So far, describing this traversing political subject as a global citizen or cosmopolitan citizen has proved difficult if not contentious.

      Ver: https://hyp.is/6bnriqSPEeeYN7sZXlOCNg

    1. While much attention is reserved for whistleblowers and hactivists as the vanguards of Internet rights, there are many more anonymous political subjects of the Internet who are not only making rights claims by saying things but also by doing things through the Internet.
    2. Like other social spaces that sociologists study, cyberspace is not designed and arranged and then experienced by passive subjects. Like the physical spaces of cities that geographers have long studied, it is a space that is bought into being by citizen subjects who act in ways that submit to but also at the same time go beyond and transgress the conventions of the Internet. In doing so they are not simply obedient and submissive but also subversive and participate in the making of and rights claims to cyberspace through their digital acts.

      Interesante la idea de construir mapas de esas cibergeografías. Esta podría ser la cita para el capítulo de visualizaciones.

    3. Such a conception moves us away from how we are being ‘liberated’ or ‘controlled’ to the complexities of ‘acting’ through the Internet where much of what makes it up is seemingly beyond the knowledge and consent of citizen subjects. To be sure, one cannot act in isolation but only in relation to the mediations, regulations and monitoring of the platforms, devices, and algorithms or more generally the conventions that format, organize and order what we do, how we relate, act, interact, and transact through the Internet. But it is here between and among these distributed relations that we can identify a space of possibility—a cyberspace perhaps—that is being brought into being by the acts of myriad subjects.
    1. The benefit of these spaces is best summed up as flexibility. Members are supported as they join the space, become peripheral participants, and potentially, become longstanding members engaged in ongoing projects. Hacking, like art, becomes not the domain of the elite or reified objects but intimately tied with everyday experiences throughout one's life (Dewey, 1934). The pragmatic devotion of HMSs to recursive problem-solving attracts members who see HMSs bringing informal education and collaborative sociality to their city. In interviews GeekSpace members freely offered beliefs about why they saw HMSs as vital to reforming their city at large. Flexibility, exercised through the constant churn of hands-on work on projects, was coupled with optimism for making a better future. Kligler-Vilenchik et al. (2012) describe a similar desire in civically-minded youth organizations as a "wish to help" (para. 1.5), a form of engagement more familiar to volunteerism than hackers that exert their collective power through protest or software (Coleman, 2012; Sauters, 2013). Above all else, this optimism drives HMS members as they seek to reframe what hacking and making can accomplish.
    2. Hacker and maker represented not so much discrete categories as fluid identities that emerged by on mode of work, personal history, and comfort with cultural alignment. This cozy relationship troubles easy stereotypes of hacking as related to scientific rationality and making to felt experience. For example, as Lingel and Regan (2014) observe, the experiences of software developers can be both highly rational and deeply embodied, resulting in their thinking about coding as process, embodiment, and community. The thrill or pleasure of hacking being linked simply to transgression or satisfaction of completing a difficult job seems lacking (Taylor, 1999; Turkle, 1984). From the side of craft, Daniella Rosner (2012) draws a historic connection to the humble bookbindery as a material-workspace collaboration and site of personalized routines and encounters with tools that lead to complex collaborations. These ethnographies take into account passions and relative definitions of technology that are often neglected in organizational studies. Thus, these inroads to informal learning could be mutually informed by Leonardi's (2011) notion of imbrication, where material and individual agencies are negotiated through routines over time.

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    Annotators

    1. X closer examination of these myths nil1 reveal several interesting paradoxes. On the one hand, it is clear that we are in the midst of a cultural shift on a par with the great paradigm shifts in the history of science-our understandings of basic philosophical issues are changing. Tl'e can track shifts in our thinking about the nature of reality, the nature of knowledge and even the nature of the human being. On the other hand, there is e~idencc to suggest that not enough has changed in our thinking about certain philosophical issues, especially as these relate to the concept of 'information' and ideas about originality, privacy: citizen empowerment, democracy and community. I conclude with a list of questions that emerge from the transformation of one 'age' to another.

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    Annotators

    1. Civic hackathons are undeniably fraught. Our projections about civic futures are entangled with collective fantasies abouttechnology. This is a story at least as old as science fiction, yet never ultimately removed from our social realities. In some cases small tasks stimulated the civic imagination on larger public problems. In others, cultural reproduction led people to imagine technology that was already racialized, reflecting collective fears that rise to the top. Yet, I resist dismissing civic hackathons. Donna Haraway would certainly see the fallacy in demanding we return to the deliberation of Tocqueville’s town hall meetings. Plus, as anyone who has participated in local government can tell you, city council meetings are hardly a gold standard for civic participation. Mills reminds us that our rationalities are bounded and exist within a particular historic context. We might never get technology out of politics, or the politics out of technology. In a sense, civic technology may itself be a cyborg formed from our collective hopes and fears, one that we might better learn to live with.

      Se puede colocar como introducción al Data Week y las Data Rodas.

    2. Balsamo's notion of technocultural innovation is quite appropriate for negotiating between critical and design positions on hackathons. First, she defines technologies asmessy combinations of practices, materialities, and affordances. They were never fully captured in artifacts to begin with, and she would simply not regard civic hackathons as their sole point of emergence. Second, although designers hold a particular role in technocultural innovation, Balsamo makes it clear that everyday people can interact with, talk about, act out, and pitch ideas, thereby co-constructing technologies. Many of the examples she provides, such as interactive museum exhibitions, are very hackathon-esque spectacles that bring people into contact with technologies in the process of being designed. Third, Balsamo provides concepts and vocabulary for describing moments of collective design. Cultural models of technology might be reproduced or made anew through the technocultural imagination. Balsamo does not treat the influence of corporations or mythologies of technology (Balsamo, 1996)as necessarily spoiling innovation. Individuals all draw on specific models of technology — practices, affordances, materialities — from everyday life, which must include those created by large companies. Participants can get space of their own, as in the case of Xerox PARC’s RED group, that provide autonomy. Yet, they do not exactly get outside of technology, a point that McKenzie Wark has similarly driven home (Wark, 2004).

      Interesante ver como el "Pitch" tiene un caracter democrático en la medida en que permite que otros pongan a rodar la imaginación (lo cual se opone a la idea de "any bitch can pitch" que critica la no producción de prototipos funcionales). Hay, sin embargo una tensión con los prototipos funcionales. ¿Podrían narrativas de datos multimediales dar agencia y visibilidad a distintas voces, aunque no todas se expresen en código? Imagino, por ejemplo libretas árboreas con trozos de videos multimedia, que pueden ser consultados en o fuera de línea, desde diversos dispositivos, con un particular énfasis en los (móviles).

      La idea del portafolio, que se ha expresado para el diplomado en activismo de datos, puede ser una primera manera de explorar prototipos en ese sentido que den visibilidad a voces, discursos y estéticas diversas.

      La pregunta de fondo es como cristalizar esa relación entre cosificación y participación y entre agencia y estructura a partir de estéticas como las de la hackatón.

    3. Civic hackathons are spaces where the technological imagination and civic imagination collide and jostle as people collectively envision future technologies. Finally, I suggest three lessons drawn from civic hackathons to demonstrate the contradictory and even treacherous ways civic innovation produces ideas. In the conclusion I consider how we might read civic hackathons alongside other modern political formations. After all, civic hackathons are just one part in a larger formation of “open government” that prioritizes direct participation and institutional collaboration as a pathway to reform.
    4. Civic hackathons have been hotly debated in recent years. Critical studies scholars have lambasted civic hackathons for aligning with middle-class citizenship(Irani, 2015)and co-opting participant labor (Gregg, 2014a). Silicon Valley is often the fait accompliin these perspectives, bringing a flawed ideology that seduces organizers and participants into transposing technological language onto civic issues (Also see: Barbrook & Cameron, 1996; Morozov, 2013). In this paper I refer to this perspective as an “imposed civic ideology.” The second perspective comes from design scholars interested in material participation (Marres, 2012) as cohering publics to work on particular social issues. Lodato and DiSalvo (2016) suggested that civic hackathons served two purposes. First, they help people think through civic issues using props — “objects, services, and systems that engage with issues” (p. 16). Second, they cohere ephemeral proto-publics for short-term engagement on issues of public concern. As they summarized, "what is important is not the inventiveness of a particular prototype product or service, but rather, how the event fosters opportunities for collaborative or collective issue articulation" (p. 15). They drew attention to how outcomes of civic hackathons may more likely be social and cultural than functional material objects. I refer to this design perspective as an “emergent civic subjectivity.”

      La pregunta sería cómo los protopúblicos y activistas pueden encontrarse en este formato y cómo los "props" se convierten en prototipos durables e iterables, parecido a como lo hacemos con Grafoscopio.

      En particular me llama la atención entre las narrativas de datos y soluciones completas/integradas para ellas (tipo Grafoscopio) y las aplicaciones móviles más orientadas a la recolección de información, así como las redes sociales y canales de chat para articular ciudadanos. Los puentes sobre esas materialidades serían motivo de exploraciones futuras.

    1. For these women, the values and practices of everyday life intertwine with technical labor. In the 1970s, theorists like Dick Hebdige, Henri LeFebvre, and Michel DeCertau took up everyday life as a site for radically re-imagining social life. The potency of domesticity and the social status of quotidian craftwork became a key precursor to contemporary Feminist thought. Today, it has reemerged in the work of modern-day hackers.By designing hackerspaces to serve domestic and familial needs, and by surfacing a new emotional style through failure, members of women-operated hackerspaces are

      actively negotiating the terms by which they make themselves heard within computer engineering cultures (Fox, etal., 2015; c.f. Suchman, 1995). This “oppositional position-ing” (Haraway, 1988: 586) relieves them of expectations to hack in the same manner as men, women, or mothers. [...] Exposing a politics of difference — destabilizing the cate-gory of hacking — they not only build new material circumstance for the artists, makers, mothers and fathers within these spaces, but also position their work as relevant to the acts of “world-building” just beyond it.

      Potente idea de construcción de mundo en el cotidiano.

    1. Upon closer examination of the appropriation phase, we distinguish three modes of tech-nology appropriation: baroquization, creolization, and cannibalism, by analogy with cul-tural appropriation. Baroquization is the filling-in of technological spaces that providers intentionally leave blank for users to personalize devices and applications; creolizationis bricolage, the recombination of the technology’s components to create something new; and cannibalism is creative destruction, an innovative act that requires breaking down the existing to invent something new.These three forms of appropriation correspond to increasingly confrontational stances users take vis-à-vis technology providers, within a context of asymmetric power. Baroquization is docile, where users follow an appropriation script laid out for them by the provider. Creolization is playful and unpredictable, where users re-mix the providers’ script with their own, in ways that may clash with providers’ interests. At the extreme, cannibalism is deliberately hostile to the providers’ interests. These various appropria-tion modes correspond to progressively deeper user involvement with technology, requir-ing increasingly sophisticated technical skills. All three modes represent creative ways for users to assert greater control over technology, mold it to fit their lives, and make it their own.
    2. First, we view technology evolution as a three-stage cyclical process of adoption, appropriation, and repossession. Users drive adoption. Users and providers alternatively drive appropriation and repossession, as users lead appropriation, while providers react when reclaiming the resulting innova-tions. Second, we identify three appropriation modes—baroquize, creolize, and canni-balize—that represent increasing degrees of power contestation by users. And third, we identify three repossession modes—co-opt, combine, and block—that represent increas-ingly antagonistic reactions by providers and mirror users’ appropriation strategies.

      El documento como árbol es una convención fija inicial, para lograr cierto movimiento en el desarrollo de la plataforma y las dinámicas alrededor de la misma, pero dicha convención puede ser móvil después (como se indicaba en el primer texto sobre Grafoscopio). Textos rizomáticos o laberínticos como los presentados en la literatura latinoamericana (Cortazar, Borges) podrían ser construidos con Grafoscopio una vez la convención inicial se mueva. Esto implicaría pasar por las sucesivas fases e incluso "canibalizar" Grafoscopio al final, con la ventaja de que las tensiones entre proveedores y usuarios no son tan fuertes, pues son los usuarios los que se están proveyendo de tecnología a sí mismos y cambiándola por el camino. Los lugares de tensión ocurren cuando se manifiesta el caracter político de sus usos, por ejemplo haciendo web scrapping que viola los contenidos de los términos de uso de un sitio web (citar caso de Twitter).

    3. Born in the Plantation, the Hacienda, the Latifundio, and the Mine, creolization is now “scattered in those sheet plates and concrete mazes where our common becoming is adventuring itself, in favellas and mega-cities” (Glissant, 1995: 87). Alive and well, cre-olization can be found where Latin Americans live, in the spaces where they are exposed to new technologies. Born of avoidance (like Internet Protocol (IP) packets that find a route around obstacles) and mixing (like mashups and re-mix), creolization fits the realm of ICTs.
    4. Three strategies deserve particular attention for their symbolic value: cannibalism, baroque, and creolization. Cannibalism is appropriation trough dismembering, absorption, and chemical transformation. Baroque—an infiltration strategy—is the artistic appropria-tion of spaces through filling and layering. In-between, creolization is appropriatio

      through miscegenation and unpredictable mixing. While inspired by Latin American cul-ture, these prove useful in other cultural, geographical, and historical settings.

    5. Throughout history, Latin American populations have had extensive experience with the appropriation of objects, people, and ideas from abroad, most often in unfavorably asymmetric situations. This tradition continues to pro-duce a culture of its own, born from multiple resistance and appropriation strategies.
    6. This article frames appropriation as a political process.

      [...] ICTs provide unique flexibility for users to interact and re-invent. ICTs can be modified and re-programmed, whether the ability to modify is explicitly enabled through design or uncovered through hacking. Device producers, application designers, content creators, service providers, and end users can therefore engage in the creative appropriation process and insight into social, economic, and political impacts can be gained exploring appropriation modalities.

      Esto se puede conectar con la introducción respecto al caracter fluído, pero paradógico de las tecnologías digitales.

      Nótese acá la connotación de hacking en términos de apertura y reinterpretación.

    1. Hacker and maker spaces are community workshops that promote notions of open-access and equal participation. Yet, they tend to embrace a contradiction. Their egalitar-ian goals paradoxically reflect a masculine geek identity anchored by an exclusionary “meritocracy.” Addressing democratization requires questioning how power and identity in hacker and maker spaces can be reconnected and re-programmed. Daniela K. Rosner and Sarah Fox illuminate just such a rich counter-narrative in the feminist hackerspace Mothership Hackermoms. Rosner and Fox argue feminist hackerspaces emerged from legacies of craft, engineering culture, and emotional style through failure. They argue that histories of craft and domesticity don’t just undergird engineering cultures—they provide concepts for women to re-imagine maker spaces in a feminist mold.
    2. We have framed the theme of this issue as “The Democratization of Hacking and Making” to draw attention to the relationships between action, knowledge, and power. Particularly, hacking and making are about how practices of creation and transforma-tion generate knowledge and influence institutions. These acts concentrate and distrib-ute power through publics and counterpublics. Yet, the very mutability of hacker and maker relations makes them a challenge to identify and research. Hacking and making collectives have proven capable of constituting and reconstituting themselves in physi-cal and virtual spaces. They integrate across infrastructures, collaborative systems, socio-economic divides, and international boundaries.
    1. The more pressing threat is that a fear of solution-ism and neoliberal connotations of “open data” together might dissuade political par-ticipation. Systemic social disparities are often intractable. The route to alleviate them has never been detachment or abandonment. Looking forward, we should pay attention to how data activism and advocacy might result in meaningful systematic change beyond the usual claims of “transparency.” To fulfill the possibilities for meaningful social change hinted at in their history, civic hackers might have to coordinate around specific mechanisms for change and articulate a deeper sense of democracy than the language of technology provides.
    2. Might “utopian realist” be applicable to the practices of civic hackers, intertwined with particular repertoires, technologies, and affective publics? McKenzie Wark (2014) sug-gests that the relationship between utopian and realist might be mutually constitutive rather than dialectical. He re-frames utopia as a realizable fragment or diagram that re-imagines relations. From this perspective, civic hacking gets traction not because they were ever intended to be the sole “solution” to a problem, but they are ways of acting and creating that are immediately apprehensible. Prototypes capture the imagination because they are shards of a possible future and can be created, modified, and argued about (Coleman, 2009).
    3. He proposes that “monitorial citizens” act as a watchdog for specific issues, ready to take action. From this perspective, civic hack-ers could be considered a monitorial elite, watching data streams and processes of algorithmic regulation for injustices and engaging directly with local politics. “The local” operates as a point of collaboration (Dunbar-Hester, 2013) and point of entry for geeks to engage with neighborhood issues
    4. Two overall framings of hackers’ engagement with the political have dominated discussion: “hacktivists” or activists who leverage instrumental uses of online technologies for direct political action such as protest and disruption (Jordan and Taylor, 2004), and geographically distributed communities of practice where principles of openness enable forms of political action (Coleman, 2004). Gabriella Coleman (2012a) argues that pragmatism enables action on issues related to informational freedoms and reflects liberal democratic tenets such as freedom of speech. According to Coleman (2004), explicit involvement in “politics” in a formalized sense is distasteful to free and open-source hackers, as it is viewed as “buggy, mediated, and tainted action clouded by ideology” (p. 513). Civic hacking represents a third mode of participation among a group that often explicitly engages with political causes through designing, critiquing, and manipulating software and data to improve community life and infrastructures of governance. Civic hackers therefore have distinct histories, con-tours, and conflicts from other genres of hackers, even as they share a certain family resemblance (Wittgenstein, 1953).

      Interesante la idea de terceros modos. Desde acá se pueden conectar tanto HackBo con el Data Week y los movimientos de código abierto y software libre.

    1. Interactions through things, and perceptions about their potential, were ways to negotiate between seemingly conflicting imperatives of the individualism and communalism (A. L. Toombs, Bardzell, & Bardzell). Members would deliberately design activities that were incomplete to encourage a playful material improvisation. In these ways, the “material sensibilities” of members were particularly important. Similarly, reading a history of craft into software hacking, Lingel and Regan (2014) found that software hackers identified their work with craft as process, embodiment, and community. These sensitive readings of interactions with stuff seemed to more accurately capture the genre of hackerspaces, more so than action was guided by culture.

      La idea de actividades incompletas y un jugueteo material están embebidas en el Data Week y Grafoscopio, así como la identificación de software como artesanía, lo cual dialoga con Aaron y Software craftmanship.

    1. If you are lucky, you have the conditions and abilities to work all this through in a long, non-linear process also known as bootstrapping, where you go through many iterations of hacking apart and hacking together, all the while creating fundamentally different ideas about what technologies should do, and could do, matched by a succession of devices and practices that help shape these ideas, and “demo” to yourself and others that some utopias might not be out of reach. This is what radical engineers do.
  16. Jul 2017
    1. 第三木质这个看起来不错的样子。也许类似的我可以做个手掌支撑件用在显微手术上

  17. Jun 2017
    1. Инвестиционная идея (investment idea) - предложение пользователям для инвестирования. Инвестиционная заявка (investment order) - пользовательская заявка по участию в инвестиционной идее. Пользовательская позиция (position) - акции или доли фонда принадлежащие пользователю в рамках реализации некоторой инвестиционной идеи.

      Нужно здесь тоже перечислить, что есть как limited, так и unlimited

    2. Закупка (procurement) - результат инвестирования для группы заявок. Объединяет позиции.

      Относится только к limited идеям

    3. ACCEPTED

      у заявки на выход будет состояние CREATED, наверное?

    4. даты и времени закрытия позиции, должна быть в будущем.

      дата и время -- это какой-то расчетный период (может быть и текущий), и тогда по окончании этого периода, позиция закроется.

  18. May 2017
  19. www.sblm.com www.sblm.com
    1. Create SEO Plan with new Marketing Director

      • Add Google Analytics Tracking Code to each page
      • Distinguish former website data from new website data
      • Submit Sitemap to search engines once content has been vetted for SEO
    2. Implement Radio Button's

      • Stop slideshow when clicked, resume after 5 seconds
      • Simulatenously, change Studio H2 opacity to 1.0 and reveal H3 as inline element stacked right, maintaining height dimension of H3 ( background:white, color:black)
      • H3 A element is project name and allows user to jump directly to project
  20. Apr 2017
    1. factor analysis,

      I would actually be interested in conducting a factor analysis on my data. Though I am a bit confused about how such a test would be useful for SNA

  21. Mar 2017
    1. Jessica Helfand in her essay The Dematerialism of Screen Space (2001) critiques the phenomenon of design practise being led by developments in software engineering. She argues that designers should take the initiative: “design must submit to a series of commands and regulations as rigourous as those that once defined Swiss typography. Aesthetic innovation, if it indeed exists at all, occurs within ridiculously preordained parameters: a new plug-in, a modified code, the capacity to make picture and words ‘flash’ with a mouse in a non-sensical little dance. We are all little filmmakers, directing on a pathetically small screen – yet broadcasting to a potentially infinite audience. This in itself is conflicting (not to mention corrupting), but more importantly, what are we making? What are we inventing? What are we saying that has not been said before?” Helfand here is referring to the web, but her argument applies equally well to designing tablet publications. Designers of book and magazine apps should be asking themselves those last three questions. Since tablet publishing conventions are in the process of being formed (like child invention), we have a unique opportunity right now to influence their direction.
    1. Egocentric analysis shifts the analytical lens onto a sole ego actor and concentrates on the local pattern of relations in which that ego is embedded as well as the types of resources to which those relations provide access.

      Given the nature of my data (Forbes top companies), I think it would be appropriate to look at specific countries as the Ego and the job categories as the alters. Am I correct in assuming that the local pattern of relations would be how my selected county (the ego) is connected to other countries through job category?

    2. it is possible to examine directed relations in egocentric network studies, or what are referred to as out- and in-neighborhoods: ties sent or ties received

      Since I am working with countries and job categories, I think it would be best for me to work with non directional neighborhoods. I would like to see some directed ego centric data though.

    1. for two high school teachers to occupy a structurally equivalent position, both teachers must teach the same set of students

      This reminds me of my middle school. Rather than each class period having different students, we had one classroom with the same students and we would just switch teachers each period. They all taught the same students. It's nice to have a personal example of structural equivalence

  22. Feb 2017
    1. The North

      Generally, when Canadians spoke or speak of "the North," they are referring to both a particular geographical region as well as an idea with rich symbolic value. Geographically, "the North" usually references the area within Canada that lies above the 60th parallel, which roughly corresponds with the territories of the Yukon Territory, the Northwest Territories, and Nunavut. Sometimes, commenters distinguish between this "territorial north" and the "provincial north," since there are lands within the Canadian provinces (and thus below the 60th parallel) that have features typically considered "northern": sparsely populated, vegetation and animals common in boreal and tundra environments, and infrastructures that are more common in rural rather than urban settlements. Canadians also have historically viewed "the North", as Berger says here, as a frontier, and thus imbued it with rich symbolic value. Since the confederation of Canada in 1867, "The North" has figured prominently in nationalist views of progress, usually in the context of economic development, defense and geopolitics. Over the 20th century, Canadians began including ideas associated with "the North" into expressions of their national identity. For instance, the lyric "the true north strong and free" can be found in the national anthem. Berger's foregrounding and usage of "the North" here is meant to bring the reader into what will be a very different view of a place that many people think they know well.

      Annotation drawn from Sherrill Grace, Canada and the Idea of North (Toronto: McGill-Queen's University Press, 2007).

  23. Jan 2017
    1. Each whale is a perceptive messenger of the state of its species, the state of the cetaceans, the state of the oceans as a whole, as close and determined observation by Mayo and many others has shown. Now each piece of baleen is making those animals into messengers from the past, as we are expanding our own range of perception to understand.
    2. but scientists have found that biochemical traces of some of its experiences persist in its body, even long after death. Just as geologists decode the history of the Earth from rocky strata, or dendrochronologists interpret past climactic conditions from tree rings, so biologists are now learning to read a whale’s life history as inscribed in its baleen. This anatomical oddity, part of a class of animal tissues that are emerging as tenacious biological recordkeepers, could reveal a monthly, even weekly, historical record of a whale’s life events stretching back as long as two decades. Just how much it will tell us remains to be seen.
    1. I’ve collected the following list of needs based on what I’ve noticed across projects. I’ve tried to roughly organize it from critical (bottom of Maslow’s pyramid) to legacy (higher on the pyramid).
    2. Open source projects don’t start as communitiesMany would agree that open source projects don’t start out as Bazaars, but just in case, I’ll emphasize the point. Raymond himself wrote:It’s fairly clear that one cannot code from the ground up in bazaar style. One can test, debug and improve in bazaar style, but it would be very hard to originate a project in bazaar mode. Linus didn’t try it. I didn’t either.Somebody has to be chiefly responsible for an open source project’s initial development. In Linux’s case, it was Linus. Somebody has to live and breathe the problem all day. Once that project is in a stable position, the community helps support it.

      Esto ha pasado con Grafoscopio y en otras comundiades como Leo. El trabajo permanente del autor incial es requerido mientras la comunidad se consolida y puede que esto nunca pase y siga siendo, sobre todo un proyecto individual.

      En el caso de Grafoscopio, el hecho de que el mismo lenguaje de narrativas de datos sea el de modificación del entorno (uniformidad y continuidad) ayudaría a crear una comunidad de co-creadores, sólo en caso de que los saberes en ella y las prácticas se consoliden, para lo cual se requieren tiempos y periodos más constantes e intensos de aprendizaje (algo en formato diplomado).

    1. In open source, you can only have “my” in the associative sense. There is no possessive “my” in open source.”
    1. Those in positions of power have always craved a mechanism with which to expose the inner beings of citizens, to reveal ‘the fragment of darkness that we each carry within us’, as Foucault described it. There are, or seem to be, rather dangerous and wild expanses within each individual. If we are to be controlled, that must be made known, and tamed. There is no better way to divide and subdue a people, and seduce them into self-regulation, than to expose their perversions but promise absolution.
    2. Having a smartphone and access to the internet does not automatically equip us with the tools necessary for effective and respectful collaboration, negotiation and speech, such as democracy requires.
    3. In the presence of ever-watchful witnesses, he said, physical coercion is no longer necessary. People police themselves. They do not know what the observers are registering at any given moment, what they are looking for, exactly, or what the punishments are for disobedience. But the imagination keeps them pliant. In these circumstances, Foucault claimed, the architecture of surveillances become perniciously subtle and seamless, so ‘light’ as to be scarcely noticeable.
  24. Dec 2016
    1. As in any contract, there’s a balance of power. If the architecture of today’s web is any indication, that balance is skewed toward the designers. Unless we want to keep pinging around like Skinner’s pigeons (or like poor Michael S), it’s worth paying a little more attention to those whom our attention pays.
    2. At first, if you want to make money, you sell whatever is in the room. Maybe it’s excellent journalism. Maybe it’s a game or a recipe. Maybe it’s an item that will get shipped to someone’s house. In this model, the internet offers a straightforward transactional experience in digital space.Over time, instead of making money from whatever is in each room, companies begin to monetise the doors. They equip them with sensors. Each time you go through one, someone gets paid. Immediately, some people will start adding a lot of new doors. Other people will build rooms that are largely empty, but that function as waystations, designed to get as many people as possible to enter and leave.

      Interesante la comparación de puertas versus cuartos. Hoy vendemos los sensores en las puertas (links)

    1. Avoid creating big decision hierarchies. Instead, invest in a broad, growing and empowered contributorship that can make progress without intervention. We need to view a constant need for intervention by a few people to make any and every tough decision as the biggest obstacle to healthy Open Source.