37 Matching Annotations
  1. Aug 2020
  2. Jul 2020
  3. Jun 2020
  4. Apr 2020
    1. Steroids used after the first 3 to 4 days after injury do not affect wound healing as severely as when they are used in the immediate postoperative period.
    2. Although there are numerous indications and potential indications for HBOT, there are 14 accepted indications by Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, and the FDA. Indications related to wounds and ulcers include clostridial myonecrosis, crush injury, radiation-induced soft tissue and bone necrosis, necrotizing soft tissue infections, diabetic ulcers Wagner III or higher, refractory osteomyelitis, and thermal burns.
    1. In >95% of patients who survive to reach the ED, the BAI occurs just distal to the left subclavian artery, where it is tethered by the ligamentum arteriosum (Fig. 7-24). In 2% to 5% of patients the injury occurs in the ascending aorta, in the transverse arch, or at the diaphragm
    2. Patients at risk for an esophageal injury should undergo bedside esophagoscopy or soluble contrast esophagography followed by barium examination to look for extravasation of contrast
    3. For penetrating thoracic trauma, physical examination, plain posteroanterior and lateral chest radiographs with metallic markings of wounds, and pericardial ultrasound will identify the majority of injuries.44 Injuries of the esophagus and trachea are the exceptions.
    4. Occult thoracic vascular injury must be diligently sought due to the high mortality of a missed lesion.
    5. Because treatment must be instituted during the latent period between injury and onset of neurologic sequelae, diagnostic imaging is performed based on identified risk factors (Fig. 7-55).91 After identification of an injury, antithrombotics are administered if the patient does not have contraindications (intracranial hemorrhage, falling hemoglobin level with solid organ injury or complex pelvic fractures). Heparin, started without a loading dose at 15 units/kg per hour, is titrated to achieve a PTT between 40 and 50 seconds or antiplatelet agents are initiated (aspirin 325 mg/d or clopidogrel 75 mg/d). The types of antithrombotic treatment appear equivalent in published studies to date, and the duration of treatment is empirically recommended to be 6 months.

      diagnostic imaging before onset of neurologic complications while taking

    6. Early recognition and management of these injuries is paramount because patients treated with antithrombotics have a stroke rate of <1% compared with stroke rates of 20% in untreated patients.

      antithrombotics for blunt inj of carotid and vertebral art decreases stroke rates from 20 to 1%

    1. ompared with patients without cardiac injury, patients with cardiac injury presented with more severe acute illness, manifested by abnormal laboratory and radiographic findings, such as higher levels of C-reactive protein, NT-proBNP, and creatinine levels; more multiple mottling and ground-glass opacity; and a greater proportion requiring noninvasive or invasive ventilation.
    2. Consistently, our study also found 19.7% of patients with cardiac injury and first demonstrated that cardiac injury was independently associated with an increased risk of mortality in patients with COVID-19.
    3. After adjusting for age, preexisting cardiovascular diseases (hypertension, coronary heart disease, and chronic heart failure), cerebrovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, renal failure, cancer, ARDS, creatinine levels greater than 133 μmol/L, and NT-proBNP levels greater than 900 pg/mL, the multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazard regression model showed a significantly higher risk of death in patients with cardiac injury than in those without cardiac injury, either during time from symptom onset (hazard ratio [HR], 4.26 [95% CI, 1.92-9.49]) or time from admission to study end point (HR, 3.41 [95% CI, 1.62-7.16]) (Table 3).
    4. The mortality rate was higher among patients with vs without cardiac injury (42 [51.2%] vs 15 [4.5%]; P < .001) as shown in Table 2 and the Kaplan-Meier survival curves in Figure 2. The mortality rate increased in association with the magnitude of the reference value of hs-TNI
    5. Patients with cardiac injury vs those without cardiac injury had shorter durations from symptom onset to follow-up (mean, 15.6 [range, 1-37] days vs 16.9 [range, 3-37] days; P = .001) and admission to follow-up (6.3 [range, 1-16] days vs 7.8 [range, 1-23] days; P = .039).
    6. In terms of radiologic findings, bilateral pneumonia (75 of 82 patients [91.5%] vs 236 of 334 patients [70.7%]) and multiple mottling and ground-glass opacity (53 [64.6%] vs 15 [4.5%]) were more prevalent in patients with than those without cardiac injury (both P < .001, Table 1).
    7. The duration of hospitalization before testing was longer in patients with cardiac injury than those without cardiac injury (median [range] time, 3 [1-15] days vs 2 [1-8] days; P < .001).
    8. Thus, because of the current limited evidence, the question of whether the SARS-CoV-2 virus can directly injure the heart requires further demonstration.
    9. Greater proportions of patients with cardiac injury required noninvasive mechanical ventilation (38 of 82 [46.3%] vs 13 of 334 [3.9%]; P < .001) or invasive mechanical ventilation (18 of 82 [22.0%] vs 14 of 334 [4.2%]; P < .001) than those without cardiac injury.
    1. Patients presented with functional damage involving multiple vital organs, including respiratory failure (80 [94.1%]), shock (69 [81.2%]), ARDS (63 [74.1%]) arrhythmia (51 [60.0%]), acute myocardial injury (38 [44.7%]), acute liver injury (30 [35.3%]) and sepsis (28 [32.9%]) (Table 5)
    1. The clinical effects of pneumonia have been linked to increased risk of cardiovascular disease up to 10-year follow-up16 and it is likely that cases infected via respiratory virus outbreaks will experience similar adverse outcomes. Therapeutic use of corticosteroids further augments the possibility of adverse cardiovascular events. However, long-term follow-up data concerning the survivors of respiratory virus epidemics are scarce. Lipid metabolism remained disrupted 12 years after clinical recovery in a metabolomic study amongst 25 SARS survivors,17 whereas cardiac abnormalities observed during hospitalisation in eight patients with H7N9 influenza returned to normal at 1-year follow-up.
    1. While the spectrum of clinical manifestation is highly related to the inflammation process of the respiratory tract, this case provides evidence of cardiac involvement as a possible late phenomenon of the viral respiratory infection. This process can be subclinical with few interstitial inflammatory cells, as reported by an autopsy study,10 or can present with overt manifestations even without respiratory symptoms, as in the present case.
    1. In addition, repeated floods of catecholamines due to anxiety and the side effects of medication can also lead to myocardial damage.
    2. The data again showed a significant higher incidence of acute cardiac injury in ICU/severe patients compared to the non-ICU/severe patients [RR = 13.48, 95% CI (3.60, 50.47), Z = 3.86, P = 0.0001]
    3. Two studies that gave clear data were statistically analyzed, and the data showed that 8.0% (95% CI 4.1–12.0%) patients might be suffered from an acute cardiac injury.
    1. However, an elevation of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (cTnI) above 99th percentile upper reference limit is the most commonly used definition
    1. Among the 68 fatal cases, 36 patients (53%) died of respiratory failure, five patients (7%) with myocardial damage died of circulatory failure, 22 patients (33%) died of both, and five remaining died of an unknown cause
    1. Among survivors, secondary infection, acute kidney injury, and acute cardiac injury were observed in one patient each, occurring 9 days (acute kidney injury), 14 days (secondary infection), and 21 days (acute cardiac injury) after illness onset.
    2. Heart failure44 (23%)28 (52%)16 (12%)<0·0001Septic shock38 (20%)38 (70%)0<0·0001Coagulopathy37 (19%)27 (50%)10 (7%)<0·0001Acute cardiac injury33 (17%)32 (59%)1 (1%)<0·0001Acute kidney injury28 (15%)27 (50%)1 (1%)<0·0001
    1. Common complications among the 138 patients included shock (12 [8.7%]), ARDS (27 [19.6%]), arrhythmia (23 [16.7%]), and acute cardiac injury (10 [7.2%]). Patients who received care in the ICU were more likely to have one of these complications than non-ICU patients.
  5. Dec 2019
  6. Oct 2018
    1. As a result of this injury, she was unable to walk for several months, and her appetite and ability to digest food changed dramatically. This made it even more difficult for her to get enough to eat. She still suffers from the effects of that injury.

      La lesión provocada por haber sido apuñalada la privó de hacer y comer cosas que solía en su cotidianidad. Las lesiones son muy comunes en adolescentes según el libro y también este tipo de exposición o vulnerabilidad a la violencia.

  7. Aug 2016