84 Matching Annotations
  1. Mar 2019
    1. The HMO Act of 1973 changed that premise. It authorized for-profit IPA-HMOs in which HMOs may contract with independent practice associations (IPAs) that, in turn, contract with individual physicians for services and compensation. By the late 1990s, 80 percent of MCOs were for-profit organizations, and only 68 percent or less of insurance premiums went toward medical care.

      The HMO Act of 1973 resulted in for profit health care.

    1. Nixon signed into law, the Health Maintenance Organization Act of 1973, in which medical insurance agencies, hospitals, clinics and even doctors, could begin functioning as for-profit business entities instead of the service organizations they were intended to be. 

      In the 1970s health care was allowed to change from a non-profit to a for profit.

    1. a group of teachers created a program through Baylor University Hospital where they would agree to pre-pay for future medical services (up to 21 days in advance). The resulting organization was not-for-profit and only covered hospital services. It was essentially the precursor to Blue Cross.

      Baylor University's teacher's created one of the first "employee insurance companies" which turned into Blue Cross.

    2. Since U.S. businesses were prohibited from offering higher salaries, they began looking for other ways to recruit new employees as well as incentivizing existing ones to stay. Their solution was the foundation of employer-sponsored health insurance as we know it today.

      The result of the Stabilization Act of 1942 was for employers to provide health care benefits to employees.

    1. Because health benefits could be considered part of compensation but did not count as income, workers did not have to pay income tax or payroll taxes on those benefits. Thus, by 1943, employers had an increased incentive to make health insurance arrangements for their workers, and the modern era of employer-sponsored health insurance began

      After WWII companies started providing health insurance to employees. Somewhere along the way this translated into employers co-oping with private insurance companies to provide health insurance as opposed to paying the employees medical bills or providing their own doctors and clinics.

    1. Best advice:

      "If your drywall tape is bubbling it means you didn't lay enough wall plaster down before putting the tape on."

    2. Taping drywall is a 4 day project according to this video series.

      1. Put up the tape and let it dry.
      2. Put a second smooth coat on with a wider knife.
      3. Put a third coat on with an even wider knife.
      4. Sand or sponge smooth.
    1. To attach the cabinets to each other, use a No. 8 2¼-inch-long trim-head screw with a fine thread suited for hardwood. This fastener's small-diameter head is unobtrusive, so you don't have to hide it under a cap or wood plug.

      To attach the cabinets to each other use a 2.25 inch No. 8 trim-head screw. image

    2. cabinet screw, washer-head screw, washer-head cabinet screw, or button-head screw. Its large-diameter head bears down firmly on the cabinet's hanging rail, ensuring a solid installation. Attach the cabinets to the wall using No. 8 or No. 10 screws, approximately 3½ inches long.

      Use 3.5 inch No. 8 or No. 10 button-head screws to attach kitchen cabinets to the wall studs. image

    1. To installing kitchen cabinets, utilize a long level and draw a level line around the room at the base of the upper cabinets and the top of the lower cabinets using the lowest point of the ceiling and the highest point of the floor to make the starting mark. This will ensure that the cabinets are level. Shims can be used (little pieces of wood) to make up the difference as needed.

    1. Putting up drywall tape in the corner of the ceiling. It's important to always start at the middle and work your way towards the sides when smoothing it down with the knife so you avoid bubbles.

    1. https://youtu.be/yJQbO-NSbx4?t=169

      The electrical box sits inside the cabinet. It requires a 40 amp breaker with #8 AWG wire since it can consume up to 7,800 W at 240 VAC. This means while it connects to the standard 120 V electrical supply is has two hot wires (red and black) rather than 1 (black) to achieve the 2x voltage. The double oven will typically come with flexible conduit but you must provide the rest (aka electrical box, cover, etc).

    2. https://youtu.be/yJQbO-NSbx4?t=351

      If your cabinet is too wide you need to install side wood pieces to fill in the gap and give the double oven frame something to screw in to. Screw the extra side pieces in on either side of double oven cabinet so they don't show and then screw the frame of the oven to those. You'll also probably want to add some fancy trim on the edges to cover the gap/extra piece of wood you added between the oven frame and the side of the cabinet.

    3. How to install a double wall oven.

  2. Feb 2019
    1. Any local, state or national government, or any political machine, in order to live, must give the people assurance that they can express their will freely and that their votes will be counted. The most powerful machine cannot exist without the support of the people. Political bosses and political machinery can be good, but the minute they cease to express the will of the people, their days are numbered.

      A very powerful sentiment aligned with the US Declaration of Independence.

    1. WHY DO ABORTIONS OCCUR?

      What the public really wants to know is a breakdown of abortion timeline compared to the reason but none of these stats show this breakdown which is very odd because based on the data they have here it seems the original data set should have this information. It's possible it doesn't though, if the "why" survey's are not linked to the "when" data.

    1. Nearly half of FBI rap sheets failed to include information on the outcome of a case after an arrest—for example, whether a charge was dismissed or otherwise disposed of without a conviction, or if a record was expunged

      This explains my personal experience here: https://hyp.is/EIfMfivUEem7SFcAiWxUpA/epic.org/privacy/global_entry/default.html (Why someone who had Global Entry was flagged for a police incident before he applied for Global Entry).

    2. Applicants also agree to have their fingerprints entered into DHS’ Automatic Biometric Identification System (IDENT) “for recurrent immigration, law enforcement, and intelligence checks, including checks against latent prints associated with unsolved crimes.

      Intelligence checks is very concerning here as it suggests pretty much what has already been leaked, that the US is running complex autonomous screening of all of this data all the time. This also opens up the possibility for discriminatory algorithms since most of these are probably rooted in machine learning techniques and the criminal justice system in the US today tends to be fairly biased towards certain groups of people to begin with.

    3. It cited research, including some authored by the FBI, indicating that “some of the biometrics at the core of NGI, like facial recognition, may misidentify African Americans, young people, and women at higher rates than whites, older people, and men, respectively.

      This re-affirms the previous annotation that the set of training data for the intelligence checks the US runs on global entry data is biased towards certain groups of people.

    4. for as long as your fingerprints and associated information are retained in NGI, your information may be disclosed pursuant to your consent or without your consent.

      Meaning they can give your information to with or without your consent.

    5. people enrolled in, or applying to, the program consent to have their personal data added to the FBI’s Next Generation Identification (NGI) database, shared with “federal, state, local, tribal, territorial, or foreign government agencies”, and DHS third-party “grantees, experts, [and] consultants” forever.

      So it's not just shared with the US government but any government official from any country. Also third-party experts pretty much opens it up for personal information to be shared with anyone.

    1. as part of the application process, TSA collects a cache of personal information about you, including your prints. They’re held in a database for 75 years, and the database is queried by the FBI and state and local law enforcement as needed to solve crimes at which fingerprints are lifted from crime scenes, according to Nojeim. The prints may also be used for background checks.

      While Global Entry itself only lasts for 4 years, the data you give them and allow them to store lasts for almost your entire life.

    1. by providing their passport information and a copy of their fingerprints. According to CBP, registrants must also pass a background check and an interview with a CBP officer before they may be enrolled in the program

      I was at my Global Entry interview (not at all sure I made the right decision to apply) and a person who already had Global Entry came into the room because he had gotten flagged. The lady at the desk asked him if he had ever been arrested, he said no. She said their new system (they continuously update it with new algorithms to find this info) had flagged a police incident that had happened prior to him applying for Global Entry. He hadn’t been arrested, wasn’t guilty of any crime but his name had apparently made it into some police report and that gave them cause to question him when he re-entered his country.

    2. including data breaches and bankruptcy, experienced by “Clear,” a similar registered traveler program

      Clear was another travel program that had a breach of traveler's personal information so it is not unreasonable to be cautious of Global Entry which has the same information and same legal protections in place (or lack there of).

    1. being able to wear clothing that enabled better mobility. Walker chose to wear what was known as the "Bloomer costume" as a modified uniform all throughout the war. It was a dress-and-trouser combination that had gone out of favor long before the war began, but she didn't care -- she wore it anyway.

      From the time she was a girl she wore pants and she continued to do so even in the military.

    2. In 1863, her medical credentials were finally accepted, so she moved to Tennessee, where she was appointed as a War Department surgeon

      The phrasing of this appears to be somewhat biased. It sounds like her credentials weren't up to snuff or something but really, the military was low on surgeons at that time and simply didn't want a woman. https://hyp.is/vAWzXCtjEem5j1tLLCQ8dg/cfmedicine.nlm.nih.gov/physicians/biography_325.html

    3. Because of her credentials, she didn't want to be a nurse, either, so she chose to volunteer for the Union Army.

      This is some what conflicting information. According to https://hyp.is/vAWzXCtjEem5j1tLLCQ8dg/cfmedicine.nlm.nih.gov/physicians/biography_325.html she did work as a Nurse, she just wasn't paid.

    4. Walker went into private practice for a few years, but then the Civil War broke out in 1861. She wanted to join the Army as a surgeon but wasn't allowed because she was a woman.

      She was a surgeon in private practice but wanted to join the war effort.

    5. in 1855 graduated as a medical doctor from Syracuse Medical College

      She was the second women surgeon at that time.

    1. in 1863 she was briefly appointed surgeon in an Ohio Regiment.

      She finally was appointed a surgeon near the end of the war.

    2. Dr. Mary Walker was an outspoken advocate for women's rights, and the first woman ever awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor.

      She wore her medal everyday and also modified her uniform in the war to have pants. In 1917 they took all medals of honor away for anyone who hadn't been "in combat". She refused to give her medal up and wore it until the day she died. Jimmy Carter later reinstated her medal in 1977.

    3. At the outbreak of the Civil War, she volunteered in Washington to join the Union effort, and worked as a nurse in a temporary hospital set up in the capital.

      She worked as an unpaid nurse because she was not allowed to join as a surgeon in the US military.

  3. Jan 2019
    1. Server-Sent Events utilize a regular HTTP octet streams, and therefore are limited to the browser’s connection pool limit of ~6 concurrent HTTP connections per server. But they provide a standard way of pushing data from the server to the clients over HTTP, which load balancers and proxies understand out-of-the-box. The biggest advantage being that, exactly as WebSockets, they utilize only one TCP connection. The biggest disadvantage is that Server-Sent Events don’t provide a mechanism to detect dropped clients until a message is sent.

      Possibly an alternative to using websockets for server-client communication (when the communication does not need to be two ways).

    1. Server-sent Event(SSE) in Python and here is why I thought Python is a great server-side language for SSE

      Server side events in python work well.

    1. Conference in Portland OR about open tools in publishing, science, and social justice.

    1. So it realizes that clean is a dependency of two tasks. In this way, it makes sure that it is executed only once.

      gulp3.0 traces the dependencies and generates the dependency tree such that it only executes a common dependency once.

    2. gulp.task('default', gulp.series('clean', gulp.parallel('scripts', 'styles'), function() {...}));

      The new and improved version in gulp4.0. The difference here which fixes the previous problems of having to rebuild every-time it that, the dependencies can be run independently. So styles can be run by itself without running cleanup beforehand.

    3. Gulp 4 drops the dependency parameter completely and replaces them with execution functions that can be used instead: gulp.series for sequential execution gulp.parallel for parallel execution.

      gulp4.0 allows you to specify the exact execution order of dependencies rather than letting gulp assume the order from the dependency tree.

    4. Imagine triggering the styles task every time you change one of your CSS files. It would execute first clean, and then styles, practically deleting your efforts from “script”.

      This means the dependency graph can cause undesirable wipes of a build directory resulting in unnecessary rebuilds.

    5. All those tasks are executed for maximum concurrency.

      If it can, when generating the dependency graph, it will execute dependencies in parallel.

    1. When a document is deleted or updated (= delete + add), Apache Lucene simply marks a bit in a per-segment bitset to record that the document is deleted. All subsequent searches simply skip any deleted documents.

      Meaning any deleted documents do not show up in search. Assuming that change has been propagated to all shards.

  4. Oct 2018
  5. Sep 2018
  6. Aug 2018
    1. He was told that the documentation he had provided could not be accepted. Bank officials insisted he produce a different form, according to Moshfegh. The bank was wrong, he maintains, because the form he had supplied was the correct one based on his current status as a student nearing graduation.

      Here again, it sounds like because of his potential change in status, they changed the form that he normally would fill out or thought they needed to change the form he normally fills out.

    2. He recently married an American.

      It sounds like perhaps his marital status may have triggered something?

    3. Moshfegh used the account for everyday transactions. All he had to do to maintain the account was show proof of legal residency every six months.

      BOA has been asking for proof of residency every 6 months since 2011.

    1. About 1 week after setting up the account they sent a letter informing us that they were closing the account. They provided a 1-800 number to learn why. The only thing that they would (very tersely) say is that "It was a business decision". That very same day we learned about BOA questioning the citizenship status of its account holders.

      Out of 3931 reviews this is the only one that mentions residency/citizenship and it's not 100% certain that that was even the reason why the account was closed. I'm not saying Bank of America doesn't have terrible business practices and/or ask for unnecessary and discriminatory information but it does kinda make me question whether the media is over-dramatizing this and why they are just reporting on it now since even their own reporting has revealed this has been happening for years (although perhaps not following through with closing people's accounts when they fail to respond?). Looking forward to seeing how this progresses.

    1. Bank of America, though, told the Star it is the company’s standard practice to inquire about citizen status when opening a new account or updating customer information on an existing one. And all customers will eventually receive update notices asking about their citizenship and dual citizenship status.

      This lines up with Moshfegh's story.

    1. The regulations are not designed to determine immigration status. In fact, citizenship status is not even considered when establishing a bank accounts. Also important, we do not ask for proof of citizenship. In fact, we maintain relationships with customers of many different nationalities.

      This sounds like a bunch of political babel.

    2. Twice a year, he was asked to produce certain documents to prove his legal status. Then, Bank of America asked for different documentation that he could not provide. When he was unable to, the bank froze his account. Moshfegh reportedly couldn’t pay his rent as a result.

      Saeed already had to provide proof of legal status and they just changed the form on him. So it's not that Bank of America hasn't been requesting this information before, it's that the format of information has changed. (Not that I think they should be doing that in the first place but there is some truth in what the BOA representative said.)

    1. This text analysis that it contains words written in hebrew and deciphering of the first sentence of the text using hebrew translation seems to align with what this author is saying about the text being passed down through the family.

      She made recommendations to the priest, man of the house and me and people.

      [Source] (https://hyp.is/GB7sZKjvEeidoGeGo8L6jA/www.independent.co.uk/news/science/mysterious-manuscript-decoded-computer-scientists-ai-a8180951.html)

    1. Comments, questions, suggestions? Your feedback is welcome.

      Sukhwant Singh's analysis here seems to fit with a lot of other's partial analysis/observations such as multiple characters representing the same character, certain characters only appearing at the end of words etc. It seems quite compelling. The dates however, are a century too early although that does not necessarily dispel his theory that it is written in Landa Khojki.

    2. Many "words" differ by only one character and are found in each other's vicinity

      This might suggest the same thing as Tiltman's analysis in that a single character may take several forms.

    3. Tiltman treats f as a variant form of k and p as a variant form of t

      When learning that there were over 100 characters used in the manuscript my first thought was that perhaps variations of a character were used to represent the same character.

    4. Speaking generally, each character behaves as if it has its own place in an 'order of precedence' within words; some symbols such as o and y seem to be able to occupy two functionally different places.

      This is very interesting. It seems to suggest that each word may be scrambled based on the characters used.

    1. Here is a copy of the full manuscript.

    2. The text seems to be split into four parts (based on the drawings); botanicals, astrological charts, women bathing, and what appears to be recipes. For this reason it's theorized that the Voynich Manuscript is an encoded medical book.

    3. Both the mineral pigments used in the paint as well as the large and consistent quality of the parchment indicates the text would have cost quite a bit of money to produce.

    4. The Voynich Manuscript has not been deciphered despite people dedicating their entire lives to the challenge. Even modern deciphering computerized methods have not picked up a pattern.

    5. Interestingly, the drawings of some of the plants seem to show cellular level detail. The first microscope didn't exist until centuries later.

    6. The Voynich Manuscript was carbon dated to 1404-1430. The dovetail wall in one of the drawings given the time period indicates the author probably lived in Italy as that's the only known place during that time period with that style of architecture.

    1. Women were afforded much the same rights as men in Egyptian society.

    2. At least 15 egyptian pharaohs were known to be women. This article from 2014 suggests there were at least 7. It's crazy how in just 3 years they discovered that there were more than twice as many. This really speaks to the cover up by the scientific community to exclude women from history.

    3. Hatshepsut took over rule for her son because he was too young but continued on even after he was of age. She was known as a royal warrior and monumental builder.

    4. Arsenoe's rule was pretty much the start of capitalism.

      During her rule as pharaoh coins started being used in most transactions.

    5. Arsenoe's crown's various components pay homage to all the powerful women before her.

    6. Nefertari's earings were given to her by the Greeks and she wore them throughout her life.

    7. I didn't realize all the pharaohs wore fake tie on beards!

  7. Mar 2018
    1. max_overflow

      This defaults to 10 (assuming we increase our pool_size to be 10) which means we will have max 20 connections.

    2. pool_size¶

      The default is 5 in our env -but we typically run with at least 10 connections per instance so this prob means we should increase this number in our config to 10.

    3. from sqlalchemy import create_engine, exc e = create_engine(...) c = e.connect()

      It seems like this is the way we should be using the db engine. Create it once, then create 'sessions' / 'connection' off of it throughout the code. We are doing this by using sessions that underneath grab a connection from the pool. See https://github.com/hypothesis/h/blob/master/h/streamer/streamer.py.

    4. All SQLAlchemy pool implementations have in common that none of them “pre create” connections - all implementations wait until first use before creating a connection. At that point, if no additional concurrent checkout requests for more connections are made, no additional connections are created. This is why it’s perfectly fine for create_engine() to default to using a QueuePool of size five without regard to whether or not the application really needs five connections queued up - the pool would only grow to that size if the application actually used five connections concurrently, in which case the usage of a small pool is an entirely appropriate default behavior.

      The default connection pool is a "small pool"-as other data seems to indicate thus further pointing to increasing our pool size would be a good place to start. Also note the default pool doesn't start out with all those connections it ramps up and discards all connections above pool_size.

    5. Particularly for server-side web applications, a connection pool is the standard way to maintain a “pool” of active database connections in memory which are reused across requests.

      This is something that appears to be not currently happening as our 'default state' number of connections is 50 in total. Rather than taking the thrash as traffic ramps we should maintain more connections in the queue by default. This will avoid cpu thrash as creating connections is an expensive cpu thrashing operation.

    1. session = session_factory(settings)

      This is where we create the db engine/connection pool and a session associated with it.Note at the end we close the session-but not the engine or the pool. The connection created by the original session will be re-used each iteration. See http://docs.sqlalchemy.org/en/latest/core/pooling.html and http://docs.sqlalchemy.org/en/latest/orm/session_basics.html#getting-a-session for details.

    2. if session_factory is None: session_factory = _get_session

      I'm pretty sure we have multiple code challenges on this. It doesn't do what you think it does! And regardless it wouldn't do that anyway because the engine and pool are created outside of this statement.

    3. _get_session

      This is the function that creates a connection pool.

    1. Session = sessionmaker(bind=some_engine)

      A session is bound to the engine and therefore it's resources. When a session is created it grabs a connection from the existing pool of resources bound to the engine.