192 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. Bild 146

      1653

      09.11. Georg Wustlich, Margaretha Pincker

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      1682

      23.11. Georg Mehlig, Matha Wustlich

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      1702

      31.01. Martin Große, Maria Mehlig

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      1591

      Michael Fehrmann, Margaretha Piezsch

      Ambrosius Schedrich, Sibylla Lönicker

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      1575

      Valentin Mehlig, Margaretha Tham

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      1615

      23.01.1616 Balthasar Mehlig, Anna Fehrmann

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      1617

      Gregor Hacke, Margaretha Peuchel

    5. Bild 48

      1582

      Burchard Peuchel, Barbara Schedrich

    6. Bild 6

      1554

      06.02 Barthel Rabe, Margaretha Philip

      28.10. Barthel Rabe, Anna Wubisch

    7. Bild 54

      1585

      Gregor Hacke, Barbara Rabe

      Georg Lönigker, Sibylla Gansauge

    8. Bild 236

      1618

      25.09. Georg Löbner, Maria Schedrich

    1. Bild 34

      1602

      13.01. Andreas Reiche, Margreth Pezsch

      1603

      30.10. Paul Ganßauge, Margreth, Wenzel Tize

    2. Bild 95

      1642

      20.11. Georg Reiche, Anna Mehlig

    3. Bild 33

      1600

      19.11. Burckhard Furman, Anna Tize

      1601

      04.02. Peter Pazsch, Margaretha Glatwitz

      21.10. Jeremias Fickler, Catarina, Donat Rauchfuß

    4. Bild 27

      1593

      21.11. Georg Glatwitz, Margaretha Leuderitz

    5. Bild 51

      1616

      23.01. Michael Faust, Katharina Glatwitz

    6. Bild 53

      1616

      27.11. Christoph, Wenzel Franz, Martha, Max Leuderitz

      1617

      Juni Hans Fehrmann, Catharina Faust

    7. Bild 15

      1581

      01.11. Barthel Scholz, Anna Pazsch

      05.11. Christoph Paz, Martha, Valten Udolph

    8. Bild 30

      1597

      23.11. Hans Czscheile, Barbara Ferman

      1598

      22.02. Barthel Scholz, Barbara Merwitz

    9. Bild 72

      1630

      Feb. Hans Kürbiß, Martha, Barthel Schultz

    10. Bild 106

      1647

      21.11. Paul, Paul Pietzsch, Martha, Hans Kürbiß

    11. Bild 69

      1628

      05.02. Georg Sohrmann, Barbara Patz

    1. Bild 4

      1638

      06.01. Georg Große, Anna Potzscher

    2. Bild 164

      1668

      14.04. Martin Große, Maria Reiche

    3. Bild 354

      1702

      31.01. Martin Große, Maria Mehlig

    4. Bild 82

      1653

      12.02. Jacob Fehrmann, Maria Fuhrmann

    5. Bild 18

      1640

      05.07. Martin Löwner, Margaretha Bache

    1. Bild 196

      1742

      22.11. Christian Große, Anna Rosina Grellmann

    2. Bild 300

      1756

      19.02. Johann Georg Hamann, Eva Christina Mahn

    3. Bild 316

      1758

      30.03. Johann Lehmann, Anna Maria Hamann

    4. Bild 359

      1763

      26.08. Peter Zschoche, Anna Maria Hohmann

    1. Bild 430

      1662

      22.01. Martin Mahn, Barbara Frantz

    1. Bild 135

      1637

      26.04. Hans Rudolff, Barbara Sohrmann

    1. Bild 246

      1659

      25.10. Georg Pietzsch, Maria Rudolph

  2. May 2021
    1. Bild 44

      1611

      05.05. Elias, Jeronymus Patz, Maria, Christoph Patz

    2. Bild 75

      1633

      Feb. Georg, Peter Borisch, Maria, Elias Patz

    3. Bild 28

      1596

      28.01. Lorenz Seifert, Barbara, Marte Möller

    4. Bild 68

      1627

      28.10. Georg, Hans Grale, Barbara, Lorenz Seyfrid

    5. Bild 11

      1578

      12.11. Abraham Paz, Barthel Paz, Dorothea, Greger Scheinpflug

      19.11. Georg Pazsch, Philip Pazsch, Anna, Peter Andrie

    6. Bild 46

      1612

      15.11. Petrus, Peter Glatewitz, Barbara, Georg Peterman

    7. Bild 52

      1616

      03.11. Peter Andrie, Catharina, Blaß Müller

    8. Bild 31

      1598

      08.11. Georg Pazsch, Barbara, Gregor Potzscher

      1599

      31.01. Donat Schulz, Barbara Schröter

    9. Bild 74

      1632

      06.02. Gregor Faust, Barbara, Hans Winckler

    10. Bild 19

      1585

      27.01. Blasius Faust, Margreth Schröter

    11. Bild 49

      1614

      07.06. Gregor, Blaß Faust, Dorothea, Georg Pitsch

    12. Bild 58

      1620

      06.01. Gregor Faust, Regina Kretschmar

    13. Bild 21

      1587

      22.11. Georg Franz, Hans Franz, Margreth

      29.11. Gregor Faust, Christoph

    14. Bild 37

      1605

      30.10. Bastian Müller, Gertrud Fickler

  3. Apr 2021
    1. Bild 14

      1581

      11.01. Blasius Ludwig, Margaretha Scholz

    2. Bild 29

      1596

      20.10. Donat Schulz, Anna Sorman

    3. Bild 47

      1613

      28.04. Christoph Ludwig, Martha Fehrmann

      05.05. Georg Pitsch, Barbara Schulz

    4. Bild 70

      1628

      26.11. Georg, Mathes Frantz, Barbara, Donat Schulz

      1629

      Feb. Peter Ehliger, Margaretha, Blasius Hoyer

    5. Bild 55

      1618

      23.09. Barthel, Georg Pfirschner, Maria, Georg Ranisch

    6. Bild 43

      1610

      07.02. Nicol, Martin Müller, Anna, Christoph Pitsch

    7. Bild 87

      1638

      04.02. Merten, Nickel Müller, Barbara, Michel Fehrmann

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      1640

      06.07. Peter, Christoph Keulig, Barbara Laux Menzel

    9. Bild 53

      1617

      Nov. Caspar, Lorenz Borisch, Anna, Jacob Scheermeßer

    10. Bild 82

      1635

      19.04. Hans Tegel, Anna, Georg Leschge

      Juni Donat, Jacob Patz, Maria, Jacob Köhler

    11. Bild 84

      1634

      Feb. Hans Maul, Maria, Georg Landman

    12. Bild 23

      1590

      04.02. Blasius Merbitz, Margaethe

    13. Bild 12

      1579

      28.10. Wenzel Franz, Margaretha, Lorenz Winckler

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      1592

      15.11. Paul Winckler, Thomas Winckler, Anna, Georg Fickler

    15. Bild 67

      1626

      15.11. Andreß, Paul Winckler, Barbara, Blaß Ludwig

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      1644

      06.03. Georg, Hans Zscheile, Martha, Merten Adam

    17. Bild 24

      1591

      Nov. Hans Ehlig, Anna, Barthel Franz

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      1619

      25.05. Peter Ehliger, Hans Ehliger, Katharina, George Zscheile

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      1645

      Nov. Georg, Peter Glatwitz, Barbara, Christoph Franz

    20. Bild 56

      1619

      Jan. Valtin Hertel, Widwer, Christina, Georg Palitzsch

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      1592

      19.01. Wenzel Fermann, Catarina, ... Merwitz

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      1623

      August Jacob, Peter Dieze, Maria, Wenzel Fehrmann

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      1586

      20.04. Merten Mahn, Georg Sorman, Maria

    24. Bild 13

      1580

      19.10. Georg Forman, Margarethe, Brosius Pazsch

    25. Bild 48

      1614

      20.02. Georg, Georg Landman, Martha, Merten Klügel, Witwe

    26. Bild 14

      1580

      14.12. Jeremias Fickler, Maria, Max Finger

    27. Bild 38

      1606

      07.05. Michael Fehrman, Martin Fehrman, Anna, Martin Andrie

    28. Bild 60

      1622

      06.11. Georg, Gregor Faust, Maria, Hans Fehrmann

    29. Bild 90

      1639

      10.02. Jacob, Jeremias Fickler, Maria, Michael Fehrmann

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      1646

      25.11. Hans, Georg Faust, Anna, Martin Mahn

    1. Bild 189

      1667

      20.11. Jacob, Peter Schützig, Maria, Jacob Hermann

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      1632

      18.06. Jacob Herman, Martha Wustlich

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      1626

      24.01. Andreas Kirsten, Lorentz Kirsten zu Lampersdorf und Jungfrau Dorothea, Peter Weisener

    1. Bild 126

      1606

      19.02. Georg Günther, Barbara Tachsel

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      1636

      23.11. Martin Günther, Maria Pförsner

    3. Bild 141

      1667

      27.11. Georg Günther, Maria Mentzel

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      1694

      28.02. Georg Günther, Georg Günther, Christiane, Jacob Schützig

    1. Bild 429

      1653

      23.02. Georg Graupitz, Anna Schimbrig

    2. Bild 433

      1670

      16.11. Georg Schimbrig, Catharina, Martin Pietzsch

    3. Bild 422

      1628

      26.02. Martin Wend, Maria Pietzsch

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      1695

      05.06. Michael Wend, Maria, Geog Schimbrig

    5. Bild 447

      1718

      23.11. Christian Wend, Maria Günther

    6. Bild 412

      1743

      24.01. Georg Dachsel, Elisabeth Pietzsch

      06.02. Michael Dachsel, Rosina Wend

    1. Bild 24

      1780

      06.04. Johann Gottlob Dachsel, Michael Dachsel, Anna Regina, Johan Richter

    1. Bild 6

      1741

      23.11. Christian Hörig, Christian Hörig, Eva Rosina, Georg Groß

    2. Bild 78

      1764

      23.02. Johann Gottlob Hörig, Christian Hörig, Anna Rosina, Johan Gast

    1. Bild 63

      1792

      29.11. Johann Gottlieb Eulitz, Johann Eulitz, Anna Rosina Hörig, Gottlob Hörig

    1. Bild 326

      1815

      25.06. Johann Christian Fuhrmann, Johanna Rosina Eulitz

    1. Bild 220

      1841

      27.06. Carl Gottlob Hiekel, Carl Friedrich Hiekel, Johanne Christiane Gottleuber

    1. Bild 39

      1601

      14.01. Lucas Mentzel, Maria, Christoff Wagner

    2. Bild 38

      1595

      01.10. Christoff Keulig, Burkhard, Dorothea, Bartel Krusche

    1. Bild 153

      1662

      22.04. Andreas Kirsten, ... Kirsten, Anna, Hans Kuhn

    1. Bild 8

      1555

      22.01. Blasius Hoyer, Eufemia, Ambrosi Donat

    2. Bild 85

      1600

      17.12. Blasius ..., Martha, Bartolomes ...

    1. Bild 13

      1587

      21.10. Mahten Adam, Elisabeth, Brosius Vogel

    2. Bild 12

      1586

      23.11. Burchard Vogel, Gerdraute, Mathias Molh

    3. Bild 43

      1613

      05.03. Nicol Adam, Magdalena, Burkhard Vogel

    4. Bild 50

      1619

      30.06. Martin, Martin Adam, Magdalena, Nicol Adam, Wittwe

    1. Bild 35

      1725

      28.11. Martin Pietzsch, Georg Pietzsch, Elisabeth, Andreas Winckler

    2. Bild 20

      1718

      08.02. Andreas Gießmann, Andreas Gießmann, Barbara, Johann Schultze, Wittwe

    3. Bild 13

      1713

      01.06. Johann Schultze, Johann Schultze, Barabara, Johann Faust, Wittwe

    4. Bild 98

      1758

      04.09. Benjamin Heinrich Klotzsche, Wittwer und Rosina, Georg Fickler

    1. Bild 101

      1568

      10.11. Lucas Wiesener, Ursula, Georg Schubart

    2. Bild 109

      1587

      15.11. Gregor Wustlich zum Sora und Jungfrau Ursula, hinderlaßene Tochter Georg Preisler ... von Sachsendorf

    3. Bild 122

      1608

      26.10. Peter Weisener und Ursula, hinderlaßene Widwe von Gregor Wustlich

    1. Bild 75

      1740

      09.01. Benjamin Heinrich Klotzsche, Oberwartha und Anna Maria, David Freund in Boxdorf

    1. Bild 248

      1663

      02.06. Johann Berner, Martin Berner Maria, Andreas Kießling => Die Ehefrau heißt eigentlich Martha

  4. Mar 2021
  5. Dec 2020
  6. icla2020b.jonreeve.com icla2020b.jonreeve.com
    1. She was sure she would win.

      The phrasing of "win" here is super interesting because to me it doesn't seem like a situation where one can "win." Even if she convinces him to marry her daughter, her daughter's innocence is still lost, and now she's trapped in a marriage with a man almost twice her age. Does she mean that she'll do the best with this unfortunate situation she's been given, or is this truly a "win" for her? Notably the she here is slightly ambiguous, does Mrs. Mooney win, her daughter win, both, or neither?

  7. Oct 2020
    1. The truth is, that women try marriage as a Refuge, far more numerously than they are willing to admit; and, what is more, they find that marriage has justified their confidence in it

      Does anyone have a positive view on marriage in this novel? I mean this screams nice guy energy.

  8. Sep 2020
    1. All that inflated self importance trying to coddle the bride into a false sense of security, giving her an illusion of power so she’ll willingly undertake a ritual to strip her of power and individuality.

      That sense is accurate, not inflated. Having a white knight defending your right to social dominance within a relationship is female privilege. Her husband will be duly, bitterly, reminded of his subhuman status till the end of his days.

  9. Aug 2020
  10. Jun 2020
  11. Apr 2020
  12. Jan 2020
    1. I've noticed a weird pattern: In most of the best marriages I see, one person is an early-bird, and the other is a night-owl. They have opposite circadian rhythms.I think this is healthy. The two partners get the benefits of time together and time alone, which helps the marriage.

      Circadian rhythm as a way to validate a great marriage

  13. Dec 2019
    1. Among these there was one which attracted my mother far above all the rest. She appeared of a different stock.

      In 1831 Shelley makes one of the most controversial revisions of the 1818 edition. In the 1818, Elizabeth is a blood relation--Victor's first cousin--since she is the daughter of his father's brother. In the 1831 edition, Elizabeth is instead "discovered" by Caroline. Caroline notices a comely blonde girl "of a different stock" among the dark-eyed, Italian "vagrants." When Caroline learns that Elizabeth is the daughter of a Milanese nobleman and a German woman she decides that Elizabeth and Victor should someday marry. Thus the potential implication of incest in 1818, when Victor eventually weds his cousin, is erased in 1831.

      See, for instance:

      Ketterer, David "Thematic Anatomy: Intrinsic Structures" in Frankenstein: Bloom's Major Literary Characters, ed. Harold Bloom (Philadelphia: Chelsea House, 2004), 33-54; Richardson, Alan "Rethinking Romantic Incest: Human Universals, Literary Representation, and the Biology of Mind." New Literary History 31, no.3 (2000): 553-572; Twitchell, James B. Forbidden Partners: The Incest Taboo in Modern Culture (New York: Columbia UP, 1987).

  14. Oct 2019
  15. newclasses.nyu.edu newclasses.nyu.edu
    1. .Yousayyourhusbandisnotpious.Rememberthenyourresponsibility.S

      Hall tells his sister that it is her duty to make her husband pious

    2. Iamhappytolearnthatyouaresohappilysituatedastodomesticenjoyment.Idonotdoubtthatitcontributesmuchtoyourhappinesstohaveahomeandfamilyofyourown

      Hall assumes his sister is happy because she has family now

    3. GreenetoSproat,Jan27‘“,Boston,18

      Greene leaves it up to Sproat to decide if the womyn from his hometown should be his missionary wife

    4. MrSproatwhohasthechargeoftheschool,hasnointention,sofarasIknow,ofbeingmarried.Hadheawife,Iwouldnotaskforanyotheraidinthepresentscarcityof

      Hall wants Sproat to get married

    1. heyhavenotyetfrightenedmeaway,thoughnheirthreatshavesomewhatdis-turbedmywife

      The Sioux say they will kill the first white man's wife they find, and Boutwell seems to be confused as to why his wife is uneasy

    2. mixedblood

      "Mixed blood" by Catholic fur traders intermarrying with Natives

      So Catholics exert much influence on the Natives, because any children born in these marriages is baptized a Catholic at birth

    3. Shespokeofhermarriagewithfreedom

      This is important enough that another womyn noted it, and then decided to write it in her diary (the married womyn is Mrs. Copway

  16. Sep 2019
    1. systematic domination of women by men

      "systematic domination of women by men" the beside statement is varies according to person to person, that is the right each one but according to my perspective the idea is wrong because after a long period of time each girl will feel some loneliness. This isolation can be avoided if you have some to care you. No women in the could be independent but they can live independently only a certain period after they miss something in their life. Everyone will leave you but the one who love you will stick with your downs and ups. Your parents will pass you but your husband be with you until something has happen. Below you have five important benefits.

  17. Aug 2019
    1. couldmarryanIndianwifebutsuchastepIampersuadedwouldcontributelittletomyinnuenceamongtheIndians—destroyforeveramongmyfriends—breaktheheartofanaffectionatemother&bringthegrayhairsofabelovedfatherwithsorrowtothegrav

      Seymour is unaffective among the Ojibwe because he is unmarried (want to get married because of his "sense of duty"), but he feels that marrying an Ojibwe women would ruin his reputation

    2. heseventhdaythemessengerbroughtmeanmrmatlve[answer]&thenextdayIpackedupmyeffects,swungmypack&marched

      In order to overcome suspicions of a mistress, Boutwell marries Hester Crooks

    1. ywife,Innd,isnosmallcuriositytothispeople,thoughoneoftheirkindred,accordingtothenesh.HermannersanddressbeingthatofnAmericanwoman,whichmostofthenumberneversaw,excitesthestareandgazeofall,youngandold,maleandfemal

      Boutwell's wife is an Ojibwe woman

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    Annotators

  18. Apr 2019
    1. hire of a harp

      The harp was considered a particularly graceful and feminine instrument, permitting elible young women to show off their charms and attract potential suitors. Many upper-class women, especially those in boarding schools, learned how to play instruments like the harp to make themselves more appealing in the marriage market.

      Read more about the harp as status symbol here

    2. He had been an elderly man when she married him, her own age about thirty.

      This was an odd match for the time. In Regency England, the average age of marriage was between 23 and 27 for women and between 25 and 29 for men.

      Source

  19. Jan 2019
    1. If a man violate the wife (betrothed or child-wife) of another man, who has never known a man, and still lives in her father's house, and sleep with her and be surprised, this man shall be put to death, but the wife is blameless.

      Mesopotamia is a place of marriages that are upheld to be a closed relationship. It is also a very interesting law, because it is similar to "Thou shalt not commit adultery", from The Ten Commandments.

  20. Dec 2018
    1. buried two husbands

      This is the first remarried woman in Austen's writing. While it was discussed in Persuasion, it was in much more generic terms, and mostly regarding men. This is an interesting dynamic.

    2. Mr. Arthur Parker

      Mr. Arthur Parker seems interested in the Miss Beauforts as earlier he thought a short walk to Trafalgar to be a lot of exercise, but he is willing to do a bit more to see the ladies. He is one of several single men in Sanditon and he is likely a contender to be a part of a marriage plot. This is assuming that, like all of Austen's other novels, Sanditon contains a marriage plot.

    3. unfavourably

      The question is why Charlotte should view the meeting between Sir Edward and Miss Clara Brereton as bad for the latter. Is it because Charlotte already formed an unfavourable opinion of Sir Edward as being a lover of Miss Clara's while talking "nonsense" to Charlotte in order to annoy Clara and appear an admirer of hers too? Charlotte finds Sir Edward tiring and may think he is, despite his title, beneath Clara. However, Charlotte does note that Clara's poverty makes her acceptance of Sir Edward's attentions more understandable. If so, then Austen is acknowledging the need for women to consider economic benefits to marriage, while also possibly giving her support to the idea of love in marriage.

    4. marry for money

      This quote epitomises the marriage market where one must consider financial and class implications when considering marriage, as opposed to love.

    5. devotion to Clara

      When considering class distinctions, it will be interesting to see how this relationship will play out.

    6. poor cousin living with her

      I predict that this character will be relevant to the marriage plot. The idea of a young person in this kind of circumstance reminds us of the Crawfords or Catherine Moreland. Single individuals living with relatives have, in other Austen novels, been very relevant in the marriage plots.

    7. Links to common words/themes throughout the annotations

  21. Sep 2018
    1. Nor gentle purpose, nor endearing smiles Wanted

      I find it surprising that, to Milton, "fit conversation" was the purpose of marriage and his ideal of paradise.

  22. May 2018
    1. The discussion of Mr. Collins’s offer was now nearly at an end, and Elizabeth had only to suffer from the uncomfortable feelings necessarily attending it, and occasionally from some peevish allusion of her mother

      Mrs. Bennet is so upset with Elizabeth not accepting the proposal because in the late 18th century getting married was important for young ladies, for future economic concerns, especially for those women who wouldn't be left anything after their father's death (Maurer, Courtship and Marriage).

  23. Apr 2018
    1. Day after day passed away without bringing any other tidings of him than the report which shortly prevailed in Meryton of his coming no more to Netherfield the whole winter

      According to and article titled Courting the Victorian Women, "Courtship was considered more a career move than a romantic interlude for young men, as all of a woman's property reverted to him upon marriage". Mr. Bingley traveling is discussed as everyone's business, and "reports" are updated of his whereabouts. It's not that the town where the Bennet's live is gossipy, but rather so many young women are hoping to marry Mr. Bingley and wait for the opportunity to run into him conveniently, or can know how many times he has gone to see Jane Bennet etc.

    2. Sir William Lucas himself appeared, sent by his daughter to announce her engagement to the family.

      The tradition of a daughter being married well off, is such an event that Sir Williams came over to the Bennets just to declare the news. This is significant because according to Sparacus Educational, there was "the idea was that upper and middle class women had to stay dependent on a man: first as a daughter and later as a wife". Sir William Lucas is now free from the burden of providing for Charlotte, and has passed on the responsibility of caring for her to Mr. Collins. His excitement of the engagement isn't to boast getting rid of her, however, but his relief that his daughter will be sheltered and taken cared of when he's dead and no longer can (especially since Charlotte was already growing old and not described as pretty, which made people assume her fate was doomed).

  24. Sep 2017
    1. Charlotte’s short speech is punctuated with terms of finality—“entirely,” “in the least,” “always”—even as it loosely follows a couple from “beforehand,” through marriage, to the horizon of having “passed your life.”

      Austin's use of diction to determine a major factor of Charlotte's decisions on marriage.

    2. One of the most powerful effects of Austen’s novel is to show how attitudes toward marriage provide overriding norms that dictate forms of intimacy outside those cultivated within the conjugal couple.

      Yes, and this is where the reconsideration of "modernity" also comes into play. What is a "modern" marital decision? Who is allowed to make such judgements?

    3. Charlotte’s marginalization highlights the limitations that Elizabeth’s views about intimacy place on her emotional and intel-lectual curiosity.43 Austen reminds us of the lack of communication between the two former friends by having Elizabeth hypothesize at the end of her visit that she knows Charlotte’s real feelings, though they go unvoiced: “Poor Charlotte!—it was melancholy to leave her to such society!—But she had chosen it with her eyes open; and though evidently regretting that her visitors were to go, she did not seem to ask for compassion” (P, 233). Though Woloch argues that Elizabeth, by this point in the novel (after visiting Rosings and having read Darcy’s revealing letter) “has become the consciousness around which the novel—as a totality—is oriented,” Elizabeth’s parting interpretation of Charlotte’s inner life offers another example of Elizabeth reading social situations aslant: she is confident Charlotte is “evidently regret-ting” her departure, but perplexed that not only does Charlotte not ask for compassion, but she does not even seem to.

      Wow! This is a great excerpt. Here, Moe not only identifies Elizabeth's misjudging of what a "modern" woman chooses, but she again also points out Elizabeth's flaw in putting words/thoughts in other peoples' mouths/minds. Charlotte is (assumedly) content in her role, but it is Elizabeth projecting her own fears onto Charlotte's decision that makes her, in the end, a poor friend to Charlotte. This, again, further the nearly impossible question: who is the more modern woman?

    4. By portraying Charlotte as a superior helpmeet who is more than Mr. Collins deserves, Austen hints that the distinction Elizabeth makes between full, scripted banality and empty, untrammelled elegance is a false one

      Something a reader should question, however, is the context of Darcy's comment. Does he say this because it's truly how he feels, or because he wants a wife in Elizabeth, as well? Also interesting how because Darcy makes opinion of Charlotte as a wife, it becomes assumed as "correct"

    5. Time was full for Charlotte, though “not yet” weighing on her, while Elizabeth imagines her own as promisingly empty

      One of Elizabeth's flaws, I believe, is that she often feels that everyone should think and react like her. She does not understand why Charlotte would marry Collins, but is not truly willing to try and empathize with her decisions.

    6. But, Charlotte’s cathexis of marriage as an institution stands in striking comparison to Elizabeth’s acute surprise at her own hidden internal depths and her sudden discovery of a change of heart about the object of her affection. Charlotte does not experience a sudden change of heart, nor does she acknowledge that fear of approaching middle age prompted her sudden engagement, since I think we are supposed to believe her (Elizabeth certainly does), when she reveals “marriage has always been [her] object.”

      Moe's comparison of Elizabeth and Charlotte strengthens her arguments about the institution of marriage within this time frame. Though both women have different expectations of what mate they will end up with, they are both inherently and consciously seeking marriage. But how does this play into the concept of modernity? Does that make them both un-modern? Or does the method of how they both were marriage make their distinct in their different levels of modernity?

    7. Charlotte seems to inhabit the worst of both worlds; even in the domestic sphere her movements, conversation, and enjoy-ment are all checked.

      Moe seems to contradict herself at times. Is Charlotte "modern"? Within the same paragraph, she seems to promote Charlotte choice, while also diminishing it. Or is Moe trying to argue that despite an optimistic, "modern" thought process, women's happiness and success are still in the hands of the men they marry? It is unclear.

    8. From Charlotte’s perspective, personal fulfillment, growth, and happiness progress (or regress) with equal precariousness inside or outside the couple, and a loving marriage appears to her as an external, only occasionally relevant condition of her future internal well-being. Marriage is a tolerable constraint within which her flour-ishing does not have to be seriously curtailed.

      I would argue that this is a "modern" determination of marriage for the period.

    9. Defending her future against the claims of the present (her embarrassing family, her disappointing friend), means that the future expands, freed of its current burdens, to accommodate a future self who will have grown with “greater importance” and a future couple whose mutual progress demands a marital space purified of all intrusions.

      It's interesting that so many contemporary readers see Elizabeth's marriage as very conventional, when she is striving to fulfill this "future self." I would be interested in seeing Moe identifying the many critiques of Elizabeth's marriage as non-modern, and working through them to defend her argument.

    10. Elizabeth’s process of self-realization through discovering how wrong she was is consistent with her more general practice of negatively inhabiting social expectations. Her course of self-affirmation through negation is opposite to that of Charlotte Lucas, who, despite her age and appearance, surprises and overjoys her family by doing just what young ladies are supposed to do and what everyone supposed she would fail to do: marry.

      Moe purposely poses the two characters against each other to express their severe difference in behaving "modernly." Yet, this succinct sentence is a disservice to the full reasoning for Charlotte's choices. It is easy to judge Charlotte as a contemporary reader, but her decision--though not remarkable--it still not something we should completely bash.

    11. An ideal man is an incomplete catalog of qualities waiting to be augmented, and in an ideal couple, each participant accrues from the partner precisely that which their relationship demonstrates each lacks alone. By this logic, falling in love catalyzes recognition of one’s short-comings, even as it promises to compensate for them.

      But couldn't this definition of marriage, then, apply to Charlotte and Mr. Collins? Before their marriage, Elizabeth thought quite highly of Charlotte. Couldn't Charlotte's strong qualities improve Mr. Collins'? And though he is not an exceedingly charming character, I am sure he has a few qualities that Charlotte could be improved from.

    12. Understanding social forms as the moral fabric created by so many individual participants helps explain how Elizabeth can imagine herself personally affected by actions not directed at her.29 Actions must be sincerely felt so that social norms, like marriage, can be naturalized as self-expression. She would like Charlotte to feel secretly repulsed by her marriage or to discover that her friend’s equanimity disguised feeling oppressed by the circumstances that cornered her into marrying without love. It is Charlotte’s equanimity in the face of marrying Mr. Collins that most disturbs Elizabeth and helps her clarify her own expectation that a woman’s internal well-being should be either jeop-ardized or affirmed by marriage

      At first, this concept seems a bit unrelated to the article, as Moe begins to discuss Elizabeth Bennet's sensitivity and the impact of other characters' choices on her. However, this is Moe's method of bringing up narrative, again, as she describes Austen's methods of using narrative to expose this emotional, affected side to Elizabeth. She also bridges this back to the discussion of marriage and why Charlotte's marriage feels so personally offensive to Elizabeth.

    13. Elizabeth’s discontent stems from the way that she grafts individual choice onto social forms. Marriage, for Elizabeth, should not be defined by its being an omnipresent social form; it should be made meaningful by the intentions behind it.

      Moe aptly presents her argument again, as she argues that Elizabeth's frustration with Charlotte, for example, has to do with her own issues managing her frustration with "social forms." Moe allows the reader to "fill in the blank" here, as the reader can use this piece of information to better understand Elizabeth's reaction to Charlotte--her frustration is in Charlotte's refusal to resist the social forms that inherently oppress women and impact the emotional aspect of marriage. By giving her reader room to make this judgement herself, Moe's argument consequently becomes more concrete.

    14. ******

      The different theses Moe presents to her reader are all an original take on reading Charlotte and Elizabeth's argument, and Charlotte's individual views, especially considering the extensive description of the typical reading of these characters which Moe provides us with.

      This introduction, though at times distracted from the main point through inclusion of so many outside theories and readings of Elizabeth/Charlotte/Austen, definitely engages the reader, provides grounding for Moe's argument, and makes this subject appear significant in understanding the conflict of modern viewpoints in Pride and Prejudice, as well as to better understand Charlotte as a character and her decisions.

    15. By focusing on Charlotte Lucas, I aim to show that heterogeneous ways of thinking and feeling about marriage, about the decisions of other people (and of women, especially) are not only imaginable, but of interest to Austen.

      THESIS part 1: diverse methods of thinking/feeling about marriage and why this matters to Austen (through focusing on Charlotte)

    16. Austen develops heroines like Elizabeth Bennet to be ambassadors for novelistic generic acceptance at the same time that they are agents of social reform. The marriage plot is the exemplary union of both, carried forward by Elizabeth Bennet as the upwardly mobile bourgeois female subject who becomes responsible for the modernization of aristocratic culture into which she is accepted.

      Moe acknowledges Elizabeth as the "modern" character, though her modernity is still restrained by the necessity of her getting married.

    17. In the tradition of feminist criticism I’ve been discussing, the Austenian heroine and her romantic choices are exemplary not only of the modern individual, but also the novel genre, so that the interaction between genre and indi-vidual agency unfolds through the marriage plot

      Now we seem to be back on topic, concerning narrative and modernity, in reference to the marriage plot.

    18. I will argue that the agonistic relationship between Elizabeth and Charlotte exemplifies competing claims about the development of the person through conjugal intimacy. Ultimately, marriage in Pride and Prejudicebecomes a divisive lens for imagining future selves as well as justifying current happiness.

      Another point of Moe's argument. She contends that marriage and "conjugal intimacy" develops characters differently, based on their opinions on the subject.

    19. Narratives have limited resources—formal development, narrative attention, and thematic social goods—that are unequally distributed between protagonists and minor characters. In the process of being “minored,” the many clarify the one; in Pride and Prejudice, minor characters “contribut[e] to the development of Elizabeth’s consciousness.”5 As Elizabeth’s close friend and, in many ways, catalyst for her development, Charlotte is both a minor character par excel-lence and a register of the costs of such a system of individuation

      It is important to relate the concept of cultural modernity and Charlotte's choices to narrative, as that is the main point of the argument (though Moe's thesis is not clearly stated just yet). Also fascinating to label all the minor characters are developmental aspects to Elizabeth; this is quite dehumanizing, but is quite arguable. Austen, therefore, purposefully has Charlotte marry Collins as part of further promoting Elizabeth's vehement feelings about marriage.

    20. Charlotte’s views seem “not sound” to Elizabeth because they are anachronistic to developing standards of mutual regard that govern modern hetero-sexuality

      Moe is methodically challenging Austen readers who nearly worship Elizabeth Bennet and believe she can do no wrong by using quotations here, implying the idea that although Charlotte does not abide by the same ideology of marriage that Elizabeth does not mean that she is "wrong" for making these choices. This is a purposeful, and clever, way for Moe to extend Charlotte's likability.

    21. Yet, Charlotte’s stance is important to think through two hundred years later as a reminder of the multiplicity of attitudes toward intimacy, conjugality, and self-fulfillment in Austen’s fiction. This multiplicity remains unstudied by a tradition of Austen criticism that too often remains bound, even in contemporary feminist forms, to the analytic and prescriptive parameters of liberal personhood as those are under-stood to have emerged at the end of the eighteenth century.

      Moe points out that many Austen critics do not view Charlotte's decisions regarding marriage as "modern," yet as a victim of the 18th century patriarchy, Charlotte's actions make a lot of sense.

    22. anxiety about her economic future and a conviction that marriage was a social necessity for young women

      Let's not also forget that Charlotte is older than Mr. Collins by two years He is 25 (99) and she is 27, as Moe's later quote states. This makes her "scheme" even more successful, as he would still marry her despite her burgeoning "old maid" status.

  25. Jun 2017
  26. May 2017
    1. He had not seen me then above twice

      In her conduct book, Letters to Young Ladies on their Entrance into the World (1824), Elizabeth Lanfear warns women not to rush into marriage: "love-matches, at least those which are generally so called, do not always prove the happiest ; and, when entered into rashly, or at an early period of life, before either the taste or the judgement are sufficiently matured, mutual disappointment is too frequently the result" (Lanfear, p. 49). Lanfear is stating the possibility that marriage can lead unhappiness and warns women not to rush into marriage. If Colonel Brandon proposed the idea of marriage to Charlotte to Sir John, Charlotte might have needed Lanfear's advice not to jump into marriage so rashly.

  27. Apr 2017
    1. but she knew that this kind of blunder was too common for any sensible man to be lastingly hurt by it

      Elizabeth Lanfear describes the repercussions of marriage and the commonality of how marriages occur: “marriage, generally speaking, in either sex, is more frequently the result of accident than of selection : propinquity, convenience, interest, or, at best, mere fancy, dignified by the name of love, forms the basis, of most matrimonial engagements” (Lanfear, Young Ladies on their Entrance into the World, p. 47). Lanfear's statement on marriage relates to this moment where Elinor notes her knowledge of this common type of marriage. In relation to Lanfear's statement, Elinor notices the infatuation between Mr. Palmer and his wife being the main attraction that led to their marriage.

    2. The studied indifference

      In her conduct book published in 1824, Elizabeth Lanfear explains the etiquette expected from married women: “a sensible woman, to preserve the peace and secure the affections of her husband, will often sacrifice her own inclinations to his” (Lanfear, Young Ladies on their Entrance into the World, p. 67). Lanfear states that married woman are expected to sacrifice their tendencies and desires for those of her husbands. In regard to the relationship between Charlotte Palmer and her husband, this same etiquette is very strongly illustrated. In this particular moment, Charlotte is being selflessly tolerant to her husband's comments whether or not her husband's actions affect her.

    1. “We have been engaged these four years.”

      The typical engagement period in early nineteenth-century England is about 6 months to 2 years.

    2. I was very unwilling to enter into it, as you may imagine, without the knowledge and approbation of his mother; but I was too young and loved him too well to be so prudent as I ought to have been

      Approbation means the "action of expressing oneself pleased or satisfied with anything; or the mere feeling of such satisfaction; approval expressed or entertained" (OED).

      According to the customs of the time, parents were to be consulted about a marriage and their opinion to be taken in high regard; however, men and women were mostly free to choose their marriage partner. If a young adult did choose someone who their parents disliked, they might be left out of the will or, if they are underaged, they may have permission withheld from them. Parental opinions were often respected by young people. ( Elizabeth Maurer, "Courtship and Marriage in the Eighteenth Century", Web.)

  28. Jan 2017
    1. and when his approbation of Rosamond's engagement was asked for, he gave it with astonishing facility, passing at once to general remarks on the desirableness of matrimony for young men and maidens, and apparently deducing from the whole the appropriateness of a little more punch.

      Again, making light of marriage. Is George Elliot making fun of how quickly people get married and how expected that is?

    2. and speak less incompletely. Rosamond had to make her little confession, and he poured out words of gratitude and tenderness with impulsive lavishment.

      I feel like the narrator is down playing everything to accentuate its haste and rashness. Why? Is it simply to hook in the reader before going back to Featherstone in the next chapter? Or will their marriage be like Dorothea and Casaubon's too?

    1. Because polygamous marriages are not recognized by the state -- imams who conduct them are subject to punishment -- the wives have no legal status, making them vulnerable when marriages turn violent. Yet the local authorities here typically turn a blind eye because the practice is viewed as a tradition.

      In marriages, women have no right to to report or divorce their husband when thay are in a violent situation that's occur ring in the marriage.

  29. Dec 2016
  30. Nov 2016
    1. Not everyone is meant to be in marriage-that is between husband and wife. That is not the appropriate expression of marriage for everybody. However, a relationship based upon Knowledge, recognition and purpose is meant for everyone. When you have experienced that, you will realize that your life is greater than your personality. It will be an experience that will be very confirming for you. Out of this relationship will come devotion, which is the highest expression of love in the world. Devotion is a quality that is very rare. It is not to be confused with obligation or bondage of any kind. It is a free gift that is essential to give.

      Translator's note: cf. EN "marriage" : PT "amarrar" 'to tie, to bind'

    2. True marriage is something that is a source of nourishment for other people as well as for the two people involved.
    3. Chapter 5 MARRIAGE
  31. Jun 2016
  32. ou-expo.nicklolordo.com ou-expo.nicklolordo.com
    1. “Dorian, Dorian,” she cried, “before I knew you, acting was the one reality of my life. It was only in the theatre that I lived. I thought that it was all true. I was Rosalind one night, and Portia the other. The joy of Beatrice was my joy, and the sorrows of Cordelia were mine also.56 I believed in everything. The common people who acted with me seemed to me to be godlike. The painted scenes were my world. I knew nothing but shadows, and I thought them real. You came,—oh, my beautiful love!—and you freed my soul from prison. You taught me what reality really is. To-night, for the first time in my life, I saw through the hollowness, the sham, the silliness, of the empty pageant in which I had always played. To-night, for the first time, I became conscious that the Romeo was hideous, and old, and painted, that the moonlight in the orchard was false, that the scenery was vulgar, and that the words I had to speak were unreal, were not my words, not what I wanted to say. You had brought me something higher, something of which all art is but a reflection. You have made me understand what love really is. My love! my love! I am sick of shadows. You are more to me than all art can ever be.

      Sibyl's dialogue here promotes Wilde's idea that within marriage passion for doing what one loves is lost as Sibyl's recalls her love for acting, and joyfully casting it away in awe of her engagement, blind to the loss of her own passion.

    2. The real drawback to marriage is that it makes one unselfish. And unselfish people are colorless. They lack individuality.

      Wilde utilizes this dialogue to convey a message on individuality when Harry expresses his views on marital commitments, and how they strip one of them. Perhaps this is Wilde's way of addressing the societal expectation of marriage, and presenting the case that in most instances, those married loose themselves to the marriage once life has been consumed by it.

    3. Men marry because they are tired; women, because they are curious: both are disappointed.

      Wilde provides commentary here on the confinement of marriage and the commitment it demands. Through Harry he illustrates a life of playful nature and deviance for men and one of innocence and modesty for women.

  33. Sep 2015
    1. Even marriage itself was regarded as a covenant. Connecticut granted nearly a thousand divorces between 1670 and 1799.

      Very Similar today. If Marriage was supposed to be sacred, then why were they so tolerant?

  34. Jun 2015
    1. But the marriage equality movement has been curiously hostile to polygamy, and for a particularly unsatisfying reason: short-term political need.

      I hope that the focus on prohibition by the drug policy reform movement helps sidestep a similar effect happening with cannabis.

  35. Feb 2014
    1. Cyrus sent a message with a pretence of wanting her for his wife,

      1.205 Cyrus sends a marriage proposal to Queen Tomyris of the Massegetai in order to capture her holdings through political alliance rather than through battle. Tomyris is not feeling it though.