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  1. Jul 2023
    1. Quartal Harmony and sus ChordsQuartal chords can have a variety of uses. Sometimes they imply quartal harmonyand other times they are merely used to create interesting voicings of tertian chords; bothare staples of modern jazz keyboard harmony. There are many Preludes with isolatedchords voiced in fourths or with a right-hand figuration using fourths, and even thesequick references, along with Kapustin’s other devices, create a modern jazz context forhis musical ideas. Most of the examples discussed below feature more extensive use ofquartal techniques, and most use tertian harmony with quartal chord voicings
    1. There are two ways of establishing a chord–scale relationship for ii 7 –V 7 or ii≤57–V 7progressions: either select a mode that works for V7 or select a mode that works for ii7or (ii≤57). As shown in Figure 18.4, mm. 2–4 feature a descending sequence of incompleteII–Vs connecting the tonic on I with the predominant on IV. Each II–V progressionestablishes a chord–scale relationship with the corresponding dominant 7th. Notice that,in m. 2, the use of Mixolydian ≤13 fits the underlying context much better than the diatonicMixolydian mode. The tonic note F4 functions as the ≤13th of Mixolydian ≤13 and isretained as a common tone in mm. 1–2. The second A section (mm. 9–16) demonstratesa different approach to chord–scale theory. The selection of modes for the II–V pro-gression in Figure 18.4 is based on the quality of the predominant chord. Thus, inm. 10, Emin7(≤5)–A7 uses E Locrian, while in m. 11, Dmin7–G7 establishes a chord–scalerelationship with D Dorian, etc

      The bridge of “Confirmation” (mm. 17–24) features two four-bar phrases with ii7 –V7 tonicizations of the IV and ≤VI key areas. The chord–scale relationship for the bridge in Figure 18.4 includes a different selection of modes: Dorian, Mixolydian, and Ionian for Cmin7–F7–B≤Maj7, and Dorian, Altered, and Lydian for E≤min7–A≤7–D≤Maj7. Tonal and contextual considerations are particularly evident with the choice of Altered mode in m. 22, which accommodates notes from the tonic key and prepares the arrival of FMaj7 in m. 25. The last A section (mm. 25–32) features a much bolder selection of modes. The choices of A Altered in m. 26 and F Locrian in m. 28 are particularly poignant. The former injects chromatic notes into the structure of dominant 7th chord. The choice of F Locrian over Cmin7–F7 in m. 28 might seem out of place because neither chord (at least not in the present form) establishes a convincing relationship with this mode. But, the F Locrian mode forms a chord–scale relationship with F7(≤9≥9)sus, which is an effective harmonic substitution for Cmin7–F7. While the selection of modes in Figure 18.4 is overcrowded with different options, an improvisation may focus on only a few modes. In fact, each A section contains a selection of modes that could be implemented in the course of an entire solo. In establishing a successful chord–scale relationship for the tune, be mindful of three important con- siderations: (1) modal hierarchy, (2) chromatic treatment, and (3) voice leading. Chromatic modes, for instance, contain notes that might need preparation. This preparation usually takes place anywhere from one beat to one measure before the chromatic notes occur. The succession of modes in mm. 5–6—B≤ Mixolydian and D Mixolydian ≤13—illustrates such a case. The latter mode contains the chromatic ≤13th that was introduced as ≤7th of B≤7 in m. 5. “CONFIRMATION” 239

  2. Jun 2023
    1. The A Section: A Two-Scale Approach
    2. diminished 7th chords
    3. arpeggiation
    4. These seven models of harmonic realization get progressively more advanced, but eventhe initial ones—provided that they are performed in time and with a good rhythmicfeel—can convincingly express the majority of jazz progressions. As you get morecomfortable at realizing harmonic progressions using these models, experiment withdifferent metric placements and variations of the Charleston rhythm
    5. The ability to realize harmonic progressions on the keyboard is an essential skill for thecontemporary jazz musician, regardless of her/his primary instrument. The forthcomingmodels of keyboard playing will help to accomplish this objective
    6. invertible potential of the guide tones.
    7. Various chords realized in “chorale style” with equal distribution of notes in bothhands.Model VII uses two voices per hand and employs different four-, five- and larger-partharmonic structures. Since this model uses only four-voice textures, larger formations needto be reduced to their essential harmonic frameworks. In reducing chords to their four-part frameworks certain notes are retained and others omitted. Typically, the root isretained, the 5th is omitted, and—depending on the context—the remaining three voicesare selected from the related guide tones, pitch alterations, or extensions. Figure 12.7demonstrates different Model VII realizations of the II–V–I progression. The selectionof chords differs from one realization to the next and depends both on the voicing of theopening chord and on the voice-leading forces initiated by the initial two chords
    8. Rootless five-part chords in the R.H. realized with good voice leading.• Roots, thirds, or fifths in the L.H. in 2:1 ratio with the R.H.The motion between chords in Model VI shown in Figure 12.6 is controlled by theprinciples of good voice leading
    9. Rootless five-part chords in the R.H. (NO voice-leading considerations.)• Roots of chords in the L.H. in 1:1 ratio with the R.H.Broadly speaking, so-called rootless formations omit the root of the chord from theirstructure. With rootless five-part chords, the upper four-part structure is placed in theR.H. and the root in the L.H. Some of the R.H. shapes should look, sound, and feelfamiliar, since they have already been encountered in the four-part chords in the contextof Model III and Model IV. Similar to Model III, we will first acquaint ourselves withfour rotations of the rootless formation. Figure 12.5 provides four Model V realizationsof the major and minor versions of the II–V–I progression, with each realization beginningon a different R.H. shape
    10. Root position and inversions of four-part chords in the R.H. (NO voice-leadingconsiderations.)• Roots of chords in the L.H. in 1:1 ratio with the R.H.The focus of Model III, shown in Figure 12.3, is to explore only one position or inversionof the four-part chord throughout the progression
    11. Root position and inversions in the R.H. realized with good voice leading.• Roots, 3rds, or 5ths in the L.H. in 2:1 ratio with the R.H
    12. Guide-tone lines in the right hand (R.H.).• Roots of chords in the left hand (L.H.) in 1:1 ratio with the R.H.Figure 12.1 demonstrates Model I using the major and minor versions of the II–V–Iprogression. Notice that the R.H. explores the invertible potential of the guide tones
    13. Rhythmicized guide tones in the R.H.• Roots, thirds or fifths in the L.H. in 2:1 ratio with the R.H.Figure 12.2 illustrates the use of Model II. The R.H. distributes the Charleston rhythmat different locations within the measure
    14. In addition to the ii 7–V7–Imaj7 and ii≤57–V7–i progressions, there are other harmonicprogressions that often occur in standard tunes. Probably the most recognizableprogression is a turnaround, also known as a turnback. The turnaround is a two- orfour-bar progression, usually with a faster harmonic rhythm, that typically occurs at theend of 8- or 16-bar phrases. One of the formal functions of the turnaround is to effectivelyprepare the arrival of the “top of the chorus” by ushering in a familiar chord progression. 1Just as the ii 7 –V 7 –Imaj 7 progression can be transformed with different harmonicsubstitutions, so too can turnarounds
    15. Tag endings are somewhat related to turnarounds in their basic harmonic structure, butplay different roles in tunes and complete performances. A tag ending occurs at the veryend of a tune, repeats a chord sequence (which in the course of subsequent repetitionsbecomes harmonically transformed), and has an indeterminate duration. Only the finalrepetition of the tag ending progression is harmonically closed with a clear confirmationof the tonic. Its basic role in the performance is to provide a satisfactory, coda-like endingwith a final improvisational flair. As Miles Davis demonstrated on his many recordings,tag endings may take on a life of their own—especially with Herbie Hancock, Ron Carter,and Tony Williams in the rhythm section—and frequently exceeded the length of his solos.2Tag endings and turnarounds often share similar chord progressions: the only differencebetween the Imaj7–vi7–ii7–V7 and the iii7–vi7–ii7–V7 is that the former begins on the tonicand the latter on the mediant chord. These two chords, Imaj7 and iii7, are said to befunctionally equivalent and are frequently used to substitute for one another. Figure 13.6illustrates a iii7–vi7–ii7–V7 tag ending progression realized with Model II of keyboardplaying. Each measure displaces the Charleston rhythm by a half beat.Each of these chords can be further substituted by a secondary dominant 7th and,subsequently, by a TR/X7. Since a tag ending progression is usually four bars long, wecan demonstrate the use of two harmonic techniques that will double the rate of harmonicrhythm in each measure. The technique of dominant saturation combines two dominant7th chords, diatonic or chromatic and its TR/X 7 (or vice versa) next to each other. Theuse of ii7–V7 diminution technique expands any dominant 7th chord into a local ii 7–V7
    16. During the Baroque Era, the “Rule of the Octave” was a practical tool that enabledmusicians to gain harmonic flexibility at the keyboard.5 The rule prescribed how toharmonize a scale in the bass using stylistic tonal progressions. In jazz, a similar rule canalso be developed. Instead of placing the scale in the bass, the major scale is placed in thesoprano voice. The jazz rule of the octave explains how to harmonize a descending majorscale with idiomatic jazz progressions. By examining different harmonic outcomes, therelationship of melodies to chords and chords to melodies becomes clear. The jazz ruleof the octave also helps us to realize the harmonic potential of different melodic segmentsand examines their behavior in the context of underlying chord progressions. Figures21.3a–21.3d illustrate four distinct harmonizations of the descending major scale
    17. Chapter 5 expands the repository of harmonic structures to 35 five-part chords. They aredivided into five categories: major, minor, dominant 7th, suspended dominant, and inter-mediary

      Chordal extensions consist of different forms of the ninth, the eleventh, and the thirteenth and can be divided into two broad categories: diatonic and chromatic. Diatonic extensions enhance the structure of chords, whereas chromatic extensions modify that structure in a considerable way. The ninth has three distinct forms: a diatonic major 9th, a chromatic ≤9th, and a chromatic ≥9th. The eleventh has two forms: a diatonic perfect 11th and a chromatic ≥11th. The thirteenth has two forms: a diatonic major 13th and a chromatic ≤13t

    1. But everything changes when degrees I and IV are treated as sev-enths, which is a quality only associated with the fifth degree in tonal harmony.This makes any hypothesis of assimilation impossible.The link between the function and the quality of a chord, which is organic in atonal situation, does not exist in blues. Indeed, let us look at the first degree withfour sounds: C-E-G-B b. All four notes belong to the scale as it has been defined.But this is neither true with the fourth degree (F-A-C-E b), as A does not belongto the scale, nor the fifth (G-B-D-F), which involves a B natural and a D that donot appear in the scale. This lack of organic link between the scale of referenceand how chords are built is a fundamental difference between blues and worksusing the tonal system.

      there is also no link between the quality of a chord and its function in blues harmonic system (I and IV chords are both 7th-chords)

    2. Chords that are not built on superimposed layers of thirds are still to be in-vestigated. They are of three kinds in principle:Fig. 5.1. Infrastructure, superstructure, and developed chord

      the major sixth chord (C6) C-E-G-A • the minor sixth chord (Cm6) C-E b-G-A • the “sus4” chord (C7sus4 or just C7sus, “sus” meaning “suspended”) C-F-G-B b. The first two are usually seen as enriched perfect chords, in which case the sixth is considered an enrichment, like the ninth, eleventh, or thirteenth. The third case is less straightforward and depends on the context. In a tonal situation, the “sus4” chord is a form of suspension.10 In other contexts, it will be considered a specific chord. The question is asked of the distinction between the fourth and eleventh on the one hand, and the sixth and thirteenth on the other hand. How do we decide that F in a C chord is a fourth or eleventh or A a sixth or thirteenth? The reality shows that it is a total mess in the practice of jazz musicians. When a figuring including “4” or “11” (even more so with “6” or “13”) occurs, it is impossible to know for sure what exact degree the author is referring to. It seems to me that the rule should be this: if there is a fourth then there is no third, and if there is a sixth then there is no seventh. Implicitly, this comes down to considering that the fourth is a substitute for the third (as mentioned before, this is easy to understand in a tonal system) and the sixth a substitute for the seventh. This is a consequence of chords being built up on superimposed layers of thirds (which confirms the structuring nature of such a build-up, by the way). For F to be an eleventh, the third (E or E b) must have existed beforehand. The same applies for A to be a thirteenth: a seventh, B or B b, must have existed beforehand. Yet, the “7/6” figuring often occurs, which contradicts this rule (the “13” figuring should include the seventh implicitly). This does not reveal a different approach to that chord but a lack of rigor in figuring practices, with the implicit idea behind it that, as jazz is a type of music based on oral traditions and practices, any localized ambiguity can be clarified at a later stage.

    3. Harmonic substitution—Harmonic substitution consists of changing the qualityof a chord, that is to say altering one or several notes of the infrastructure. Themost common use of this rule produces secondary dominants: in sequencesbased on fifth relations expressed by functional degrees (I-IV-vii-iii-vi-ii-V-I),this consists of transforming any of the chords preceding V (except IV), that isto say either vii, iii, vi, or ii (all chords with minor thirds) into a seventh chord:
  3. May 2022
  4. Sep 2020
    1. HARs are short stretches of DNA that while conserved in other species, underwent rapid evolution in humans following our split with chimpanzees, presumably since they provided some benefit specific to our species. Rather than encoding for proteins themselves, HARs often help regulate neighboring genes. Since both schizophrenia and HARs appear to be for the most part human-specific, the researchers wondered if there might be a connection between the two.dfp.loadAds("right2","MPU2","dfp-right2-article-1")Advertisement

      Schizophrenia is unique to humans. There are also regions that human and other species have, but have undergone more rapid evolution in humans called Human Accelerated regions (HAR).

      Maybe these HARs and Schizophrenia are linked.

      Also HARs are regions whose purpose is to regulate the expression of other genes, not so much directly code for a protein.