639 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. En dashes, which are about the width of an upper-case N, are often mistaken for hyphens. But, traditionally, en dashes function as a kind of super hyphen. They’re meant to give you a little extra glue when you have a compound modifier that includes a multi-word element that can’t easily be hyphenated. For example, the phrase Elvis Presley–style dance moves uses an en dash because Elvis-Presley-style dance moves is awkward; “Elvis Presley” isn’t a compound modifier, so hyphenating it looks odd. But, keep in mind, not all readers will notice en dashes or understand what they mean. Sometimes, it’s better to simply reword the phrase. Elvis Presley–style dance moves or: dance moves like Elvis Presley’s pre–World War II buildings or: buildings constructed before World War II En dashes are also used to show ranges of numbers, such as times, page numbers, or scores (I’ll schedule you from 4:30–5:00). But, outside of formal printed publications, this type of en dash is commonly replaced with a simple hyphen.
    1. and free of globals

      Ah! This remark highlights a fundamental difference in understanding between two camps, which I have been (painfully) aware of, but the source of this confusion has eluded me until only just right now. (Really, this is a source of frustration going back years.)

      In one camp, the advice "don't use global variables" is a way of attacking a bunch of things endemic to their use, most notably unnecessary coupling to spooky state. In another camp "no global variables" is taken literally, so you can have as much spookiness as you like, and so long as the value is not visible (accessible) from, say, another given piece of code appearing at the top-level ("global") context, as with the way i is bound to the activation record in this example but is not accessible outside the scope of getGetNext, then you're good.

      That is, there are two aspects to variables: scope and extent, and the first interpretation seeks to avoid the negative effects on both dimensions, while the second is satisfied by narrowly avoiding only those things effecting scope.

      I find the latter interpretation bizarre and completely at odds with the spirit of the exhortation for avoiding globals in the first place.

      (What's worse is the the second interpretation usually goes hand in hand with the practice of making extensive use of closures, which because they are propped up as being closely associated with functions, then leads people to regretfully refer to this style as functional programming. This is a grave error—and, to repeat, totally at odds with the spirit of the thing.)

  2. Jul 2021
    1. We reached the house, in the temper of two strange dogs, coupled up together for the first time in their lives by the same chain.

      Betteredge uses some interesting figurative language. I'm curious to see if the style changes in the Second Period.

    1. Anne: What was family life like with you and your brother and your mother and father? Did you guys speak English at home? Did you do American things, activities? Do they work a lot? Tell me a little bit about family life.Juan: Right now, my dad, he's always been the boss of the family. He's always worked, he works in construction, and as you know, Utah, with the climate change, it snows, it rains, all of the climates. Since he works in construction, he does work outside all the time, so even if it snows or even if it rains, even if it's minus five degrees outside, he still goes out and works because nobody's going to give him the money to provide for his family.Juan: In a way, my dad, you can say he's one of those hard working men who doesn't look out for himself, but rather looks out for his family. In my house we spoke Spanish all the time because of my mom. To this day, she doesn't want to learn English even though we tell her to learn English. My little sister, she doesn't speak Spanish, she speaks more English and with her it's different. We tell her, "You have to learn Spanish because it's going to help you," but she doesn't want to learn.Anne: Is she a citizen?Juan: Yes, she was born in the US. So my parents didn't really adapt to the American culture. They always wanted to follow Mexican traditions, even when it's Mother's Day over there … I think here it's May 10th but over there, when is Mother's Day?Anne: I think it's the second Sunday of May, so it could be different days.Juan: We could take that as an example. They'd rather follow Mother's Day here in Mexico than over there. Also Christmas, I guess the one thing they did adapt to was Thanksgiving. We don't celebrate that here in Mexico, but they do celebrate there, and they did adapt that. Another thing, Easter day. You go out with your family, you hide the eggs as a tradition, no? They adapted to that, but here in Mexico they don't do that. They don't even know about that. In a way they wanted to keep their Mexican culture alive even though they were in the US, but they also wanted to adapt to the things that they did there.

      Time in the US, Homelife, Mexican traditions, Holidays, Spanish language, US traditions, Holidays

    1. Anita:Remind me finally, where did you learn your English?Beto:I learned English in California.Anita:How?Beto:[37:17] I went to middle school. I learned the hard way because my dad actually just put me into school like from one day to another, and it was like I was in the middle of nowhere. I felt like a little ant. Everybody was like, "The new guy" but I didn't know what they were talking about. And you feel very, very tiny listening into everybody. They put me into ESL classes as well. Now that I'm 41 years old and trying to remember when I was like 13 years old, I'm thinking at that time it was 1991 when they had these ESL classes. Where did they get these ESL classes from? At that moment, there wasn't that many immigrants. Everything in California was pack of Americans. It was an all-American state. They had this ESL class that they put me in. Most of my friends talked in Spanish. I was feeling like home. But it was just a certain class for me to learn how to say parts of my body and clothing. After that you need to go to history class. "Huh? Okay." You got to learn who is Abraham Lincoln. "Okay. I heard about him." But then the language, I just heard the teacher going, "Blah, blah, blah, blah, blah."Beto:Okay and I understood “Abraham Lincoln,” and that’s all. "Abraham Lincoln." "Good. What about him?" Yes. It was difficult. Math? I didn't talk at all. I was good at math because I learned –here in Mexico, they're very good at math and still they are very good at math. My algebra teacher – It was a Chicano girl. I remember that Chicano girl. The teacher pointed at me for something and then the girl told me, "Hey he's calling you. The teacher is calling you." She said that in Spanish. "Mm-hmm. What you want me to do? What does he want me to do?" "He wants you to go to the board and complete the mathematic there.”

      Time in the US, School, Learning English/ESL

    1. commonplace book From IndieWeb Jump to: navigation, search

      Commonplace books - "a way to compile and store knowledge, usually by writing information into books, notebooks, card catalogs, or in more modern settings on one's own website."

  3. Jun 2021
    1. Anne: So, you were playing this game with the tapes—Ben: With the tapes and stuff and then later we started elementary school and then once I started elementary school, it changed. Well my mother had a rule, she goes, "No English inside of the house.” Before, it’s “Speak English, speak English,” but once we started school, she goes, "I don't want you all speaking English here inside the house” to me and my brother. And we used to think that’s because she didn't understand, but it was because she wanted us to practice the Spanish.Ben: And when I would get home from school when I was going to kindergarten—my brother would get out an hour later—I would get home and my mother would give me these little comic magazines, Mexican comic magazines, and she'd have me read them. And then she would make me write letters to my grandmother. So that's how I was able to learn a little bit of, keep the Spanish and English. But English I did, I went through elementary, middle school, went to tenth grade in high school, then I dropped out of high school to go help my father. He started a small construction business, but then he got sick and he was hospitalized for three months.

      Time in the US, School, Kindergarten, Elementary, Learning English, Arriving in the United States, Living situation, Homelife, Parents, Expectations

    1. I knew the basics, but sometimes I'd start a conversation with a family member or somebody and then they'd start saying a couple of words that I didn't understand, and I would actually be like, "Oh, what does that mean?" A lot of people would say, "Oh, well it means this." But a lot of others would just laugh and they'd be like, "How could you not know Spanish if you're Mexican?" And it’s like, yeah, I'm Mexican. I know the basics but—I don't know, it was very confusing. My mom used to always say that we were kind of nomads because we weren't from the States. We were raised there but we're not from the States, but we weren't from Mexico either because we may have been born here, but we didn't know anything about it.
    1. Luisa: I made the decision of returning, and I uprooted my sisters. My little sister was a year old when we left. She knew nothing about Mexico. She barely spoke Spanish, so I selfishly made everyone move back to Mexico.Anita: Because?Luisa: Because I wanted to continue my education.

      Leaving the US, Reasons for Exit, Higher Education in Mexico

  4. May 2021
    1. Julia, however, seemed unable to mention the Party, and especially the Inner Party, without using the kind of words that you saw chalked up in dripping alley-ways. He did not dislike it. It was merely one symptom of her revolt against the Party and all its ways, and somehow it seemed natural and healthy, like the sneeze of a horse that smells bad hay.

      Julia's language revolt vs. Winston's life-writing

  5. Apr 2021
    1. "The Analytical Language of John Wilkins" (Spanish: "El idioma analítico de John Wilkins") is a short essay by Argentine writer Jorge Luis Borges originally published in Otras Inquisiciones (1937–1952).[1][2] It is a critique of the English natural philosopher and writer John Wilkins's proposal for a universal language and of the representational capacity of language generally. In it, Borges imagines a bizarre and whimsical (and fictional) Chinese taxonomy later quoted by Michel Foucault, David Byrne, and others.
    1. He is particularly known for An Essay towards a Real Character and a Philosophical Language (1668) in which, amongst other things, he proposed a universal language and an integrated system of measurement, similar to the metric system.

      This may be well worth reading with respect to my research on memory, stenography, shorthand, etc.

    1. What Are the Best Languages for Web Application Development in 2021?

      There are thousands of programming languages, and new ones keep being created. This means you have many possible ways to build your website. With so many options, how can you make the right choice? Our market researchers and web app developers have collaborated to create a list of the top seven languages for web application development in 2021

    1. In many computing contexts, "TTY" has become the name for any text terminal, such as an external console device, a user dialing into the system on a modem on a serial port device, a printing or graphical computer terminal on a computer's serial port or the RS-232 port on a USB-to-RS-232 converter attached to a computer's USB port, or even a terminal emulator application in the window system using a pseudoterminal device.

      It's still confusing, but this at least helps/tries to clarify.

  6. mathshistory.st-andrews.ac.uk mathshistory.st-andrews.ac.uk
    1. Hérigone’s only published work of any consequence is the Cursus mathematicus, a six-volume compendium of elementary and intermediate mathematics in French and Latin. Although there is little substantive originality in the Cursus, it shows an extensive knowledge and understanding of contemporary mathematics. Its striking feature is the introduction of a complete system of mathematical and logical notation, very much in line with the seventeenth-century preoccupation with universal languages.

      Interesting that this links the idea of universal languages to his mathematical notation and NOT to the idea of translating numbers into words using and early form of the major system.

  7. Mar 2021
    1. I love the ideas hiding in some of these design elements. The pieces are very atomic, but can be built up into some fascinating bigger designs.

      I'm curious if there are any mnemonics attached to these that add additional levels of meaning in the art in which they're embedded?

      The attached video was incredibly helpful: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kc3K-MyH3xg

    1. The problem is not just the displeasure you experience trying to wade through the syntax. It’s what lies beyond the words – what they tell us both about humanitarians and, ultimately, the current state of humanitarian aid.
    1. Model theory recognizes and is intimately concerned with a duality: it examines semantical elements (meaning and truth) by means of syntactical elements (formulas and proofs) of a corresponding language
    1. Originally he had used the terms usage scenarios and usage case – the latter a direct translation of his Swedish term användningsfall – but found that neither of these terms sounded natural in English, and eventually he settled on use case.
    1. When bullshit is legitimized and codified, itspreads more easily and is likely to be moreinfluential. This in turn fosters the future produc-tion of more bullshit.
    2. The first three steps in the C.R.A.P. framework areused to understand the nature of workplace bullshitand how to identify and deal with it. Building on thisknowledge, the final step in the framework outlineshow to prevent the creation and spread of work-place bullshit in the first place. In the long term,this step may be of the greatest benefit in dealingwith workplace bullshit. Effective prevention willminimize the need for, and costs associated with,recognizing and acting against workplace bullshit.

      How to prevent workplace bullshit.

    1. the debased term of REST

      Great descriptor.

      (Also, did I just accidentally run headlong into my own personal epiphany about what it means, in the terms of internet culture, to describe something as "based" and exactly how that term came to be via its relation to other words? "Based": inverse of "debased".)

    1. It's a pet peeve, but I wish that people would stop describing their HTTP RPC APIs using the term "REST".

      The only solution is probably to advocate for moving away from "REST" entirely—for all parties. Mend the discord by coining two new terms and clearly articulate the two meanings that should be attached to them.

      ("Indian" is another word like this, but that did not get fully deprecated. This is resulted in lots of confusion. "'Indian'? Like Native Americans?" "No, Indian as in 'from India'" "Oh, all right." A similar thing is happening with "open source".)

      This probably involves making the terms (or at least one of them—so long as it's the right one) somewhat cool. Maybe the non-REST term should be AROH (pronounced like "arrow") for "Application RPC Over HTTP".

    1. JavaScript needs to fly from its comfy nest, and learn to survive on its own, on equal terms with other languages and run-times. It’s time to grow up, kid.
    2. If JavaScript were detached from the client and server platforms, the pressure of being a monoculture would be lifted — the next iteration of the JavaScript language or run-time would no longer have to please every developer in the world, but instead could focus on pleasing a much smaller audience of developers who love JavaScript and thrive with it, while enabling others to move to alternative languages or run-times.
    1. This is not a physical phenomenon: the software does not actually decay, but rather suffers from a lack of being responsive and updated with respect to the changing environment in which it resides.
    1. I think that over time the distinction is lost. My math teacher, 35 years ago stated "formulas are used in chemistry, in math we have equations". To this day, the word 'formula' in math seems wrong, but I'd accept it's used commonly.
    1. Tamika and Malia employed their critical Black Girls’ Literacies (Muhammad & Haddix, 2016) to question the power dynamics involved in traveling; rather than attempting to enact linguistic privilege as English-speaking Americans, Tamika and Malia acknowledged that they would be visitors in other countries, and they desired to use the communicative practices of the local people

      I noticed this and thought it was interesting; a powerful connection across language and understandings of literacy that has important implications I think for how we relate and interact with each other in the world. Makes me want to reflect on the how Black Girl Literacies, in particular, might underscore and highlight these connections and the implications for shifting power dynamics in schools.

  8. Feb 2021
    1. Voicing is the act of employees speaking up toconfront what they consider to be bullshit. Em-ployees may ask to see evidence that supports thesuspected bullshit. They may themselves providebullshit-challenging evidence along with alterna-tive statements, and when doing so should becognizant that simple and coherent bullshit willtend to be more appealing than intricate andcomplex truths. Employees may also voice bylaughing at and mocking bullshit. This is a way to“informally show up its emptiness without havingto risk a full-frontal face-off with powerful bullshitartists” (Spicer, 2017, p. 167).
    2. When employees correctly conclude that a state-ment is bullshit, they may react in a number ofdifferent ways. To illustrate these reactions, wedraw onHirschman’s (1970)exit,voice,loyaltyframework, which he initially formulated to illus-trate how employees react to organizations indecline or when the sky was falling. Scholars lateraddedneglect(Farrell, 1983; Withey & Cooper,1989) and successfully applied the framework tohelp understand employees’ responses to negativeworkplace experiences (Rusbult, Farrell, Rogers, &Mainous, 1988; Turnley & Feldman, 1999). Weapply this framework here to employees’ reactionsto bullshit.When employees act by exiting, they are tryingto escape from the bullshit and the bullshitter.This can involve quitting the organization orseeking a transfer to a different unit of the orga-nization so as to avoid the influence of the bull-shitter. Exiting is a likely reaction when employeesare so appalled by the bullshit that they cannotstay with the organization or unit, or when theyare already disillusioned, and the bullshit (possiblythe latest bout in a stream of bullshit) is the laststraw. For exiting to happen, employee dissatis-faction with the situation must rise to such a levelthat the disadvantages of remaining and facingbullshit in the workplace are greater than thedisadvantages of leaving. Or alternatively, thepersonal costs of leaving should be low enoughrelative to the costs of the two other responses inwhich workers remain and either contest thebullshit (i.e., voice) or disengage from the work-place bullshit (i.e., neglect).
    3. When faced with ‘jargonese,’ often people assumethat they are missing something, or they confusevagueness for profundity. The rule holds however,that if it is not possible to understand what thewords in a statement mean, then it is reasonableto suspect the statement to be bullshit.
    4. The cornerstone to recognising bullshit isknowing how it masquerades. This involves recog-nizing how colleagues go about framing statements(in written, spoken, or graphical form) that arewithout regard for the truth. Typically, suchstatements are abstract and general in nature andcome across as the opposite of plain English. Thestatements will lack details, sources, and logic,and they will be full of logical disconnects andgaps. Furthermore, if a statement is riddled withmeaningless language, acronyms, buzzwords, andjargon, then it is likely to be bullshit.
    5. Third, the audience is more likely to find thebullshit appealing if they also find it credible. Akey to credibility is the identity of the personcommunicating the bullshit.

      The higher up, hierarchically speaking, that a person is, the more likely people are to swallow their claims without evidence of truth.

      Hierarchy does not relate to credibility.

    6. Remember that bullshitters, unre-stricted by truth, have more freedom to frametheir statements. They are at liberty to deviseappealing bullshit with three significant charac-teristics. First, the bullshit may offer personalbenefits to the audience. For example, if a scien-tist in a research and development (R&D) depart-ment hears some bullshit from their boss thatsuggests the company is about to double the R&Dbudget, the scientist is likely to find this bullshitappealing. In addition, some employees may alsorelish or need workplace bullshit so as to flourish intheir jobs. They view bullshit as a necessary aspectof organizational life. Trendy jargon, flaky logic,and shallow arguments can be so appealing tosome that they provide them with direction andenergy.
    7. Furthermore, abullshitter’s statements may never have beenintended to be believed or even to garner muchattention. They are intended to misrepresent bybeing appealing or convincing, or by distracting,exhausting, or disengaging colleagues, so thatagendas can be pursued with little or no resis-tance. This lack of awareness of the true nature ofworkplace bullshit is one of the reasons why thereis such an abundance of it (Fredal, 2011).
    8. The bullshitter makes adecision to further that agenda through commu-nicative acts and decides on a message and amedium that will help them to achieve thatagenda. Crucially, while doing so, they disregardthe truth, in the sense that they are not concernedwith the truth, inaccuracy, or falseness of theirmessage but only in its efficaciousness in promot-ing the desired agenda
    9. when we engagein work, we must distinguish between this type ofsocial bullshit, which can be harmless or evenhelpful to the organization (because it can enablethe development of normal interpersonal re-lationships), and other types of bullshit that canhave damaging impacts on the organization.

      This points out the difference between personal bullshit and work bullshit; the later may help at times, but largely, corporate bullshit is anti-intellectual and damages the workplace.

    10. the more often colleagues at work are asked tocomment on matters about which they know littleor nothing, the more bullshit there is
    11. Bullshit has become socommonplace that it is suggested that businesscommunications are dominated bytruthiness(inwhich the validity of something is based on how itfeels),post-factlanguage (taking a position thatignores facts), andecho chambers(where positive-feedback loops create cravings for and fuel thespread of bullshit
    12. Marketing bullshit(a.k.a. puffery)Exaggerated or false claims by marketersthat amplify the features and performanceof a product or service (Chakraborty &Harbaugh, 2014).In 2000, a court ruled that ads from the PapaJohn’s pizza company stating “Betteringredients. Better Pizza” could not beverified as fact and should be deemedpuffery
    13. Jargon bullshit Words or expressions used by a particularprofession or group to make something seemlegitimate and enticing, while also muddlinglanguage and thinking (Poole, 2013; Spicer,2017).
    1. found that using only the Pascal-provided control structures, the correct solution was given by only 20% of the subjects, while no subject wrote incorrect code for this problem if allowed to write a return from the middle of a loop.
    1. In programming language design, a first-class citizen (also type, object, entity, or value) in a given programming language is an entity which supports all the operations generally available to other entities. These operations typically include being passed as an argument, returned from a function, modified, and assigned to a variable.
    1. which have recently become umbrella terms referring to any piece of quickly-consumed comedic or relatable content
    1. The Chicago Manual of Style and the Associated Press (AP) both revised their formerly capitalized stylization of the word to lowercase "internet" in 2016.[3] The New York Times, which followed suit in adopting the lowercase style, said that such a change is common practice when "newly coined or unfamiliar terms" become part of the lexicon.
    2. The spelling "internet" has become often used, as the word almost always refers to the global network; the generic sense of the word has become rare in non-technical writings.

      rare to see "internet" used to mean an internetwork in the general sense

    1. We assume that the people who are in the bestposition to accurately assess the degree of bullshit in their organizations arethe people who work there; therefore, we set out to develop a reliable andvalid scale to measure employees’ perceptions of the extent to which bullshitexists in their organizations. Next, we turn to how we developed theOrganizational Bullshit Perception Scale (OBPS).
    2. Applying the logic of Petrocelli (2018), leaders will be driven to bull-shit when the social and professional expectations to have an opinion are high,and when they expect to get away with it. These two conditions are subject tohow (un)knowledgeable their audience is. Similarly, if leaders exhibit high levelsof overconfidence, and believe they are popular amongst their peers, this willmake them likely to engage in more bullshit-related behavior (Jerrim et al.,2019).
    3. McCarthy et al. (2020) refer to a number of bullshit expressionssuch as “blue-sky thinking” or “out-of-the-box thinking”, which are often usedas vague buzzwords with minimal substance. This vagueness serves the interestsof bullshitters, because communication targets are less likely to ask questionswhen they find it difficult to understand what has been said (McCarthy et al.,2020).
    4. ll respondents assessed their overallperceived bullshit in their organization on a simple 4-point scale ranging from 1indicating ‘there is no bullshit in our organization’, through 2 indicating ‘there isa little bullshit in our organization’, through 3 indicating ‘there is some bullshitin our organization’ to 4 indicating ‘there is a lot of bullshit in our organization’.The overall perceived bullshit in the organization was regressed on the threeperceived bullshit scale factors. The R2value of 0.36 indicates convergencebetween the OBPS and the overall bullshit perception measure, withregardfor truthandthe bossbeing significant predictors of the overall bullshitperception.
    5. The second dimension,the boss, confirms that employees believe that theirsuperiors are key players in the dissemination of bullshit. Bullshit aims only toserve an immediate end – whether to puff up one’s reputation or to advancetheir point of view or argument (Gibson, 2011). Further, employees are likely tohave to take action based on any bullshit communicated by their bosses. As aresult, employees are likely to be acutely aware when their superiors use bullshitto advance their own self-interests.
    6. The final dimension,bullshit language,considers some of the commonly usedtypes of language employed by bullshitters, namely the excessive use of acro-nyms and jargon. The finding that employees perceive that the excessive use ofsuch language is a form of bullshit confirms that they are not oblivious to its usein the workplace. They may share the opinion of McCarthy et al. (2020, p. 258),who argued that “if a statement is riddled with meaningless language, acronyms,buzzwords, and jargon, then it is likely to be bullshit.” It is possible that theexcessive use of acronyms and jargon may occur to employees as an exclusion-ary mechanism in the workplace, whereby those unfamiliar with the terminologymay not be able to meaningfully contribute to the conversation or voice theirconcerns.
    7. Workplaces are awash with many forms of bullshit that manifest in manydifferent ways, including misrepresentation, where leaders make statementswithout knowing the facts; meaningless job titles (Graeber, 2018); fake andshallow company slogans (e.g. Lee et al., 2020); and workplace puffery suchas resume padding (Grover, 2005). Under some circumstances, organizationalbullshit, usually referred to as “banter”, “badinage” or “joshing” can be harm-less, often creative, and even contribute to a congenial atmosphere in an orga-nization. Organizational bullshit may even have a positive effect when leadersarticulate inspiring futuristic, but largely uncertain visions, that are meant toinspire others to act (Christensen et al., 2019). On the other hand, other scholarshave outlined a number of detrimental effects of bullshit. McCarthy et al.(2020), while acknowledging there can be positive effects of organizational bull-shit, also caution that it can result in lower job satisfaction among the organ-ization’s members, increased distrust in leadership, a reduction in productivity,and ultimately a negative impact on overall performance (McCarthy et al.,2020)
    8. As bullshitters don’t care what the truth is, this affordsthem freedom to say whatever it takes to further their agenda (McCarthy et al.,2020). This freedom from truth and evidence can mean that bullshit is some-times misperceived as something profound (Pennycook et al., 2015) or, alterna-tively, viewed as an empty claim (Spicer, 2020)
    9. Drawing on Frankfurt (2009), McCarthy et al. (2020, p. 254) define workplacebullshit as “as taking place when colleagues make statements at work with noregard for the truth”.
    1. I'm curious to take a look after seeing this. Thanks for the recommendation.

      I've tried Memrise and Duolingo before and like Duolingo a lot. I don't think they've got a French option, but I've also been using a platform called SSiW or Say Something in Welsh (they've got a few other languages too). I like their focus on verbal fluency over the methods traditionally taught in most classroom settings.

      Having studied a handful of languages in the past, I'm quite impressed at how much and how well I can understand Welsh after only 20 minutes or so a day for about a month.

    1. Additional testing of pipeline portability is currently being conducted as a part of the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health (GA4GH) workflow portability challenge

      For more on how this went and an update on where the platform has developed to in Feb 2021 can be viewed in this video from CWLcon2021 https://youtu.be/vV4mmH5eN58

  9. Jan 2021
    1. Progressivism

      Here the writers deploy a specific historical term without defining it, again for the linguistic refrain. Late 18th century Progressivism (capital P) becomes, by repetition, the same as 21st century AOC/Sanders progressivism (little p).

      (I'm not going into depth here on the merits of what they're saying about Progressivism because it's not my particular field of knowledge and I'm sure Heather Cox Richardson is going to handle it.)

    2. men

      This is (I think) the first time the document uses "men" in a non-gender-specific way outside the context of a period quote. This pre-1960s default to "men" instead of "people" continues throughout. With "republicanism", this is the second major case of a repeated imprecise, ideologically motivated language refrain.

    3. republic

      Here beginneth a vast number of references to small-r republicanism, which is never defined. This is a case of language mattering. The US has a republican form of government, of course, but repetition of language can be, and in this case, is, an ideological refrain. "republican" is one of two notable cases here.

  10. Dec 2020
    1. Like many of us, I talk to myself out loud, though I’m a little unusual in that I often do it in public spaces. Whenever I want to figure out an issue, develop an idea or memorise a text, I turn to this odd work routine. While it’s definitely earned me a reputation in my neighbourhood, it’s also improved my thinking and speaking skills immensely. Speaking out loud is not only a medium of communication, but a technology of thinking: it encourages the formation and processing of thoughts.

      I've noticed speaking out loud also seems to help me in practicing and acquiring a new language.

    1. I saw him and was astounded. 33I loved him as a woman, 34falling upon him in embrace. 35I took him and made him 36my brother.” 37The mother of Gilgamish she that knows all things 38[said unto Gilgamish:—] ................................... [213] COL. II 1that he may join with thee in endeavor.” 2(Thus) Gilgamish solves (his) dream. 3Enkidu sitting before the hierodule

      In the time period the translation, you can tell that they had just begun to create labels on relationships, people etc to understand what they were feeling or to just recognize different people. In the text chosen, there are many different area's in the highlighted portion and throughout the text, where Gilgamesh uses labels which created for a clear story. It is however conflicting because of the translators and them maybe having included different sections so that the story makes sense. Nonetheless, when he said that he loved him like he would a woman, that shows how the language at the time was advanced, closer to the current 21st century, enough to realize that Gilgamesh had romantic feelings for Enkidu. Also with the piece when the translators described him as sitting near the hierodule. The slave, prostitute (both) was able to be identified no matter of the gender. Looking back at the time, it is still demeaning when thinking in our 21st century mindset and what we consider normal. However looking back, it is interesting to see how advanced the ancient Iraq civilization operated. It is also amazing seeing where the women of this country came from as in today's world the women now being able to be involved with the government, they are making it a mission so Iraqi women know their rights (Calabrese, John, et al).

      CC BY-SA

      Calabrese, John, et al. “Constitutional and Legal Rights of Iraqi Women.” Middle East Institute, 8 Dec. 2020, mei.edu/publications/constitutional-and-legal-rights-iraqi-women.