5 Matching Annotations
  1. Apr 2024
    1. An exception is a recent study showing that children’s listening comprehension was uniquely related to text reading fluency after accounting for list reading fluency for first graders. However, this unique relation appears to depend on children’s developmental level of word reading proficiency such that listening comprehension was uniquely related to text reading fluency only for skilled word readers but not for average word readers in first grade (Kim et al., 2011). Thus, a certain level of word reading proficiency might be needed for listening comprehension to play a role in text reading fluency. These results lend support to the verbal efficiency theory (Perfetti, 1985, Perfetti, 1992), which posits that children’s word reading proficiency influences the consolidation of fluency component skills. For readers with slow and nonautomatic word reading, word reading will constrain meaning construction processes in text reading fluency and reading comprehension. For children with skilled word reading, cognitive resources are available for meaning construction (i.e., comprehension), thereby allowing listening comprehension to be related to text reading fluency (Kim et al., 2011).

      I need to look at whether stories or lists are better for my age group. Or both?

  2. Jan 2024
    1. We forget vast amounts of what happens to us in life

      forget -> get

    2. Pictures of entire lives, of the choices that people make and how those choices work out for them, those pictures are almost impossible to get.

      人生的整個景象, 什麼選擇帶來什麼結果, 這都難以取得(難以預知)。

  3. Feb 2019
    1. noise

      What is Locke's notion of "noise"? He seems to be using it with a negative connotation, where noise is meaningless and incomprehensible, a clamor of sound and incongruencies that prevent understanding.

      But noise does not necessarily have to be meaningless or incomprehensible--it just takes the right way of listening to make sense of it (Cf. Ratcliffe's Rhetorical Listening).