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  1. Last 7 days
  2. Jun 2019
    1. EthereumEthereum is a distributed computer; each node in the network executes some bytecode (hint: Smart Contracts), and then stores the resulting state in a blockchain. Due to the properties of the blockchain representing application state, this results in “applications that run exactly as programmed without any possibility of downtime, censorship, fraud or third party interference”.

      This is a decent little explanation for how smart contracts execute on blockchains. Author missed in "Due to the properties of the blockchain" to say that all nodes must also come to consensus about how the code was executed and therefore "applications that run exactly...". We will later discuss deterministic code execution in relation to this

  3. May 2019
    1. Go Programming Language publicly in 2009 they were also looking to solve certain challenges of the existing Computer languages. Of the many features that it demonstrated (we will get to those soon enough) it was also helpful in addressing the strange dilemma of hardware and software that was emerging.

      Golang is a modern computing language, designed especially for modern computing needs.

    1. The first difficulty is that the robot’s utility function did not quite match our utility function. Our utility function is 1 if the cauldron is full, 0 if the cauldron is empty, −10 points to whatever the outcome was if the workshop has flooded, +0.2 points if it’s funny, −1,000 points (probably a bit more than that on this scale) if someone gets killed … and it just goes on and on and on.

      But it is very difficult to fully express these utility functions in code. The goal is to literally turn our ethics into code -- to translate them into coherent data structures, algorithms, and decision trees. We want to deduce our moral intuitions and more.

  4. Jan 2019
    1. Automatic Sequence Computer

      The Harvard Mark 1 was an ASCC or an Automated Sequence Controlled Calculator(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harvard_Mark_I) - so Clarke was using this term for what was possibly the most powerful computer during his time. Our smartphones now are more powerful than several of these ASCCs

    1. Reflective Design Strategies In addition shaping our principles or objectives, our foundational influences and case studies have also helped us articulate strategies for reflective design. The first three strategies identified here speak to characteristics of designs that encourage reflection by users. The second group of strategies provides ways for reflecting on the process of design.

      verbatim from subheads in this section

      1.Provide for interpretive flexibility.

      2.Give users license to participate.

      3.Provide dynamic feedback to users.

      4.Inspire rich feedback from users.

      5.Build technology as a probe.

      6.Invert metaphors and cross boundaries.

    2. Some Reflective Design Challenges

      The reflective design strategies offer potential design interventions but lack advice on how to evaluate them against each other.

      "Designing for appropriation requires recognizing that users already interact with technology not just on a superficial, task-centered level, but with an awareness of the larger social and cultural embeddedness of the activity."

    3. Principles of Reflective Design

      verbatim from subheads in this section

      1. Designers should use reflection to uncover and alter the limitations of design practice

      2. Designers should use reflection to re-understand their own role in the technology design process.

      3. Designers should support users in reflecting on their lives.

      4. Technology should support skepticism about and reinterpretation of its own working.

      5. Reflection is not a separate activity from action but is folded into it as an integral part of experience

      6. Dialogic engagement between designers and users through technology can enhance reflection.

    4. Reflective design, like reflection-in-action, advocates practicing research and design concomitantly, and not only as separate disciplines. We also subscribe to a view of reflection as a fully engaged interaction and not a detached assessment. Finally, we draw from the observation that reflection is often triggered by an element of surprise, where someone moves from knowing-in-action, operating within the status quo, to reflection-in-action, puzzling out what to do next or why the status quo has been disrupted

      Influences from reflection-in-action for reflective design values/methods.

    5. In this effort, reflection-in-action provides a ground for uniting theory and practice; whereas theory presents a view of the world in general principles and abstract problem spaces, practice involves both building within these generalities and breaking them down.

      A more improvisational, intuitive and visceral process of rethinking/challenging the initial design frame.

      Popular with HCI and CSCW designers

    6. CTP is a key method for reflective design, since it offers strategies to bring unconscious values to the fore by creating technical alternatives. In our work, we extend CTP in several ways that make it particularly appropriate for HCI and critical computing.

      Ways in which Senger, et al., describe how to extend CTP for HCI needs:

      • incorporate both designer/user reflection on technology use and its design

      • integrate reflection into design even when there is no specific "technical impasse" or metaphor breakdown

      • driven by critical concerns, not simply technical problems

    7. CTP synthesizes critical reflection with technology production as a way of highlighting and altering unconsciously-held assumptions that are hindering progress in a technical field.

      Definition of critical technical practice.

      This approach is grounded in AI rather than HCI

      (verbatim from the paper) "CTP consists of the following moves:

      • identifying the core metaphors of the field

      • noticing what, when working with those metaphors, remains marginalized

      • inverting the dominant metaphors to bring that margin to the center

      • embodying the alternative as a new technology

    8. Ludic design promotes engagement in the exploration and production of meaning, providing for curiosity, exploration and reflection as key values. In other words, ludic design focuses on reflection and engagement through the experience of using the designed object.

      Definition of ludic design.

      Offers a more playful approach than critical design.

    9. goal is to push design research beyond an agenda of reinforcing values of consumer culture and to instead embody cultural critique in designed artifacts. A critical designer designs objects not to do what users want and value, but to introduce both designers and users to new ways of looking at the world and the role that designed objects can play for them in it.

      Definition of critical design.

      This approach tends to be more art-based and intentionally provocative than a practical design method to inculcate a certain sensibility into the technology design process.

    10. value-sensitive design method (VSD). VSD provides techniques to elucidate and answer values questions during the course of a system's design.

      Definition of value-sensitive design.

      (verbatim from the paper)

      *"VSD employs three methods :

      • conceptual investigations drawing on moral philosophy, which identify stakeholders, fundamental values, and trade-offs among values pertinent to the design

      • empirical investigations using social-science methods to uncover how stakeholders think about and act with respect to the values involved in the system

      • technical investigations which explore the links between specific technical decisions and the values and practices they aid and hinder" *

    11. From participatory design, we draw several core principles, most notably the reflexive recognition of the politics of design practice and a desire to speak to the needs of multiple constituencies in the design process.

      Description of participatory design which has a more political angle than user-centered design, with which it is often equated in HCI

    12. PD strategies tend to be used to support existing practices identified collaboratively by users and designers as a design-worthy project. While values clashes between designers and different users can be elucidated in this collaboration, the values which users and designers share do not necessarily go examined. For reflective design to function as a design practice that opens new cultural possibilities, however, we need to question values which we may unconsciously hold in common. In addition, designers may need to introduce values issues which initially do not interest users or make them uncomfortabl

      Differences between participatory design practices and reflective design

    13. We define 'reflection' as referring tocritical reflection, orbringing unconscious aspects of experience to conscious awareness, thereby making them available for conscious choice. This critical reflection is crucial to both individual freedom and our quality of life in society as a whole, since without it, we unthinkingly adopt attitudes, practices, values, and identities we might not consciously espouse. Additionally, reflection is not a purely cognitive activity, but is folded into all our ways of seeing and experiencing the world.

      Definition of critical reflection

    14. Our perspective on reflection is grounded in critical theory, a Western tradition of critical reflection embodied in various intellectual strands including Marxism, feminism, racial and ethnic studies, media studies and psychoanalysis.

      Definition of critical theory

    15. ritical theory argues that our everyday values, practices, perspectives, and sense of agency and self are strongly shaped by forces and agendas of which we are normally unaware, such as the politics of race, gender, and economics. Critical reflection provides a means to gain some awareness of such forces as a first step toward possible change.

      Critical theory in practice

    16. We believe that, for those concerned about the social implications of the technologies we build, reflection itself should be a core technology design outcome for HCI. That is to say, technology design practices should support both designers and users in ongoing critical reflection about technology and its relationship to human life.

      Critical reflection can/should support designers and users.

  5. Dec 2018
    1. Outliers : All data sets have an expected range of values, and any actual data set also has outliers that fall below or above the expected range. (Space precludes a detailed discussion of how to handle outliers for statistical analysis purposes, see: Barnett & Lewis, 1994 for details.) How to clean outliers strongly depends on the goals of the analysis and the nature of the data.

      Outliers can be signals of unanticipated range of behavior or of errors.

    2. Understanding the structure of the data : In order to clean log data properly, the researcher must understand the meaning of each record, its associated fi elds, and the interpretation of values. Contextual information about the system that produced the log should be associated with the fi le directly (e.g., “Logging system 3.2.33.2 recorded this fi le on 12-3-2012”) so that if necessary the specifi c code that gener-ated the log can be examined to answer questions about the meaning of the record before executing cleaning operations. The potential misinterpretations take many forms, which we illustrate with encoding of missing data and capped data values.

      Context of the data collection and how it is structured is also a critical need.

      Example, coding missing info as "0" risks misinterpretation rather than coding it as NIL, NDN or something distinguishable from other data

    3. Data transformations : The goal of data-cleaning is to preserve the meaning with respect to an intended analysis. A concomitant lesson is that the data-cleaner must track all transformations performed on the data .

      Changes to data during clean up should be annotated.

      Incorporate meta data about the "chain of change" to accompany the written memo

    4. Data Cleaning A basic axiom of log analysis is that the raw data cannot be assumed to correctly and completely represent the data being recorded. Validation is really the point of data cleaning: to understand any errors that might have entered into the data and to transform the data in a way that preserves the meaning while removing noise. Although we discuss web log cleaning in this section, it is important to note that these principles apply more broadly to all kinds of log analysis; small datasets often have similar cleaning issues as massive collections. In this section, we discuss the issues and how they can be addressed. How can logs possibly go wrong ? Logs suffer from a variety of data errors and distortions. The common sources of errors we have seen in practice include:

      Common sources of errors:

      • Missing events

      • Dropped data

      • Misplaced semantics (encoding log events differently)

    5. In addition, real world events, such as the death of a major sports fi gure or a political event can often cause people to interact with a site differently. Again, be vigilant in sanity checking (e.g., look for an unusual number of visitors) and exclude data until things are back to normal.

      Important consideration for temporal event RQs in refugee study -- whether external events influence use of natural disaster metaphors.

    6. Recording accurate and consistent time is often a challenge. Web log fi les record many different timestamps during a search interaction: the time the query was sent from the client, the time it was received by the server, the time results were returned from the server, and the time results were received on the client. Server data is more robust but includes unknown network latencies. In both cases the researcher needs to normalize times and synchronize times across multiple machines. It is common to divide the log data up into “days,” but what counts as a day? Is it all the data from midnight to midnight at some common time reference point or is it all the data from midnight to midnight in the user’s local time zone? Is it important to know if people behave differently in the morning than in the evening? Then local time is important. Is it important to know everything that is happening at a given time? Then all the records should be converted to a common time zone.

      Challenges of using time-based log data are similar to difficulties in the SBTF time study using Slack transcripts, social media, and Google Sheets

    7. Log Studies collect the most natural observations of people as they use systems in whatever ways they typically do, uninfl uenced by experimenters or observers. As the amount of log data that can be collected increases, log studies include many different kinds of people, from all over the world, doing many different kinds of tasks. However, because of the way log data is gathered, much less is known about the people being observed, their intentions or goals, or the contexts in which the observed behaviors occur. Observational log studies allow researchers to form an abstract picture of behavior with an existing system, whereas experimental log stud-ies enable comparisons of two or more systems.

      Benefits of log studies:

      • Complement other types of lab/field studies

      • Provide a portrait of uncensored behavior

      • Easy to capture at scale

      Disadvantages of log studies:

      • Lack of demographic data

      • Non-random sampling bias

      • Provide info on what people are doing but not their "motivations, success or satisfaction"

      • Can lack needed context (software version, what is displayed on screen, etc.)

      Ways to mitigate: Collecting, Cleaning and Using Log Data section

    8. Two common ways to partition log data are by time and by user. Partitioning by time is interesting because log data often contains signifi cant temporal features, such as periodicities (including consistent daily, weekly, and yearly patterns) and spikes in behavior during important events. It is often possible to get an up-to-the- minute picture of how people are behaving with a system from log data by compar-ing past and current behavior.

      Bookmarked for time reference.

      Mentions challenges of accounting for time zones in log data.

    9. An important characteristic of log data is that it captures actual user behavior and not recalled behaviors or subjective impressions of interactions.

      Logs can be captured on client-side (operating systems, applications, or special purpose logging software/hardware) or on server-side (web search engines or e-commerce)

    10. Table 1 Different types of user data in HCI research

    11. Large-scale log data has enabled HCI researchers to observe how information diffuses through social networks in near real-time during crisis situations (Starbird & Palen, 2010 ), characterize how people revisit web pages over time (Adar, Teevan, & Dumais, 2008 ), and compare how different interfaces for supporting email organi-zation infl uence initial uptake and sustained use (Dumais, Cutrell, Cadiz, Jancke, Sarin, & Robbins, 2003 ; Rodden & Leggett, 2010 ).

      Wide variety of uses of log data

    12. Behavioral logs are traces of human behavior seen through the lenses of sensors that capture and record user activity.

      Definition of log data

    1. The distinct sorts of questions asked of science and design manifest the different kinds of accountability that apply to each - that is, the expectations of what activities must be defended and how, and by extension the ways narratives (accounts) are legitimately formed about each endeavour.science is defined by epistemological accountability, in which the essential requirement is to be able to explain and defend the basis of one’s claimed knowledge. Design, in contrast, works with aesthetic accountability, where ‘aesthetic’ refers to how satisfactory the composition of multiple design features are (as opposed to how ‘beautiful’ it might be). The requirement here is to be able to explain and defend – or, more typically, to demonstrate –that one’s design works.

      Scientific accountability >> epistemological

      Design accountability >> aesthetic

    2. The issue of whether something ‘works’ goes beyond questions of technical or practical efficacy to address a host of social, cultural, aesthetic and ethical concerns.

      Intent is the critical factor for design work, not its function.

    3. To be sure, the topicality, novelty or potential benefits of a given line of research might help it attract notice and support, butscientific researchfundamentally stands or falls on the thoroughness with which activities and reasoning can be tied together. You just can’t get in the game without a solid methodology.

      Methodology is the critical factor for scientific study, not the result.

  6. Nov 2018
    1. English Teachers' Barriers to the Use of Computer-assisted Language Learning

      This article discusses the use of Computer-assisted Language Learning (CALL) technologies to teach English. Each stage of learning aligns with a level of computer technology. There are also many barriers that impede the process of integrating the CALL into the classroom, which include financial, access to hardware and software, teacher training, technical knowledge, and acceptance of technology.

      RATING: 8/10

    1. IMPACTS OF LEARNING STYLES AND COMPUTER SKILLS ON ADULT STUDENTS’ LEARNING ONLINE

      This article explores how learning styles and computer skills impact student online learning. Further consideration is also given to course format and participants who were first time online learners. This is a complex study that investigates possible skills and abilities of first time online students. It would be interesting to conduct the same study, ten years latter to see if the changes in technology has improved the learners' computer skills and therefore the results of the study.

      RATING: 7/10

  7. Oct 2018
    1. As a recap, Chegg discovered on September 19th a data breach dating back to April that "an unauthorized party" accessed a data base with access to "a Chegg user’s name, email address, shipping address, Chegg username, and hashed Chegg password" but no financial information or social security numbers. The company has not disclosed, or is unsure of, how many of the 40 million users had their personal information stolen.

    1. Questions about the inclusivity of engineering and computer science departments have been going on for quite some time. Several current “innovations” coming out of these fields, many rooted in facial recognition, are indicative of how scientific racism has long been embedded in apparently neutral attempts to measure people — a “new” spin on age-old notions of phrenology and biological determinism, updated with digital capabilities.
  8. Sep 2018
    1. And its very likely that IA is a much easier road to the achievement of superhumanity than pure AI. In humans, the hardest development problems have already been solved. Building up from within ourselves ought to be easier than figuring out what we really are and then building machines that are all of that.

      The authors of the text are proposing a radically different approach to the inevitable "singularity" event. They propose the research and development IA, or Intelligence Amplification, is developing computers with a symbiosis with humans. Noting that IA could be easier to develop than AI algorithms, since humanity had to probe what their true weaknesses and strengths are. In turn, developing an IA system that could cover humanities' weaknesses. This would summarily prevent an IA algorithm from getting over itself, which could potentially slow a point when we reach singularity.

  9. Aug 2018
    1. Earlier communication tools enabled individuals to create a private list ofcontacts (for instance a buddy list on instant messaging), to establish a group of contactsthat were shared by others (such as a listserv membership list), or to publish a list ofrelated links (such as a blogroll), but SNSs extended the practice of creating a publiclyvisible, personally curated list of contacts and made it a mainstream practice.

      Differences between SNS and CMC.

  10. Jun 2018
    1. Remember, the author made a more technical report on this topic. PDF here

    2. if we ever find the translation is dominant in a direction other than forward, we simply ignore that motion.

      Remember, this is just a heuristic

    3. Most Computer Vision algorithms are not complete without a few heuristics thrown in
    4. RANSAC. It is an iterative algorithm. At every iteration, it randomly samples five points from out set of correspondences, estimates the Essential Matrix, and then checks if the other points are inliers when using this essential matrix.
    5. T his step compensates for this lens distortion.
    6. For every pair of images, we need to find the rotation matrix RRR and the translation vector ttt, which describes the motion of the vehicle between the two frames.
    7. An efficient solution to the five-point relative pose problem
    1. our job is to construct a 6-DOF trajectory

      This is "forwards/backwards" in every major axis, and rotations in the same axis.

  11. Apr 2018
  12. Mar 2018
    1. beenary code

      http://www.unit-conversion.info/texttools/convert-text-to-binary/

      binary is anything with two and only two states, a code that is binary represents information using only these two states.

  13. Feb 2018
  14. Jan 2018
  15. Dec 2017
    1. Traffic sent to and from Google, Facebook, Apple, and Microsoft was briefly routed through a previously unknown Russian Internet provider Wednesday under circumstances researchers said was suspicious and intentional.

  16. Nov 2017
    1. For the last few years, Intel CPUs have Intel Management Engine, which runs its own OS, the Unix-like MINIX. You have no access to it. But it has complete access to your computer.

    1. EFF recommendations for Congress regarding data security and data breaches like the one at Equifax.

      https://www.ftc.gov/datasecurity<br> FTC guide to data security for businesses.

  17. Oct 2017
    1. DEFCON, the world’s largest hacker conference, will release its findings on Tuesday, months after hosting a July demonstration in which hackers quickly broke into 25 different types of voting machines.

      ...

      Though the report offers no proof of an attack last year, experts involved with it say they’re sure it is possible—and probable—and that the chances of a bigger attack in the future are high.

      “From a technological point of view, this is something that is clearly doable,” said Sherri Ramsay, the former director of the federal Central Security Service Threat Operations Center, which handles cyber threats for the military and the National Security Agency. “For us to turn a blind eye to this, I think that would be very irresponsible on our part.”

  18. Aug 2017
  19. May 2017
    1. Tools that might be able to decrypt files encrypted by the WannaCry ransomware. With a little luck, and if the victim hasn't rebooted, the keys can be found in memory.

    1. Certain HP laptops have flawed audio drivers that record all your keystrokes to: C:\Users\Public\MicTray.log

      If these files exist, delete them: C:\Windows\System32\MicTray64.exe C:\Windows\System32\MicTray.exe

    1. Sanskrit is the only human spoken language which has a context free grammar which means while you cannot write a compiler which can read and understand (parse) english sentences bcoz of the ambiguous nature in English sentences, you can definitely write a compiler for Sanskrit which can understand sanskrit and compile the instructions into binary.

      Using Sanskrit as a language for computing has been proposed, but seems to go nowhere.

  20. Apr 2017
    1. Phishing attack that uses Unicode characters to fake a domain name.

      The xn-- prefix is what is known as an ‘ASCII compatible encoding’ prefix. It lets the browser know that the domain uses ‘punycode’ encoding to represent Unicode characters. In non-techie speak, this means that if you have a domain name with Chinese or other international characters, you can register a domain name with normal A-Z characters that can allow a browser to represent that domain as international characters in the location bar.

      What we have done above is used ‘e’ ‘p’ ‘i’ and ‘c’ unicode characters that look identical to the real characters but are different unicode characters. In the current version of Chrome, as long as all characters are unicode, it will show the domain in its internationalized form.

  21. Mar 2017
    1. i--W i - Wih - - - ffi m _.. _ e _ _ Wiii,i' _i --,.,q,q.,-.. _ _Iq]E - - - i F == F -| '

      Some of the claims for the revolutionary effect of computers on humanistic study have clearly been exaggerated or wrongly formulated. Seen from a certain point of viewm a computer, even one connected by modem or Ethernet to the Wolrd Wide Web, is, as many people would claim, no more than a glorified typewriter, though one should not underestimate the changes this glorification makes. An example is the new ease of revision, the facility with which things can be added, deleted, or moved from one place to another in a computer files as opposed to a typed manuscript. Such ease gradually encourages the adept in computer composition to think of what he or she writes as never being in quite finished form. Whatever is printed is alsways just one stage in a potentially endless process of revision, deletion, addition, and rearrangement.

    1. The Justice Department has announced charges against four people, including two Russian security officials, over cybercrimes linked to a massive hack of millions of Yahoo user accounts. [500M accounts, in 2014]

      Two of the defendants — Dmitry Dokuchaev and his superior Igor Sushchin — are officers of the Russian Federal Security Service, or FSB. According to court documents, they "protected, directed, facilitated and paid" two criminal hackers, Alexsey Belan and Karim Baratov, to access information that has intelligence value. Belan also allegedly used the information obtained for his personal financial gain.

  22. Feb 2017
    1. A company that sells internet-connected teddy bears that allow kids and their far-away parents to exchange heartfelt messages left more than 800,000 customer credentials, as well as two million message recordings, totally exposed online for anyone to see and listen.

  23. Jan 2017
    1. In Python, as well as in any other object-oriented programming language, we define a class to be a description of what the data look like (the state) and what the data can do (the behavior). Classes are analogous to abstract data types because a user of a class only sees the state and behavior of a data item. Data items are called objects in the object-oriented paradigm. An object is an instance of a class.

      Class = General description of form and functions of data. Object = A member or instance of a class.

    1. Thousands of poorly secured MongoDB databases have been deleted by attackers recently. The attackers offer to restore the data in exchange for a ransom -- but they may not actually have a copy.

    1. People say that the 1968 Fall Joint Computer Conference in San Francisco was a watershed. After seeing your demonstration, people left that room never thinking about computers the same way again. Would you say that's an accurate encapsulation?

      Reception of the Mother of All Demos

  24. Dec 2016
  25. Sep 2016
    1. The Tesla accident in May, researchers say, was not a failure of computer vision. But it underscored the limitations of the science in applications like driverless cars despite remarkable progress in recent years, fueled by digital data, computer firepower and software inspired by the human brain.

      Testing annotations. Interesting statement.

  26. Aug 2016
    1. "We demonstrate that well-known compression-based attacks such as CRIME or BREACH (but also lesser-known ones) can be executed by merely running JavaScript code in the victim’s browser. This is possible because HEIST allows us to determine the length of a response, without having to observe traffic at the network level."

      HEIST attacks can be blocked by disabling 3rd-party cookies.

      https://twitter.com/vanhoefm<br> https://twitter.com/tomvangoethem

  27. Jul 2016
    1. Neil Fraser says Vietnam is doing well with computer science education.

      "If grade 5 students in Vietnam are performing at least on par with their grade 11 peers in the USA, what does grade 11 in Vietnam look like? I walked into a high school CS class, again without any advance notice. The class was working on the assignment below (partially translated by their teacher for my benefit afterwards). Given a data file describing a maze with diagonal walls, count the number of enclosed areas, and measure the size of the largest one."

  28. Jun 2016
    1. These vulnerabilities are as bad as it gets. They don't require any user interaction, they affect the default configuration, and the software runs at the highest privilege levels possible.

      ...

      Tuesday's advisory is only the latest to underscore game-over vulnerabilities found in widely available antivirus packages.

      https://googleprojectzero.blogspot.com/2016/06/how-to-compromise-enterprise-endpoint.html

    1. Two performances did seem to transcend the present, with artists sharing music that felt like open-source software to paths unknown. The first, Sam Aaron, played an early techno set to a small crowd, performing by coding live. His computer display, splayed naked on a giant screen, showcasedSonic Pi, the free software he invented. Before he let loose by revising lines of brackets, colons and commas, he typed:#This is Sonic Pi…..#I use it to teach people how to code#everything i do tonight, i can teach a 10 year old child…..His set – which sounded like Electric Café-era Kraftwerk, a little bit of Aphex Twin skitter and some Eighties electro – was constructed through typing and deleting lines of code. The shadowy DJ sets, knob-tweaking noise and fogbank ambient of many Moogfest performers was completely demystified and turned into simple numbers and letters that you could see in action. Dubbed "the live coding synth for everyone," it truly seemed less like a performance and more like an invitation to code your own adventure.
    2. The shadowy DJ sets, knob-tweaking noise and fogbank ambient of many Moogfest performers was completely demystified and turned into simple numbers and letters that you could see in action.
    1. Civilization advances by extending the number of important operations we can perform without thinking about them.

      This sounds really similar to the concept of "abstraction".

    Tags

    Annotators

  29. May 2016
    1. The problem found in the literature is that students are not efficient note takers, meaning they only successfully capture information about 20% of the time, and they are organizationally flawed and therefore miss how information should fit together. These shortcomings, efficiency and organization, are particularly acute in individuals taking notes on a computer alone (Mueller & Oppenheimer, 2014). Mueller and Oppenheimer (2014) specifically find that computers –when used in isolation –lead to lower levels of information retention, and they postulate this is due to students trying to bestenographers with keyboards instead of actively engaging with the material.

      Summary of the problem with taking notes on computers as opposed to by hand, ie the temptation to try to be a stenographer rather than engaging with and interpreting the material.

    1. Users may submit their paper using a pseudonym and in formats that contain little, if any, identifying metadata.

      Do elementary and secondary teachers know how to do this? A substantial assumption is that teachers know how to explain this to their students.

      This requires much more than any definitions of computer literacy and is a wizard level skill.

  30. Apr 2016
    1. On the other hand it is possible that human control over the machines may be retained. In that case the average man may have control over certain private machines of his own, such as his car or his personal computer, but control over large systems of machines will be in the hands of a tiny elite – just as it is today, but with two differences. Due to improved techniques the elite will have greater control over the masses; and because human work will no longer be necessary the masses will be superfluous, a useless burden on the system. If the elite is ruthless they may simply decide to exterminate the mass of humanity. If they are humane they may use propaganda or other psychological or biological techniques to reduce the birth rate until the mass of humanity becomes extinct, leaving the world to the elite. Or, if the elite consists of soft-hearted liberals, they may decide to play the role of good shepherds to the rest of the human race. They will see to it that everyone’s physical needs are satisfied, that all children are raised under psychologically hygienic conditions, that everyone has a wholesome hobby to keep him busy, and that anyone who may become dissatisfied undergoes “treatment” to cure his “problem.” Of course, life will be so purposeless that people will have to be biologically or psychologically engineered either to remove their need for the power process or make them “sublimate” their drive for power into some harmless hobby. These engineered human beings may be happy in such a society, but they will most certainly not be free. They will have been reduced to the status of domestic animals.1
    1. Great Principles of Computing<br> Peter J. Denning, Craig H. Martell

      This is a book about the whole of computing—its algorithms, architectures, and designs.

      Denning and Martell divide the great principles of computing into six categories: communication, computation, coordination, recollection, evaluation, and design.

      "Programmers have the largest impact when they are designers; otherwise, they are just coders for someone else's design."

  31. Feb 2016
  32. Jan 2016
    1. Discussion about Obama's computer science for K-12 initiative. CS programs in high school are about 40 years overdue. It is a valid concern that much of this money may be wasted on overpriced proprietary software, hardware, and training programs. And of course, average schools will handle CS about like they handle other subjects -- not very well.

      Another concern raised, and countered, is that more programmers will mean lower wages for programmers. But not everyone who studies CS in high school is going to become a programmer. And an increase in computer literacy may help increase the demand for programmers and technicians.

    1. educators and business leaders are increasingly recognizing that CS is a “new basic” skill necessary for economic opportunity. The President referenced his Computer Science for All Initiative, which provides $4 billion in funding for states and $100 million directly for districts in his upcoming budget; and invests more than $135 million beginning this year by the National Science Foundation and the Corporation for National and Community Service to support and train CS teachers.
    1. This has implications far beyond the cryptocurrency

      The concept of trust, in the sociological and economic sense, underlies exchange. In the 15th-17th centuries, the Dutch and English dominance of trade owed much to their early development of instruments of credit that allowed merchants to fund and later to insure commercial shipping without the exchange of hard currency, either silver or by physically transporting the currency of the realm. Credit worked because the English and Dutch economies trusted the issuers of credit.

      Francis Fukuyama, a philosopher and political economist at Stanford, wrote a book in 1995, Trust: The Social Virtues and the Creation of Prosperity, on the impact of cultures of trust on entrepreneurial growth. Countries of ‘low trust’ have close family culture who limit trust to relations: France, China, S. Italy. Countries of ‘high trust’ have greater ‘spontaneous sociability’ that encourages the formation of intermediate institutions between the state and the family, that encourage greater entrepreneurial growth: Germany, England, the U.S. – I own the book and (shame on me!) haven’t yet read it.

      I thought of this article in those contexts – of the general need for trusted institutions and the power they have in mediating an economy, and the fascinating questions raised when a new facilitator of trust is introduced.

      How do we trust? Across human history, how have we extended the social role of trust to institutions? If a new modality of trust comes available, how does that change institutional structures and correspondingly the power of individuals, of institutions. How would it change the friction to growth and to decline?

      Prior to reading this article, I had dismissed Bitcoin as a temporary aberration, mostly for criminal enterprises and malcontents. I still feel that way. But the underlying technology and it’s implications – now that’s interesting.

    1. Category Theory for the Sciences by David I. Spivak<br> Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0<br> MIT Press.

    1. It was not so very long ago that people thought that semiconductors were part-time orchestra leaders and microchips were very, very small snack foods. --Geraldine A. Ferraro

      Good one.

    1. Linode Cloud Service has been under DDoS attack for a few days. Now they've discovered some stolen passwords. It is not yet known whether the same attacker is responsible for both.

      A security investigation into the unauthorized login of three accounts has led us to the discovery of two Linode.com user credentials on an external machine. This implies user credentials could have been read from our database, either offline or on, at some point.<br> . . .<br> The entire Linode team has been working around the clock to address both this issue and the ongoing DDoS attacks. We've retained a well-known third-party security firm to aid in our investigation. Multiple Federal law enforcement authorities are also investigating and have cases open for both issues.

  33. Dec 2015