362 Matching Annotations
  1. Jul 2022
    1. Intensive study of reading texts can be a means of increasing learners’knowledge of language features and their control of reading strategies.


  2. May 2022
    1. we assume that the agent has N primitive cause–effect relationships that each assign probabilities to state, action and next-state transitions, 𝜙𝑖:𝒮×𝒜×𝒮→[0,1]ϕi:S×A×S→[0,1]{\phi }_{i}:{\mathscr{S}}\times {\mathscr{A}}\times {\mathscr{S}}\to [0,1], 𝑖=1,...,𝑁i=1,...,Ni=1,...,N. Each 𝜙𝑖(𝑠′|𝑠,𝑎)ϕi(s′|s,a){\phi }_{i}(s{\prime} |s,a) is a potential function representing, for example, the local effect of colliding with the couch or pulling on the coffee table. Then a construal is a subset of these primitive cause–effect relationships, 𝑐⊆{𝜙1,...,𝜙𝑁}c⊆{ϕ1,...,ϕN}c\subseteq \{{\phi }_{1}\mathrm{,...,}\,{\phi }_{N}\}, that produces a task construal, 𝒯𝑐Tc{{\mathscr{T}}}_{c}, with the following construed transition function:𝑃𝑐(𝑠′|𝑠,𝑎)∝∏𝜙𝑖∈𝑐𝜙𝑖(𝑠′|𝑠,𝑎).Pc(s′|s,a)∝∏ϕi∈cϕi(s′|s,a).{P}_{c}(s{\prime} |s,a)\propto \prod _{{\phi }_{i}\in c}{\phi }_{i}(s{\prime} |s,a). (1)

      formal definition of a task construal in terms of a (sub)set of state-action-next-state transitions with assoc. est. probabilities.

  3. Apr 2022
    1. Mr. Lipton has been one of the most vocal critics of shareholder activism, which he has said focuses on short-term profit at the expense of long-term investment and can leave companies on shaky footing. Wachtell Lipton often advises companies seeking to keep these investors at bay.

      股东积极主义(英语:Shareholder activism),,也被称为股东行动主义[1],是一种通过行使股东权利而向公司管理层施压的一种投资策略,行使股东积极主义的股东就被称为积极股东(Activist shareholder)。积极股东的诉求有财务方面的,也有非财务方面的。积极股东希望能够通过行使股东积极主义影响公司的决策,从而实现自己的诉求。

    1. Natalie E. Dean, PhD. (2021, May 4). The imminent FDA authorization of a vaccine for 12-15 year olds is great news, and adolescents should be able to access vaccine. But in the short term, we must also grapple with the ethics of vaccinating adolescents ahead of high-risk adults in other countries. [Tweet]. @nataliexdean. https://twitter.com/nataliexdean/status/1389381649314598914

  4. Mar 2022
    1. Exercises


      Counterexample: \(\to := {(a, c), (b, c)}\)


      \(a \to b\) iff \(a\) encodes Turing machine \(M_a\) and \(b\) encodes a valid terminating computation (sequence of states) of \(M_a\).


      Let \(|w|_a := \varphi_a(w)\).

      \(\varphi(w) := 3^{|w|_a} 2^{|w|_b}\)


      1. Let \(u \to_1 v\). Then \(\varphi(v) = 3^{|v|_a} 2^{|v|_b} = 3^{|u|_a+1} 2^{|u|_b-2} = 3^{|u|_a} 2^{|u|_b} \frac{3}{4} = \varphi(u) \frac{3}{4} < \varphi(u)\).
      2. Let \(u \to_2 v\). Then \(\varphi(v) = 3^{|v|_a} 2^{|v|_b} = 3^{|u|_a-1} 2^{|u|_b+1} = 3^{|u|_a} 2^{|u|_b} \frac{2}{3} = \varphi(u) \frac{2}{3} < \varphi(u)\).



      Let \(a > b\). Then \([b^n a | n \in [0, 1, \ldots]]\) is an infinite chain according to \(>_{Lex}\).

      Note: This exercise completes the discussion of Lemma 2.4.3.


      Let \(s, t\) be terms. Run BFS from \(s\) using \(\leftrightarrow^E\). If \(t\) is encountered, conclude that \(s \approx_E t\). If the BFS finishes enumerating the equivalence class without encountering \(t\), conclude that \(\lnot s \approx_E t\).


      Let \(x \in Var(r) \setminus Var(l)\). Let \(p\) be a position of \(x\) in \(r\).

      Infinite chain:

      • \(t_0 = x\)
      • \(t_{i+1} = r[t_i]_p\)


      1. a
        • Unifier: \({x \to h(a), y \to h(a)}\)
        • Matcher: \({x \to h(a), y \to x}\)
      2. b
        • Unifier: Unsolvable
        • Matcher: \({x \to h(x), y \to x}\)
      3. c
        • Unifier: \({x \to h(y), z \to b}\)
        • Matcher: Unsolvable
      4. d
        • Unifier: Unsolvable
        • Matcher: Unsolvable


      Counterexample TRS \(R\):

      1. \(a \to b\)
      2. \(b \to b\)
    1. The Future is Vast: Longtermism’s perspective on humanity’s past, present, and futureIf we manage to avoid a large catastrophe, we are living at the early beginnings of human historyby Max RoserMarch 15, 2022The point of this text is not to predict how many people will ever live. What I learned from writing this post is that our future is potentially very, very big. This is what I try to convey here.If we keep each other safe – and protect ourselves from the risks that nature and we ourselves pose – we are only at the beginning of human history.
    1. Evaluations of the platform show that users who follow the avatar inmaking a gesture achieve more lasting learning than those who simply hear theword. Gesturing students also learn more than those who observe the gesture butdon’t enact it themselves.

      Manuela Macedonia's research indicates that online learners who enact specific gestures as they learn words learn better and have longer retention versus simply hearing words. Students who mimic these gestures also learn better than those who only see the gestures and don't use them themselves.

      How might this sort of teacher/avatar gesturing be integrated into online methods? How would students be encouraged to follow along?

      Could these be integrated into different background settings as well to take advantage of visual memory?

      Anecdotally, I remember some Welsh phrases from having watched Aran Jones interact with his cat outside on video or his lip syncing in the empty spaces requiring student responses. Watching the teachers lips while learning can be highly helpful as well.

    2. In one study, subjects who had watched a videotapedspeech were 33 percent more likely to recall a point from the talk if it wasaccompanied by a gesture. This effect, detected immediately after the subjectsviewed the recording, grew even more pronounced with the passage of time:thirty minutes after watching the speech, subjects were more than 50 percentmore likely to remember the gesture-accompanied points.

      People are more likely to remember points from talks that are accompanied by gestures. This effect apparently increases with time.

      What does the effect of time have on increased lengths? Does it continue to increase and then decrease at some point? Anecdotally I often recall quotes and instances from movies based on movements that I make.

      What effects, if any, are seen in studies of mirror-neurons and those with impairment of them? What memory effects might be seen with those on the autism spectrum who don't have strong mirror-neuron responses? If this is impaired, what might account for their improved memories for some types of material? Which types of material do they have improved memories for?

      Is the same true of drawing points from a speech using the ideas of sketchnotes? Is drawing an extension of gestural improvement of memory?

    1. Psychologists call this mechanism activeinhibition (cf. MacLeod, 2007

      Active inhibition is the filter that prevents our minds from being constantly flooded with memories and allows us to focus. It acts as a barrier between our long term memories and our immediate present.

      Is the filter behind active inhibition really active or is it passive? What is the actual physiological mechanism?

  5. Feb 2022
    1. Zeigarnik effect: Open tasks tend to occupy our short-term memory –until they are done. That is why we get so easily distracted bythoughts of unfinished tasks, regardless of their importance. Butthanks to Zeigarnik’s follow-up research, we also know that we don’tactually have to finish tasks to convince our brains to stop thinkingabout them. All we have to do is to write them down in a way thatconvinces us that it will be taken care of.

      The Zeigarnik effect is the idea that open or pending tasks tend to occupy our short-term memory until they are done or our brain is otherwise convinced that they're "finished". This is why note taking can be valuable. By writing down small things, we can free up our short-term or working memories to focus or work on other potentially more important tasks. It is named for Soviet psychologist Bluma Zeigarnik.

      The Zeigarnik effect is some of the value behind David Allen's "Getting Things Done" system. Writing down to do lists tricks our mind into freeing up space from things we need to take care of. If they're really important, we've got a list and can then take care of them. Meanwhile our working memories are freed up for other tasks.

    1. APPG on Coronavirus. (2022, January 18). 🗣Dr.Claire Steves continued: “Looking in the national core studies, from cohort studies across the UK we’ve looked at 10 different longitudinal studies. Our best estimates are that about 5% of middle aged people are experiencing long term.. 27/ #APPGCoronavirus #LongCovid [Tweet]. @AppgCoronavirus. https://twitter.com/AppgCoronavirus/status/1483453895061999618

    1. AbScent. (2022, February 7). ⁦the study quoted here looked at an 18 month time interval. In our Covid19 FB group of 34.5k, we have reports of recovery after 18 months—2 years is not unknown @Dr_Ellie⁩ ⁦@MailOnline⁩ https://t.co/5DdXDWLBSQ [Tweet]. @AbScentUK. https://twitter.com/AbScentUK/status/1490636119322644484

  6. Jan 2022
    1. Routen, A., O’Mahoney, L., Ayoubkhani, D., Banerjee, A., Brightling, C., Calvert, M., Chaturvedi, N., Diamond, I., Eggo, R., Elliott, P., Evans, R. A., Haroon, S., Herret, E., O’Hara, M. E., Shafran, R., Stanborough, J., Stephenson, T., Sterne, J., Ward, H., & Khunti, K. (2022). Understanding and tracking the impact of long COVID in the United Kingdom. Nature Medicine, 28(1), 11–15. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-021-01591-4

    1. ReconfigBehSci. (2022, January 21). RT @IndependentSage: Today at 1.30pm, Independent SAGE will discuss shaping policy to help Long Covid sufferers, with special guests includ… [Tweet]. @SciBeh. https://twitter.com/SciBeh/status/1484475503394406402

    1. Technological solutions to social problems seem quicker, cheaper, and simpler to implement than larger social changes.

      Tech solutionism can often seem useful because it appears to be cheaper, simpler, and easier to implement than making more difficult choices and larger, necessary social changes.

      One needs to always ask what is the real underlying problem? What other methods are there for potential solutions? What are the knock-on effects of these potential solutions. Is the particular solution really just a quick fix or bandaid? Once implemented how will one measure the effects and adjust after-the-fact?

    1. software design on the scale of decades: every detail is intended to promote software longevity and independent evolution. Many of the constraints are directly opposed to short-term efficiency. Unfortunately, people are fairly good at short-term design, and usually awful at long-term design
  7. Dec 2021
  8. Nov 2021
    1. Drexel emphasizesthe difficulty of image-based arts of memory and how short-lived are theirresults: “Great labor places so many images of things in this treasury ofmemory; but no amount of labor has managed to preserve them there forlong without excerpts” (A, p. 3). Instead, for Drexel excerpting is the onlysure way to retain material for the long term. Drexel insists too that, farfrom detracting from memory, note taking is the best aid to memory.

      Jeremias Drexel is certainly a writer who complains about the work of the ars memoria, particularly for long term memory and supplants it with writing/note taking.

  9. Oct 2021
    1. Dowdy, D. (2021, September 21). On the J&J booster news, keep in mind: 1. Median follow-up since 2nd dose was just 36 days, 2. Efficacy vs moderate COVID was 75% globally, and 3. Total number of cases in the US was 15. Please don’t take this to mean that a 2nd dose provides long-term increase in protection. Https://t.co/RnqDNBmwuD [Tweet]. @davidwdowdy. https://twitter.com/davidwdowdy/status/1440323242942554122

  10. Sep 2021
    1. c. 19, s. 700

      Jobs, Growth and Long-term Prosperity Act, SC 2012, c 19, s. 700:

      • removed the previous s. 2(2)
      • replaced it with: "(2) Unless otherwise indicated, references in this Act to “this Act” include regulations made under it and instructions given under subsection 14.1(1)."
  11. drive.google.com drive.google.com
    1. This may be the sine qua non of rhetoric: theart of linguistically or symbolically creating salience.

      Salience: importance

    2. Weltanschauung

      Weltanschauung: worldview. German.

    1. Cognitive scientists have found also that when we answer a question in our own words, we integrate the information better into our long-term memory.

      Reference for this?


      I have heard this term used a lot in the last four years. Even when I was unsure what the word precisely meant, I understood it to have negative connotations. OED defines complicity as, "the state of being involved with others in an illegal activity or wrongdoing." If Miller is using the term in this way than that's a pretty risky way to title his piece. It implies that the structure of academia is corrupted.

  12. Aug 2021
    1. paradigmatic

      I was not sure what this term meant in this context. After looking the term up on google, the definition that seems to fit is the denotation of the relationship between a set of linguistic items that form mutually exclusive choices in particular syntactic roles.

  13. Jul 2021
    1. The New Money Trust: How Large Money Managers Control Our Economy and What We Can Do About It

      WTF is wrong?

      Where is the moral character and backbone of the American people. We know something is wrong! It smells and stinks yet no one does anything. Most of our elected politicians are useless turds floating in wastewater and the rest are multiple term professional corrupt politicians waiting for the appropriate revolving door opportunity. This has nothing to do with party affiliation, it is rampant on both sides. Political parties perpetuate the illusion as a control mechanism. We see it yet do nothing about it! WHY?

      This paper (topic) is typical of the continued "head in the sand" passive financial regulatory system loaded with Sheeple and kiss-ass do nothing idiots. Alarms have been going off since 2005/6 and as predicted then, our financial system imploded in 07/08.

      1. What lesson was learned?
      2. Who were the players?
      3. What disciplinary actions took place?
      4. Who went to Jail?

      Nothing has changed. Corruption and fraud fuel a dysfunctional financial system destined to cripple the American and Global economies. Economists and many within the financial sector know what is going on. Maybe they care about the average person but are afraid to come forward. Maybe they don't care and fully intend to rape and pillage as much of the global society as possible.

      The question is what are YOU going to do to protect future generations, your children, grand children and so on?

    1. Dr. Jeff Benyacar on Twitter: “@AlexBerenson ‘Even if a link between myocarditis and the vaccine holds up, the condition is usually mild, requiring treatment only with anti-inflammatory drugs, whereas COVID-19 infection can also cause serious disease and long-term side effects, even in young people.’ https://t.co/3VQprF7bIz” / Twitter. (n.d.). Retrieved July 2, 2021, from https://twitter.com/jbenyacar/status/1399851524487106562?s=12

  14. Jun 2021
    1. "While it takes time to make these changes now, it's a one-time engineering cost that will have lasting impacts, both internally and externally," Sorenson said in an email. "We're in this for the long game, and we know inclusive language is just as much about how we code and what we build as it is about person-to-person interactions."
    1. Osmanov, I. M., Spiridonova, E., Bobkova, P., Gamirova, A., Shikhaleva, A., Andreeva, M., Blyuss, O., El-Taravi, Y., DunnGalvin, A., Comberiati, P., Peroni, D. G., Apfelbacher, C., Genuneit, J., Mazankova, L., Miroshina, A., Chistyakova, E., Samitova, E., Borzakova, S., Bondarenko, E., … Sechenov StopCOVID Research Team. (2021). Risk factors for long covid in previously hospitalised children using the ISARIC Global follow-up protocol: A prospective cohort study [Preprint]. Pediatrics. https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.04.26.21256110

  15. May 2021
    1. “Finance is, like, done. Everybody’s bought everybody else with low-cost debt. Everybody’s maximised their margin. They’ve bought all their shares back . . . There’s nothing there. Every industry has about three players. Elizabeth Warren is right,” Ubben told the Financial Times.

      Pretty amazing statement! Elizabeth Warren is right!

    1. After 10 minutes, the word lists were collected and students were asked to write down as many of the list items as they could recall within five minutes.

      Were students asked or told if they'd be tested with this on long-term memory?

      Personally, I'd have used a simple major system method to memorize such a list for short term memory, but would have used other techniques for long term memory.

    2. These “Songline” stories are ancient, exhibit little variation over long periods of time, and are carefully learned and guarded by the Elders who are its custodians [7].

      What is the best way we could test and explore error correction and overwriting in such a system from an information theoretic standpoint?

    1. “Monetising what we see as sacred knowledge, our way of being – driving, walking – is sacred knowledge and the only people who should have any purview over that is our community. … What if we look at what the data could do for our community and how to achieve that? … We are gathering our data because we love our people, we want a better future for the next generations. What if all data was gathered for those reasons? What would it look like?”

      A great quote and framing from Abigail Echo-Hawk.

      This reliance on going to community elders (primarily because they have more knowledge and wisdom) is similar to designing for the commons and working backward. Elders in many indigenous cultures represent the the commons.

      This isn't to say that we shouldn't continue to innovate and explore the evolutionary space for better answers, but going slow and fixing things is far more likely to be helpful than moving fast and breaking things as has been the mode for the last fifteen years. Who's watching the long horizon in these scenarios?

      This quote and set up deserves some additional thought into the ideas and power structures described by Lynne Kelly in Knowledge and Power in Prehistoric Societies Orality, Memory and the Transmission of Culture

    2. There’s a way of thinking about data – and about how we use the linked technologies to connect, communicate and organise – that grows out of the seven generations view KSR talks about in TMFTF. It’s something that serves us, and which never stops being of us. It’s not an asset so much as a gift, but not all gifts can be given or received by all people. Once you start thinking of it this way, you can never go back.

      Not delineated directly here, but the idea of a seven generations view sounds intriguing.

    1. There’s this thing I simply call “365”. With each new year (or sometimes at the end of a notebook, when I feel like it), I make a 2-page spread mind map of things that kept me busy. It’s more or less an analog tag cloud and it’s extremely rewarding to make. You get to browse through previous journals, look at things you’ve written down and actually managed to pull of, and take note of that in one or two words. That creates a thick cloud full of the things that defined you for the last year. It’s actually quite incredible to look at. When I’m done doing that, I try to underline the words that meant more to me than others. Applying the retrospective principles from software development on your own personal life and writing down what made you glad, mad or sad actually helps you do something about that.

      This is an example of spaced repetition being done as retrospective and hiding some of the value of making the important things stand out and reviewing them for better long term retention.

    1. Dr. Tom Frieden. (2021, April 30). Globally, the end of the pandemic isn’t near. More than a million lives depend on improving our response quickly. Don’t be blinded by the light at the end of the tunnel. There isn’t enough vaccine and the virus is gathering strength & speed. Global cooperation is crucial. 1/ [Tweet]. @DrTomFrieden. https://twitter.com/DrTomFrieden/status/1388172436999376899

  16. Apr 2021
  17. Mar 2021
    1. With all this “monetization” happening around Trailblazer, we will also make sure that all free and paid parts of the project grow adult and maintan an LTS - or long-term support - status. Those are good news to all you users out there having been scared to use gems of this project, not knowing whether or not they’re being maintained, breaking code in the future or making your developers addicted to and then cutting off the supply chain. Trailblazer 2.1 onwards is LTS, and the last 1 ½ years of collaboration have proven that.
  18. Feb 2021