42 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. Statistical heterogeneity is the term given to differences in the effects of interventions and comesabout because of clinical and/or methodological differences between studies (ie it is a consequenceof clinical and/or methodological heterogeneity). Although some variation in the effects ofinterventions between studies will always exist, whether this variation is greater than what isexpected by chance alone needs to be determined.

      If the statistical heterogeneity is larger that what's expected by chance alone, then what does that imply? That there's either clinical or methodological heterogeneity within the pooled studies.

      What's the impact of the presence of clinical heterogeneity? The statistical heterogeneity (variation of effects/results of interventions) becomes greater than what's expected by chance alone

      What's happens if methodological heterogeneity is present? The statistical heterogeneity (variation of effects/results of interventions) becomes greater than what's expected by chance alone

    1. Scaffolding is the act of providing learners with assistance or support to perform a taskbeyond their own reach if pursued independently when “unassisted.”

      Wood, Bruner, & Ross (1976) define scaffolding as what? (Metiri Group, Cisco Sytems, 2008) The act of providing learners with assistance or support to perform a task beyond their own reach if pursued independently when "unassisted."

      What term do Wood, Bruner, & Ross (1976) define as "The act of providing learners with assistance or support to perform a task beyond their own reach if pursued independently when 'unassisted.'"? (Metiri Group, Cisco Sytems, 2008) Scaffolding

    2. Schemas are chunks of multiple individual units of memory that are linked into a system ofunderstanding

      How do Bransford, Brown, & Cocking (2000) define schemas? (Metiri Group, Cisco Sytems, 2008) As chunks of multiple individual units of memory that are linked into a system of understanding

      What term is defined by Bransford, Brown, & Cocking (2000) to be "chunks of multiple individual units of memory that are linked into a system of understanding"? (Metiri Group, Cisco Sytems, 2008) Schemas.

    3. Learning is defined to be “storage of automated schema in long-term memory.

      How is learning defined by Sweller in 2002? (Metiri Group, Cisco Sytems, 2008) The storage of automated schema in long-term memory

      What term does Sweller define as the "storage of automated schema in long-term memory"?

  2. Nov 2022
    1. What Is a Blockchain Oracle? A blockchain oracle is a secure piece of middleware that facilitates communication between blockchains and any off-chain system, including data providers, web APIs, enterprise backends, cloud providers, IoT devices, e-signatures, payment systems, other blockchains, and more. Oracles take on several key functions: Listen – monitor the blockchain network to check for any incoming user or smart contract requests for off-chain data. Extract – fetch data from one or multiple external systems such as off-chain APIs hosted on third-party web servers. Format – format data retrieved from external APIs into a blockchain readable format (input) and/or making blockchain data compatible with an external API (output). Validate – generate a cryptographic proof attesting to the performance of an oracle service using any combination of data signing, blockchain transaction signing, TLS signatures, Trusted Execution Environment (TEE) attestations, or zero-knowledge proofs. Compute – perform some type of secure off-chain computation for the smart contract, such as calculating a median from multiple oracle submissions or generating a verifiable random number for a gaming application. Broadcast – sign and broadcast a transaction on the blockchain in order to send data and any corresponding proof on-chain for consumption by the smart contract. Output (optional) –  send data to an external system upon the execution of a smart contract, such as relaying payment instructions to a traditional payment network or triggering actions from a cyber-physical system.

      Seems related to the paradox of information systems. Add to Anki deck

    1. Zettelkasten as a product?! .t3_xsoaya._2FCtq-QzlfuN-SwVMUZMM3 { --postTitle-VisitedLinkColor: #9b9b9b; --postTitleLink-VisitedLinkColor: #9b9b9b; --postBodyLink-VisitedLinkColor: #989898; }

      @chrisaldrich's post on "pip decks". They seem less like Zettelkasten decks and more like protocol-kastens (think of a better name for this)

      Seem poor for knowledge generation (Zettelkasten) and recollection (Anki), but may be useful for specific contexts of problem-solving (even in ill-defined problem spaces).

    1. I realize that having the same FE/BE on all platforms is the fabled cross-platform panacea. But I’ve yet to see this work well in practice for any app of significant complexity. Quite a few major development teams that were early adopters of ideas like this have since abandoned that approach e.g. AirBnB with React Native, or DropBox with their custom C++ core. As it turns out, while you do write less platform-specific code, you still have to deal with platform-specific bugs and performance issues (not too dissimilar from Qt, just the with additional headaches of mobile platforms). So creating one “universal” code base ends up being almost as much work as working with each platform’s native technologies.

      (Test) Glutimate's argument against moving away from Qt for Anki development.

  3. Oct 2022
    1. new technologies leveraging techniques like spaced repetition mean it's much easier to remember what you learn

      Such as Anki

  4. Aug 2022
    1. 在我逐渐掌握anki中一个个小的知识点时,结构却自然而然地在脑中浮现了。我选择这时梳理框架,果然受益匪浅,对学到的内容有了更深的认识。

      有一些相同的体会,昨天在使用anki,整理learn python the hard way前半本书的概念时,发现能够大致厘清作者介绍的脉络了,复习本身就是一个消化和再学习的过程。

  5. Jul 2022
    1. Obsidian 里有个叫 Flashcards 的插件,完美解决了这个问题。可能最开始的安装和设置需要一点时间,不过插件的作者给出的流程非常地清晰,即便是第一次使用也能很快安装好。Flashcard 作者给出的安装流程安装好后,在需要导入 Anki 的内容后添加一个 #flashcard 的标签,然后点击侧面的 Generate flashcards 按钮,当前文档中所有加了标签的内容就被一键导入到了 Anki 中。这使得, 制作一张(或数张)卡片的操作成本大约只是一次鼠标点击。从 Obsidian 到 Anki现在市面上的双链笔记软件非常多,我选择 Obsidian 很大程度上就是因为它可以 Anki 无缝互联。而且二者都支持 LaTeX,理科中的公式也可以非常方便地记录。在使用过程中我最喜欢的一点就是,Obsidian 中的双链接在 Anki 中也可以打开。复习到相关概念时,只要点一下双链接,就可以从 Anki 跳回 Obsidian。从 Anki 到 Obsidian上面的操作在手机上也可以别无二致地实现。于是,学习就变成了,用大块的时间去拆解那些复杂的东西,把知识点都变成小卡片;用碎片的时间去刷卡片,随时随地完成知识的内化。那么到这里,Obsidian 的操作就说完了。小结一下,为了保持纯粹,我只用它来做如下操作:第二层 - 拆解 & 构造:MOC(Map of Content)第三层 - 原子化:Evergreen Notes第四层 - 关联 & 内化:Anki 卡片


    1. Anki makes memory a choice

      What he mean by that? Perhaps the facility that Anki brings with itself, and because of that is just a matter of choice?

    2. But it's worth cultivating taste in what to memorize

      You should have in mind what will you memorize. It's a dumb strategy just try to memorize everything.

  6. Apr 2022
    1. https://www.idorecall.com/

      This was mentioned to me by Nate Maertens in our lunch discussion of edtech tools, spaced repetition, and Barbara Oakley from 2022-02-11.

      Nice layout and bullet pointed reasons for using it on a slick website, but it looks awfully expensive in comparison to Anki and Mnemosyne (free). Looks like they've got pre-existing content, but a quick scan doesn't center the value of creating your own cards.

  7. Mar 2022
    1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9eP8Bq9x5yw

      A nice overview of spaced repetition systems.

      Soren Bjornstad previously worked for Anki and is now at Remnote.

      I wonder if anyone has created a spaced repetition system set up that leverages Hypothes.is? It would be cool to write questions and answers as one takes notes in Hypothes.is and then be able to quickly/easily export those annotations into a spaced repetition system.


      Q: What is the best annotation tool on the inernet?

      A: Hypothes.is

  8. Feb 2022
    1. The result is that a card’s ease factor adjusts to whatever range of ease (or laziness) causes you to mark the card as Good. Unless you’re a very disciplined and consistent person, this range is likely to be pretty wide, and the boundaries are likely to move drastically with your mood.

      Marking a card "Good" is a signal to Anki that the ease for this card is correct. What is the range of eases for me? The range could wide, because differing difficulty between cards. The issue here is that range for a particular card may fluctuate a lot, according to mood, tiredness, and other factors not related to the card's difficulty. The suggested solution is the log-based formula.

    2. With this equation, it won’t matter whether you choose Easy, Good, or Hard. The success rate over time will tell us whether the ease factor is too easy (over 85% success), or too hard (under 85% success). We don’t have to think about it anymore. We can just select between Again and Good; a simple binary choice between getting a card right and getting it wrong.

      Should Hard, Good, Easy in [[Anki]] be bundled together? It would make choosing the right option easier, but how about .. e.g. verb conjugations where you miss singular 3rd person and get the other five right?

  9. Oct 2021
    1. I said above that I typically spend 10 to 60 minutes Ankifying a paper, with the duration depending on my judgment of the value I'm getting from the paper. However, if I'm learning a great deal, and finding it interesting, I keep reading and Ankifying. Really good resources are worth investing time in.

      How to tag and store the "really good sources" for later review? I wouldn't want to have thousands of really good sources because then I wouldn't have any bandwidth for new material. Always pop something out if something goes in?

    2. First, if memorizing a fact seems worth 10 minutes of my time in the future, then I do it** I first saw an analysis along these lines in Gwern Branwen's review of spaced repetition: Gwern Branwen, Spaced-Repetition. His numbers are slightly more optimistic than mine – he arrives at a 5-minute rule of thumb, rather than 10 minutes – but broadly consistent. Branwen's analysis is based, in turn, on an analysis in: Piotr Wozniak, Theoretical aspects of spaced repetition in learning.. Second, and superseding the first, if a fact seems striking then into Anki it goes, regardless of whether it seems worth 10 minutes of my future time or not.

      2 rules of thumb: "What to ankify?" It's not straightforward to know (beforehand) what actually is worth memorizing. Are there any good heuristics?

  10. May 2021
  11. May 2020
    1. Here again are the twenty rules of formulating knowledge.
      1. Do not learn if you do not understand
      2. Learn before you memorize - build the picture of the whole before you dismember it into simple items in SuperMemo. If the whole shows holes, review it again!
      3. Build upon the basics - never jump both feet into a complex manual because you may never see the end. Well remembered basics will help the remaining knowledge easily fit in
      4. Stick to the minimum information principle - if you continue forgetting an item, try to make it as simple as possible. If it does not help, see the remaining rules (cloze deletion, graphics, mnemonic techniques, converting sets into enumerations, etc.)
      5. Cloze deletion is easy and effective - completing a deleted word or phrase is not only an effective way of learning. Most of all, it greatly speeds up formulating knowledge and is highly recommended for beginners
      6. Use imagery - a picture is worth a thousand words
      7. Use mnemonic techniques - read about peg lists and mind maps. Study the books by Tony Buzan. Learn how to convert memories into funny pictures. You won't have problems with phone numbers and complex figures
      8. Graphic deletion is as good as cloze deletion - obstructing parts of a picture is great for learning anatomy, geography and more
      9. Avoid sets - larger sets are virtually un-memorizable unless you convert them into enumerations!
      10. Avoid enumerations - enumerations are also hard to remember but can be dealt with using cloze deletion
      11. Combat interference - even the simplest items can be completely intractable if they are similar to other items. Use examples, context cues, vivid illustrations, refer to emotions, and to your personal life
      12. Optimize wording - like you reduce mathematical equations, you can reduce complex sentences into smart, compact and enjoyable maxims
      13. Refer to other memories - building memories on other memories generates a coherent and hermetic structure that forgetting is less likely to affect. Build upon the basics and use planned redundancy to fill in the gaps
      14. Personalize and provide examples - personalization might be the most effective way of building upon other memories. Your personal life is a gold mine of facts and events to refer to. As long as you build a collection for yourself, use personalization richly to build upon well established memories
      15. Rely on emotional states - emotions are related to memories. If you learn a fact in the sate of sadness, you are more likely to recall it if when you are sad. Some memories can induce emotions and help you employ this property of the brain in remembering
      16. Context cues simplify wording - providing context is a way of simplifying memories, building upon earlier knowledge and avoiding interference
      17. Redundancy does not contradict minimum information principle - some forms of redundancy are welcome. There is little harm in memorizing the same fact as viewed from different angles. Passive and active approach is particularly practicable in learning word-pairs. Memorizing derivation steps in problem solving is a way towards boosting your intellectual powers!
      18. Provide sources - sources help you manage the learning process, updating your knowledge, judging its reliability, or importance
      19. Provide date stamping - time stamping is useful for volatile knowledge that changes in time
      20. Prioritize - effective learning is all about prioritizing. In incremental reading you can start from badly formulated knowledge and improve its shape as you proceed with learning (in proportion to the cost of inappropriate formulation). If need be, you can review pieces of knowledge again, split it into parts, reformulate, reprioritize, or delete.
    1. Somewhere between too hard and too easy, there’s a sweet-spot where reviews are challenging enough to hold your interest, but not so hard that it feels like torture. When the challenge of reviews is just right, you’ll actually get a sense of accomplishment and a little jolt of dopamine as you do them. Our brains actually enjoy challenges as long as they aren’t too hard or too easy. As I see it, this level of challenge is where you want to be.

      The sweet spot is between 80 - 90% of right answers

    2. Researchers have found that reviews are more effective when they’re difficult. That is, if you have to work at remembering a card, it’ll have a stronger effect on your memory. The harder a review is, the more it boosts your memory. This is called “desirable difficulty” in the literature.

      Desirable difficulty

  12. Mar 2020
    1. A: Read an article from start to finish. ONLY THEN do you import parts into Anki for remembering B: Incremental Reading: interleaving between reading and remembering

      Two algorithms (A and B) for studying

    2. “I think SM is only good for a small minority of learners. But they will probably value it very much.”

      I totally agree with it

    3. In Anki, you are only doing the remembering part. You are not reading anything new in Anki

      Anki is for remembering

    4. Using either SRS has already given you a huge edge over not using any SRS: No SRS: 70 hours Anki: 10 hours SuperMemo: 6 hours The difference between using any SRS (whether it’s Anki or SM) and not using is huge, but the difference between Anki or SM is not

      It doesn't matter as much which SRS you're using. It's most important to use one of them at least

    5. “Anki is a tool and SuperMemo is a lifestyle.”

      Anki vs SuperMemo

    1. The Cornell Note-taking System

      The Cornell Note-taking System reassembling the combination of active learning and spaced repetition, just as Anki

    1. And for the last three years, I've added EVERYTHING to Anki. Bash aliases, IDE Shortcuts, programming APIs, documentation, design patterns, etc. Having done that, I wouldn't recommend adding EVERYTHING

      Put just the relevant information into Anki

    2. Habit: Whenever I search StackOverflow, I'll immediately create a flashcard of my question and the answer(s) into Anki.

      Example habit to make a flashcard

    3. The confidence of knowing that once something is added to Anki it won't be forgotten is intoxicating


    4. Kyle had a super hero ability. Photographic memory in API syntax and documentation. I wanted that and I was jealous. My career was stuck and something needed to change. And so I began a dedicated journey into spaced repetition. Every day for three years, I spent one to three hours in spaced repetition

      Spaced repetition as a tool for photographic memory in API syntax and documentation

  13. Dec 2019
  14. Jul 2019
    1. Здесь просто задается вопрос. Но у emacs есть spaced repetition . Это может быть полезно в программистких целях.

    1. Палаты памяти с динамически увеличивающимися дворцами. Номера комнат (?) запоминаются через Анки. Не очень подробное руководство. Может быть полезно.