11 Matching Annotations
  1. Apr 2022
    1. It shouldn't escape the mnemonists' attention that while Wozniak recognizes some basic attributes of memory and mnemonics, he obviously isn't steeped in the traditions of the art of memory. Specifically he doesn't seem to be aware of associative methods beyond peg systems and some low level basics which he's come across via Tony Buzan. He's also missing the major system and the method of loci in general. However, when looking at his list of "Twenty rules of formulating knowledge", the majority of the items on the list are either heavily informed by the memory canon within classical rhetoric. Some of the items on the list actually move in an opposite direction from good memory principles (his admonitions against sets and enumeration), but it's because Wozniak is explicitly missing some of the basic mnemotechnical tools.

      Have any writers on space repetition gone beyond Wozniak's state of the art with respect to mnemotechniques before?

      I had started it and lost it due to a technical glitch, but it might be worth highlighting the places where Wozniak's list either directly dovetails or diverges from the arts of memory. His list could be dramatically improved and compressed by brining it closer in line with the fourth canon of rhetoric.

    2. Before you start believing that mastering such techniques will provide you with an eternal solution to the problem of forgetting, be warned that the true bottleneck towards long-lasting and useful memories is not in quickly memorizing knowledge! This is indeed the easier part. The bottleneck lies in retaining memories for months, years or for lifetime! To accomplish the latter you will need SuperMemo and the compliance with the 20 rules presented herein. There have been dozens of books written about mnemonic techniques. Probably those written by Tony Buzan are most popular and respected. You can search the web for keywords such as: mind maps, peg lists, mnemonic techniques, etc.

      Dr. Piotr Wozniak was apparently aware of at least some mnemonic techniques, but didn't rely on them heavily. Was this the result of the fact that he was pushing a product which he relied on for income? Was there something else?

      Why didn't he more tightly integrate the two ideas?

    3. Use mnemonic techniques

      I'm surprised that given the topic of the site and a mention of Tony Buzan on this page that mnemonic techniques don't have a more primary place here.

  2. May 2020
    1. Incremental writing is a method of writing in which ideas are written down and assembled incrementally. Incremental writing requires no linearity. It adapts to your way of thinking. Many great writers and scientists of the past used a variant of incremental writing using their own systems of notes. In SuperMemo, incremental writing is integral with the creative process and learning itself

      Incremental writing is a method of writing where you keep adding elements to a piece in a "creative phase". In this phase the manuscript progressively increases in size. This is followed by a "consolidation phase", a process in which the manuscript gets to the point and decreases in size.

    1. Here again are the twenty rules of formulating knowledge.
      1. Do not learn if you do not understand
      2. Learn before you memorize - build the picture of the whole before you dismember it into simple items in SuperMemo. If the whole shows holes, review it again!
      3. Build upon the basics - never jump both feet into a complex manual because you may never see the end. Well remembered basics will help the remaining knowledge easily fit in
      4. Stick to the minimum information principle - if you continue forgetting an item, try to make it as simple as possible. If it does not help, see the remaining rules (cloze deletion, graphics, mnemonic techniques, converting sets into enumerations, etc.)
      5. Cloze deletion is easy and effective - completing a deleted word or phrase is not only an effective way of learning. Most of all, it greatly speeds up formulating knowledge and is highly recommended for beginners
      6. Use imagery - a picture is worth a thousand words
      7. Use mnemonic techniques - read about peg lists and mind maps. Study the books by Tony Buzan. Learn how to convert memories into funny pictures. You won't have problems with phone numbers and complex figures
      8. Graphic deletion is as good as cloze deletion - obstructing parts of a picture is great for learning anatomy, geography and more
      9. Avoid sets - larger sets are virtually un-memorizable unless you convert them into enumerations!
      10. Avoid enumerations - enumerations are also hard to remember but can be dealt with using cloze deletion
      11. Combat interference - even the simplest items can be completely intractable if they are similar to other items. Use examples, context cues, vivid illustrations, refer to emotions, and to your personal life
      12. Optimize wording - like you reduce mathematical equations, you can reduce complex sentences into smart, compact and enjoyable maxims
      13. Refer to other memories - building memories on other memories generates a coherent and hermetic structure that forgetting is less likely to affect. Build upon the basics and use planned redundancy to fill in the gaps
      14. Personalize and provide examples - personalization might be the most effective way of building upon other memories. Your personal life is a gold mine of facts and events to refer to. As long as you build a collection for yourself, use personalization richly to build upon well established memories
      15. Rely on emotional states - emotions are related to memories. If you learn a fact in the sate of sadness, you are more likely to recall it if when you are sad. Some memories can induce emotions and help you employ this property of the brain in remembering
      16. Context cues simplify wording - providing context is a way of simplifying memories, building upon earlier knowledge and avoiding interference
      17. Redundancy does not contradict minimum information principle - some forms of redundancy are welcome. There is little harm in memorizing the same fact as viewed from different angles. Passive and active approach is particularly practicable in learning word-pairs. Memorizing derivation steps in problem solving is a way towards boosting your intellectual powers!
      18. Provide sources - sources help you manage the learning process, updating your knowledge, judging its reliability, or importance
      19. Provide date stamping - time stamping is useful for volatile knowledge that changes in time
      20. Prioritize - effective learning is all about prioritizing. In incremental reading you can start from badly formulated knowledge and improve its shape as you proceed with learning (in proportion to the cost of inappropriate formulation). If need be, you can review pieces of knowledge again, split it into parts, reformulate, reprioritize, or delete.
  3. Mar 2020
    1. “I think SM is only good for a small minority of learners. But they will probably value it very much.”

      I totally agree with it

    2. Using either SRS has already given you a huge edge over not using any SRS: No SRS: 70 hours Anki: 10 hours SuperMemo: 6 hours The difference between using any SRS (whether it’s Anki or SM) and not using is huge, but the difference between Anki or SM is not

      It doesn't matter as much which SRS you're using. It's most important to use one of them at least

    3. “Anki is a tool and SuperMemo is a lifestyle.”

      Anki vs SuperMemo

  4. Sep 2019
    1. in SM, learning and remembering are blended into one: you read (learn) and review (remember) at the same time. Incremental Reading is essentially “spaced repetition-ing” your reading

      Super Memo combines learning + remembering

  5. Jan 2019
  6. Sep 2018