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  1. Last 7 days
    1. Then when giving answers I'm even less certain. For example I see occasional how-to questions which (IMO) are ridiculously complex in bash, awk, sed, etc. but trivial in python, (<10 lines, no non-standard libraries). On such questions I wait and see if other answers are forthcoming. But if they get no answers, I'm not sure if I should give my 10 lines of python or not.
    2. There is an observable widespread tendency to give an awk answer to almost everything, but that should not be inferred as a rule to be followed, and if there's (say) a Python answer that involves less programming then surely that is quite on point as an answer for a readership of users.
    3. "When an OP rejects your edit, please do not edit it back in!" Correspondingly, when a user repeatedly does try to edit, understand that something in your framing isn't working right, and you should reconsider it.
  2. Jun 2020
    1. Ai Khanoum looked like the other royal cities of the Hellenistic Near East, where a new architecture had developed as early as the beginning of the third century, under the initiative of the Seleucid kings. This architecture was eclectic and was characterized by a synthesis of various influences coming from all over the Mediterranean world, but particularly from Mesopotamia and the Iranian plateau.

      Answer to Study Question 26.

    2. All the roofs were flat, as was usual in the Orient and central Asia. Very few were completely covered with tiles; rather, just two or three rows of tiles were placed along the roof edge. All the walls were constructed from mudbricks, even those of the public buildings, which is uncommon in the Greek world. The floors were made of beaten earth and covered with carpets, per local custom. Many col-umn bases were eastern in style and had a large torus on the plinth, a feature widely used in Achaemenid architecture. A campaniform base was also discovered inside the palace foundations.

      Answer to Study Question 25.

    3. The palace was a huge complex; not only did the king and his family live there, but it was also where the administrative offices of both the kingdom and the city were housed.

      Answer to Study Question 24.

    4. In assessing the extent of Greek influence, another problem is the absence of an identifiable agora.

      Answer to Study Question 23.

    5. dominated by an elite that drew its wealth from farming.

      Answer to Study Question 21.

    6. These private spaces were always provided with bathrooms, a characteristic feature of the Greek presence in central Asia.

      Answer to Study Question 20.

    7. They always in-cluded a large courtyard, which occupied at least half of the total area and was used as a private space for relaxation. A vestibule with two columns gave access to a reception room, which was the largest space in the house.

      Answer to Study Question 20.

    8. We can assume that Kineas had been the founder of the city on behalf of the king and that he died shortly after its foundation.

      Answer to Study Question 19.

    9. These aphorisms specified the main qualities a Greek man should display and were in some way a definition of Greek identity.

      Answer to Study Question 18.

    10. The heroon was another place of worship. A dedicatory inscription, from a man named Klearchos, engraved on the base of a pedestal that had been erected inside its precinct, tells us that it was known as the Temenos of Kineas.

      Answer to Study Question 17.

    11. Archaic founda-tions reveal that the first duty of the settlers and the man who guided them, the oikist, was to organize the physical space of the colony.

      Answer to Study Question 16.

    12. The main canal, which brought water into the city, flowed alongside this street, after entering near the north edge of the acropolis and running along its lowest slopes. This watercourse was needed to supply water to the south-ern part of the city.

      Answer to Study Question 15.

    13. This street played a structuring role in the urbanism of the city, since most of the buildings, ex-cept for the palace, were oriented along it. The same orientation characterized the Darya-i Pandj and the natural features. The decision to build the street near the foot of the acropolis rather than in the lower city may seem surprising. According to Bernard, it allowed a large space for public buildings, especially for the palace.

      Answer to Study Question 14.

    14. two rivers

      Answer to Study Question 13. The rivers made it easier to protect.

    15. Rather, it seems that the local populations themselves may have attacked the city along with the nomads and therefore that they played a major role in this event.

      Answer to Study Question 12. 45 B.C.E.

    16. It was, however, under Eucratides that the city reached its apex and acquired its final appearance.

      Answer to Study Question 11.

    17. Some well-stratified coins from the sanctuary allow us to conclude that these two buildings were constructed during the reign of Antiochos I

      Answer to Study Question 8.

    18. A residential quarter in the south and several monumental public buildings, including a palace, a gymnasium, two mausoleums, a theater, a temple, and an arsenal, were discovered.

      Answer to Study Question 7.

    19. It was strategically located at the conflu-ence of the Darya-i Pandj—the upper part of the Amu Darya River—and the Kokcha Rivers, at the southern extremity of a rich plain that was already under culti-vation when the Greek colonists settled there: irriga-tion networks had been constructed during the second millennium and the first half of the first millennium B.C.E.

      Answer to Study Question 4.

    20. Antiochos’ mother was Apama, daughter of the Bactrian nobleman Spitamenes; Seleucos had mar-ried her at Susa in 324.

      Answer to Study Question 3.

    21. Several elements considered in this article shed light on the nature and functions of the settlement: its urban organization, the division between public spaces and private spaces, and the extent of Greek influence on these elements.

      Answer to Study Question 2.

    1. The competition for per onal power led them to "rul,e and divide'~

      Answer to Study Question 16. (Greeks).

    2. fortunes of father and son took a turn for the better when their military forces drove from Bactria a renegade named Arsaces, later the founder of the Parthian empire .

      Answer to Study Question 15.

    3. The fo-cus must be on Diodotus I and II, the father and son who dared to break free of the Seleucid empire beginning around 250 B,.c. Through the ex-amination of ancient texts,, archaeological sites; and, most important, the Bactrian coins, the Diododds em.erge from the shadows of Hellenistic his-tory as true heirs of Alexander.

      Answer to Study Question 13. (?)

    4. Quite unlike ou own currency, most ancient coins were carefuUy designed to convey as much contemporary news and propaganda as was po sible.

      Answer to Question 8. I agree.

    5. Little more than a thousand words directly about these kings can still be read in the ancient languages of Europe and Asia

      Answer to Study Question 7.

    6. Clearly, the answer is that the complex story of the anci.ent Bac-trians must be seen in all of its relevant contexts: Persian history, Greek history, Central Asian history, Indian history.

      Answer to Study Question 6.

    7. They had come boldly to a place once fabled in Greek literature as a nev,er-never land untouched by civiliza ion, where savages ate their own parents and the frontier teemed with ghastly creatures.

      Answer to Study Question 4.

    8. myriad of grains, grapes, p·stachios, and other products.

      Answer to Study Question 3.

    9. The moderate climate of Greece contrasted starkly with the arid conditions and extreme temperatures of Bactria.

      Answer to Study Question 2.

    10. Bactria occupied much of mod-ern Afghanistan;. its northern region,. called Sogdiana, covered parts of today's Uzbekistan and Tadjikistan.

      Answer to Study Question 1.

    1. “Rock of Marpesia.”

      Answer to Study Question 32.

    2. in 2006, archaeologists discovered magnificent life- size por-traits of the famous quartet of Amazon queens, Hippolyte, Antiope, Melanippe, and Penthesilea, in a mosaic floor of the ruins of a villa under a parking lot in ancient Edessa (Sanliurfa, Turkey) (plate 1). The action- packed scenes are unusual because they show the queens hunt-ing lions and leopards instead of making war.

      Answer to Study Question 31.

    3. Amazons of Pontus were ruled by a pair of queens named Martesia (Marpesia, “Snatcher or Seizer”) and Lampeto (Lampedo, “Burning Torch”).

      Answer to Study Question 30.

    4. Gynaecocratumenoe (“Ruled by Women”)

      Answer to Study Question 29.

    5. They refused to marry, calling it slavery.

      Answer to Study Question 28. More specifically, refused when it turns out their husbands had been killed.

    6. If you don’t re-turn home we will have sex with the neighboring tribe and the result-ing children will carry on the Scythian race.

      Answer to Study Question 27.

    7. Their decline began when the Greek hero Her-acles killed their queen, Hippolyte.

      Answer to Study Question 26.

    8. This powerful “queen,” declares Diodorus, enacted new laws that created a true gynoc-racy in Pontus, in which the women would always be sovereign and trained for warfare. She assigned men to domestic tasks, spinning wool and caring for children. She ordered that baby boys’ legs were to be maimed and girls would have one breast seared.

      Answer to Study Question 25.

    9. “Daughter of Ares,” the war god.

      Answer to Study Question 24.

    10. She founded Themiscyra at the mouth of the Thermodon in Pontus.

      Answer to Study Question 23. Themiscyra was an area founded by "Daughter of Ares", a woman with authority, intelligence, strength, and battle prowess.

    11. example of Zarina, who led a Saka- Parthian coalition to victories against tribes who wanted to enslave them

      Answer to Study Question 22.

    12. the Thra-cians, “the Scythians led by the Amazons,” and the Persians.

      Answer to Study Question 21.

    13. began with Herodotus (fifth century BC) and continued through the late antique authors Orosius and Jordanes (fifth– sixth centuries AD).

      Answer to Study Question 20.

    14. Arimaspea (a Scythian word meaning something like “people rich in horses”)

      Answer to Study Question 19.

    15. the depiction of shifting environ-ments around the Black Sea for the Amazons’ home bases, strongholds, migrations, and battle campaigns accurately captured the realities of nomadic life.

      Answer to Study Question 18. The very thing they had a problem with was the proof of existence, basically.

    16. influenced by women who shared the same activities as men in the nomadic cultures of Eurasia.

      Answer to Study Question 17.

    17. Male archers and Amazons wearing Scythian- style costumes

      Answer to Study Question 16.

    18. Dar- e Alan, “Gate of the Alans” (Daryal Pass), after one of the nomadic tribes of Scythia. The other difficult and longer passage, some-times called the “Caspian Gates” or the Marpesian Rock

      Answer to Study Question 15.

    19. kur-gans

      Answer to Study Question 14.

    20. the Saka- Scythians, Thracians, Sarmatians, and kindred groups left no written histories.

      Answer to Study Question 13. (False).

    21. The sequence might have gone something like this:

      Answer to Study Question 12. (Below this line).

    22. the idea of “rogue” groups of female roughriders roaming on their own without men— inspired countless “what if ” scenarios

      Answer to Study Question 11.

    23. Self- sufficient women were valued and could achieve high sta-tus and renown. It is easy to see how these commonsense, routine fea-tures of nomad life could lead outsiders like the Greeks— who kept fe-males dependent on males

      Answer to Study Question 10.

    24. No aspect of Scythian culture unsettled the Greeks more than the status of women.

      Answer to Study Question 9.

    25. facilitating exchange between Greece and points along the Silk Routes to Asia.

      Answer to Study Question 8.

    26. artifacts in burials from the Carpathian Mountains to northern China.

      Answer to Study Question 7.

    27. Modern historians and archaeolo-gists use “Scythian” to refer to the vast territory characterized in antiq-uity by the horse-centered nomad warrior lifestyle marked by similar warfare and weapons, artistic motifs, gender relations, burial practices, and other cultural features.

      Answer to Study Question 6.

    28. “The Greeks call them Scythians,” wrote Herodotus; the Persians called them Saka (Chinese names in-cluded Xiongnu, Yuezhi, Xianbei, and Sai).

      Answer to Study Question 5.

    29. For the Greeks, “Scythia” stood for an extensive cultural zone of a great many loosely connected nomadic and seminomadic ethnic and language groups

      Answer to Study Question 4. (False).

    30. griffins.

      Answer to Study Question 3.

    31. Under the influence of intoxicating clouds of burn-ing hemp, they buried dead companions with their favorite horses and fabulous golden treasures under earthen mounds scattered across the featureless steppes

      Answer to Study Question 2.

    32. nourished their babies with mare’s milk.

      Answer to Study Question 1.

    1. A well-formatted and descriptive commit message is very helpful to others for understanding why the change was made, so please take the time to write it.
  3. May 2020
    1. This task disables two-factor authentication (2FA) for all users that have it enabled. This can be useful if GitLab’s config/secrets.yml file has been lost and users are unable to log in, for example.
    1. Make it clear that signing up is optional. Consent must be “freely given”; you may not coerce users into joining your mailing list or make it appear as if joining the list is mandatory. For this reason, you must make it clear that signing up is optional. This is especially relevant in cases where you offer free white-papers (or e-books) for download. While the user’s email address is required for the delivery of the service, signing up for your newsletter is not. In such a case, you must not make it appear as if signing-up to the newsletter list mandatory and must make it clear that it is optional.

      Question (answer below)

      Are they saying that it's not allowed to make signing up for a mailing list a precondition/requirement for anything? This was surprising to me.

      So if you have a newsletter sign-up page that sends a digital bonus gift (like an e-book) to new subscribers, are required to completely change/repurpose your "newsletter sign-up page" into a "download e-book page" (that has an optional checkbox to also sign up for the newsletter, if you want)? That seems dumb to me, since it requires completely reversing the purpose of the page — which was, in my mind, primarily about signing up for the newsletter, with a bonus (an essentially optional one) thrown in for those who do so. Are you required to either repurpose it like that or remove the free bonus offer that would be sent to new subscribers?

      The irony of this is that it requires websites that have a newsletter sign-up page like that to change it into a "newsletter sign-up page" where the newsletter sign-up part is optional. Which make you look kind of stupid, making a page that claims to be one thing but doesn't necessarily do what it says it's for.

      Does this mean, in effect, that you may not lawfully provide any sort of incentive or reward for signing up for something (like a mailing list)? As long as it's very clear that some action is required before delivery of some thing, I don't see why this sort of thing should not be permitted? Would this fall under contract law? And as such, wouldn't such a contract be allowed and valid? Are mailing lists a special class of [service] that has special requirements like this? Or is it part of a broader category to which this requirement applies more generally?

      Why is requiring the user to provide an email address before they can download a digital reward allowed but not requiring signing up to a mailing list? Why isn't it required that even the email address be optional to provide? (To answer my own question, probably because it's allowed to allow a user to request a specific thing to be sent via email, and an email address is required in order to fulfill that request. But...) It seems that the website could just provide a direct link to download it via HTTP/FTP/etc. as an option for users that chose not to provide an email address. (But should they be required to provide that option anytime they / just because they provide the option to have the same thing delivered via email?)

      Answer

      Looks like my question was answered below:

      Explicit Form (where the purpose of the sign-up mechanism is unequivocal). So for example, in a scenario where your site has a pop-up window that invites users to sign up to your newsletter using a clear phrase such as: “Subscribe to our newsletter for access to discount vouchers and product updates!“, the affirmative action that the user performs by typing in their email address would be considered valid consent.

      So the case I described, where it is made very clear that the incentive that is offered is conditional on subscribing, is listed as an exception to the general rule. That's good; it should be allowed.

    1. I appreciate the vigilance, but it would be even better to actually publish a technical reasoning for why do you folks believe Firefox is above the device owner, and the root user, and why there should be no possibility through any means and configuration protections to enable users to run their own code in the release version of Firefox.
  4. Apr 2020
  5. Mar 2020
  6. Jan 2020
    1. Keep work areas clean. Do not use compressed air to remove lead dust.

      when you use compressed air to remove lead dust, can blow the lead into the air, causing people to breath it in.

    1. Lanthanum mainly is obtained from lanthanum-rich monazite and bastnasite. Other lanthanum-bearing minerals include allanite and cerite. It is mined in the USA, China, Russia, Australia, and India.

      This is where Lanthanum is mined and where it comes from in the mines

    1. The pond, owned by the Inner Mongolia Baotou Steel Rare-Earth Hi-Tech Company, or Baotou Steel, lacks a proper lining and for the past 20 years its toxic contents have been seeping into groundwater, according to villagers and state media reports.

      Lanthanum Toxins have been leaking into the ground water which people use for tap water.

  7. Dec 2019
    1. I believe that mere lists of "vote yes" or "vote no" are not very helpful except for sheep: it's important to know why one is urged to vote in any given direction.
  8. Nov 2019
  9. Oct 2019
    1. Let's make the example even easier. function convertDate<T extends string | undefined>(isoDate?: string): T { return undefined } 'undefined' is assignable to the constraint of type 'T' Means: What you return in the function (undefined), matches the constraints of your generic type parameter T (extends string | undefined). , but 'T' could be instantiated with a different subtype of constraint 'string | undefined'. Means: TypeScript does not consider that as safe. What if you defined your function like this at compile time: // expects string return type according to generics // but you return undefined in function body const res = convertDate<string>("2019-08-16T16:48:33Z") Then according to your signature, you expect the return type to be string. But at runtime that is not the case! This discrepancy that T can be instantiated with a different subtype (here string) than you return in the function (undefined) is expressed with the TypeScript error.
  10. Sep 2019
  11. Aug 2019
  12. Jan 2019
    1. Causes of cervical cancer

      What are other causes of cervical cancer besides HPV?

    2. As many as 80% of men and women who have had sex have HPV

      Can you get cervical cancer without having sex?

    3. If precancerous cells are found, they often can be removed.

      What is the treatment for pre cervical cancer - how are the cells removed?

    4. While most women with HPV will not get cervical cancer,

      What percentage of women get cervical cancer?

    5. This is why regular Pap tests are so important, particularly if you are sexually active.

      Can you have cervical cancer with a normal pap smear?

    6. Minimally invasive procedures including robotic and laparoscopic hysterectomy Radical hysterectomy

      Can you get cervical cancer after a hysterectomy?

    7. However, in a small percentage of people the virus will remain and cause cell changes that may develop into cancer.

      Can you still get cervical cancer after a HPV vaccine?

    8. What percentage of cases are caused by HPV?

    1. While breast cancer is thought of as a disease impacting women, each year about 2,000 men in the United States are diagnosed with the disease.

      How many women get breast cancer ?

    1. Symptoms of vulvar cancer vary from woman to woman. They may include: Red, pink or white bump (or bumps) with a rough or scaly surface on the vulva Burning, pain or itching in the genital area Pain when you urinate Bleeding and discharge when you are not having a menstrual period Sore on the vulva that does not heal for a month Change in a mole in the genital area Lump close to the opening to the vagina

      Which symptoms are early symptoms of vulvar cancer?

      Can vulvar cancer make you tired?

    1. Why come to MD Anderson for your fallopian tube cancer care?

      What is the survival rate for this cancer type? This might be a good section to elaborate on the survival rate and why patients should choose and trust MD Anderson for their treatment.

    2. The Fallopian tubes, ovaries, uterus and cervix, as well as nearby lymph nodes, usually are removed. Sometimes the surgery can be minimally invasive laparoscopic surgery.

      Can removing the fallopian tubes PRIOR to developing the cancer reduce the risk?

    1. If you are using an operating system that uses the systemd service manager (which nowadays includes most GNU/Linux distributions), then the best solution might be to use systemd to start your Emacs daemon on boot. You can do this by creating a file $HOME/.config/systemd/user/emacs.service with the following contents:

      $HOME/.config/systemd/user/emacs.service

    2. ‘-a COMMAND’ ‘--alternate-editor=COMMAND’ Specify a command to run if ‘emacsclient’ fails to contact Emacs. This is useful when running ‘emacsclient’ in a script. As a special exception, if COMMAND is the empty string, then ‘emacsclient’ starts Emacs in daemon mode (as ‘emacs --daemon’) and then tries connecting again. ‘-c’ ‘--create-frame’ Create a new graphical “client frame”, instead of using an existing Emacs frame. See below for the special behavior of ‘C-x C-c’ in a client frame. If Emacs cannot create a new graphical frame (e.g., if it cannot connect to the X server), it tries to create a text terminal client frame, as though you had supplied the ‘-t’ option instead. ‘-t’ ‘--tty’ ‘-nw’ Create a new client frame on the current text terminal, instead of using an existing Emacs frame. This behaves just like the ‘-c’ option, described above, except that it creates a text terminal frame (*note Non-Window Terminals::).

      ‘-a COMMAND’ ‘--alternate-editor=COMMAND’

      Specify a command to run if ‘emacsclient’ fails to contact Emacs. This is useful when running ‘emacsclient’ in a script.

      As a special exception, if COMMAND is the empty string, then ‘emacsclient’ starts Emacs in daemon mode (as ‘emacs --daemon’) and then tries connecting again.

      ‘-c’ ‘--create-frame’

      Create a new graphical “client frame”, instead of using an existing Emacs frame.

      See below for the special behavior of ‘C-x C-c’ in a client frame.

      If Emacs cannot create a new graphical frame (e.g., if it cannot connect to the X server), it tries to create a text terminal client frame, as though you had supplied the ‘-t’ option instead.

      ‘-t’ ‘--tty’ ‘-nw’

      Create a new client frame on the current text terminal, instead of using an existing Emacs frame.

      This behaves just like the ‘-c’ option, described above, except that it creates a text terminal frame (*note Non-Window Terminals::).

    3. I do this by starting an emacs daemon when I login. Where you put this command depends on your desktop manager. I use i3, which is configured to run a script on login that includes the following: emacs --daemon & With that, emacs is always running in the background, and I open a new client with emacsclient -c -n, bound to a convenient keybinding in the window manager. If you're working in a terminal, you only need a simple alias like alias emc='emacsclient', possibly with -n, -c or -t arguments, depending on how you use it. Do check out the options for emacsclient in the manual: ((emacs) emacsclient Options, accessible from Emacs by C-h r m emacsclient options <enter>). You can use the -a flag to automatically start an emacs daemon if it isn't running already, and -c or -t to open a new frame or terminal client, rather than reusing an existing one (in the same session):
  13. Nov 2018
    1. Single study?

      Is the article primarily about a single scientific study?

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.07.01:Yes", "1.07.02:No" ]</div>

    2. Upcoming Workshop: Web Standardization for Graph Data

      Clickbaitiness

      Is the headline clickbaity?

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.04.01:Very much clickbaity", "1.04.02:Somewhat clickbaity", "1.04.03:A little bit clickbaity", "1.04.04:Not at all clickbaity" ]</div>

    3. Upcoming Workshop: Web Standardization for Graph Data

      Title Representativeness

      Does the title of the article accurately reflect the content of the article?

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.02.01:Completely Unrepresentative", "1.02.02:Somewhat Unrepresentative", "1.02.03:Somewhat Representative", "1.02.04:Completely Representative" ]</div>

    4. Overall Credibility

      Rate your impression of the credibility of this article

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.01.01:Very low credibility", "1.01.02:Somewhat low credibility", "1.01.03:Medium credibility", "1.01.04:Somewhat high credibility", "1.01.05:High credibility" ]</div>

  14. Sep 2018
    1. Overall Credibility

      Rate your impression of the credibility of this article

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.01.01:Very low credibility", "1.01.02:Somewhat low credibility", "1.01.03:Medium credibility", "1.01.04:Somewhat high credibility", "1.01.05:High credibility" ]</div>

    1. Exaggerated/minimized claims

      Does the author use exaggerations/minimizations or generally seems to represent situations and events in a proportional manner?

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.17.01:Yes, there are a mix of exaggerations and minimizations", "1.17.02:Yes, there are exaggerations", "1.17.03:Yes, there are minimizations", "1.17.04:No, the text seems generally proportional (avoids exaggeration and minimization)" ]</div>

    2. Emotional valence

      Is the language extremely negative, extremely positive, or somewhere in the middle?

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.16.01:Extremely negative", "1.16.02:Somewhat negative", "1.16.03:Neither negative nor positive", "1.16.04:Somewhat positive", "1.16.05:Extremely positive" ]</div>

    3. Acknowledgement of uncertainty

      Does the author acknowledge uncertainty, or the possibility things might be otherwise?

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.15.01:Yes", "1.15.02:Sort of", "1.15.03:No" ]</div>

    4. Confidence in claims made by sources

      To what extent does the author's confidence in claims made by sources seem justified?

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.14.01:Completely justified", "1.14.02:Mostly justified", "1.14.03:Somewhat justified", "1.14.04:Slightly justified", "1.14.05:Not at all justified" ]</div>

    5. Other types of sources

      Are any experts, organizations, or studies separate from the central study quoted in the article?

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.13.01:Yes", "1.13.02:No" ]</div>

    6. Types of sources

      Does the article cite sources?

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.08a.01:Yes", "1.08a.02:No" ]</div>

    7. Single study?

      Is the article primarily about a single scientific study?

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.07.01:Yes", "1.07.02:No" ]</div>

    8. The Amish, who don’t get vaccinated, rarely get autism, cancer, or heart disease – coincidence?

      Clickbaitiness

      What clickbait techniques does this headline employ?

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.05.01:Listicle (\"6 Tips on ...\")", "1.05.02:Cliffhanger to a story (\"You Won't Believe What Happens Next\")", "1.05.03:Provoking emotions, such as shock or surprise (\"...Shocking Result\", \"...Leave You in Tears\")", "1.05.04:Hidden secret or trick (\"Fitness Companies Hate Him...\", \"Experts are Dying to Know Their Secret\")", "1.05.05:Challenges to the ego (\"Only People with IQ Above 160 Can Solve This\")", "1.05.06:Defying convention (\"Think Orange Juice is Good for you? Think Again!\", \"Here are 5 Foods You Never Thought Would Kill You\")", "1.05.07:Inducing fear (\"Is Your Boyfriend Cheating on You?\")", "1.05.08:Other" ]</div>

    9. The Amish, who don’t get vaccinated, rarely get autism, cancer, or heart disease – coincidence?

      Clickbaitiness

      Is the headline clickbaity?

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.04.01:Very much clickbaity", "1.04.02:Somewhat clickbaity", "1.04.03:A little bit clickbaity", "1.04.04:Not at all clickbaity" ]</div>

    10. The Amish, who don’t get vaccinated, rarely get autism, cancer, or heart disease – coincidence?

      Title Representativeness

      How is the title unrepresentative? (select all that apply)

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.03.01:Title is on a different topic than the body", "1.03.02:Title emphasizes different information than the body", "1.03.03:Title carries little information about the body", "1.03.04:Title takes a different stance than the body", "1.03.05:Title overstates claims or conclusions in the body", "1.03.06:Title understates claims or conclusions in the body", "1.03.07:Other" ]</div>

    11. The Amish, who don’t get vaccinated, rarely get autism, cancer, or heart disease – coincidence?

      Title Representativeness

      Does the title of the article accurately reflect the content of the article?

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.02.01:Completely Unrepresentative", "1.02.02:Somewhat Unrepresentative", "1.02.03:Somewhat Representative", "1.02.04:Completely Representative" ]</div>

    12. Overall Credibility

      Rate your impression of the credibility of this article

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.01.01:Very low credibility", "1.01.02:Somewhat low credibility", "1.01.03:Medium credibility", "1.01.04:Somewhat high credibility", "1.01.05:High credibility" ]</div>

    1. Exaggerated/minimized claims

      Does the author use exaggerations/minimizations or generally seems to represent situations and events in a proportional manner?

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.17.01:Yes, there are a mix of exaggerations and minimizations", "1.17.02:Yes, there are exaggerations", "1.17.03:Yes, there are minimizations", "1.17.04:No, the text seems generally proportional (avoids exaggeration and minimization)" ]</div>

    2. Emotional valence

      Is the language extremely negative, extremely positive, or somewhere in the middle?

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.16.01:Extremely negative", "1.16.02:Somewhat negative", "1.16.03:Neither negative nor positive", "1.16.04:Somewhat positive", "1.16.05:Extremely positive" ]</div>

    3. Acknowledgement of uncertainty

      Does the author acknowledge uncertainty, or the possibility things might be otherwise?

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.15.01:Yes", "1.15.02:Sort of", "1.15.03:No" ]</div>

    4. Acknowledgement of uncertainty

      Does the author acknowledge uncertainty, or the possibility things might be otherwise?

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.15.01:Yes", "1.15.02:Sort of", "1.15.03:No" ]</div>

    5. Confidence in claims made by sources

      To what extent does the author's confidence in claims made by sources seem justified?

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.14.01:Completely justified", "1.14.02:Mostly justified", "1.14.03:Somewhat justified", "1.14.04:Slightly justified", "1.14.05:Not at all justified" ]</div>

    6. Other types of sources

      Are any experts, organizations, or studies separate from the central study quoted in the article?

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.13.01:Yes", "1.13.02:No" ]</div>

    7. Types of sources

      Which of the following are cited?

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.08.01:Experts", "1.08.02:Studies", "1.08.03:Organizations", "1.08.04:Other" ]</div>

    8. Types of sources

      Does the article cite sources?

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.08a.01:Yes", "1.08a.02:No" ]</div>

    9. Single study?

      Is the article primarily about a single scientific study?

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.07.01:Yes", "1.07.02:No" ]</div>

    10. NOT EAT THIS FISH, IT IS VERY DANGEROU

      Clickbaitiness

      What clickbait techniques does this headline employ?

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.05.01:Listicle (\"6 Tips on ...\")", "1.05.02:Cliffhanger to a story (\"You Won't Believe What Happens Next\")", "1.05.03:Provoking emotions, such as shock or surprise (\"...Shocking Result\", \"...Leave You in Tears\")", "1.05.04:Hidden secret or trick (\"Fitness Companies Hate Him...\", \"Experts are Dying to Know Their Secret\")", "1.05.05:Challenges to the ego (\"Only People with IQ Above 160 Can Solve This\")", "1.05.06:Defying convention (\"Think Orange Juice is Good for you? Think Again!\", \"Here are 5 Foods You Never Thought Would Kill You\")", "1.05.07:Inducing fear (\"Is Your Boyfriend Cheating on You?\")", "1.05.08:Other" ]</div>

    11. NOT EAT THIS FISH, IT IS VERY DANGEROU

      Clickbaitiness

      Is the headline clickbaity?

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.04.01:Very much clickbaity", "1.04.02:Somewhat clickbaity", "1.04.03:A little bit clickbaity", "1.04.04:Not at all clickbaity" ]</div>

    12. NOT EAT THIS FISH, IT IS VERY DANGEROU

      Title Representativeness

      How is the title unrepresentative? (select all that apply)

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.03.01:Title is on a different topic than the body", "1.03.02:Title emphasizes different information than the body", "1.03.03:Title carries little information about the body", "1.03.04:Title takes a different stance than the body", "1.03.05:Title overstates claims or conclusions in the body", "1.03.06:Title understates claims or conclusions in the body", "1.03.07:Other" ]</div>

    13. NOT EAT THIS FISH, IT IS VERY DANGEROU

      Title Representativeness

      Does the title of the article accurately reflect the content of the article?

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.02.01:Completely Unrepresentative", "1.02.02:Somewhat Unrepresentative", "1.02.03:Somewhat Representative", "1.02.04:Completely Representative" ]</div>

    14. Overall Credibility

      Rate your impression of the credibility of this article

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.01.01:Very low credibility", "1.01.02:Somewhat low credibility", "1.01.03:Medium credibility", "1.01.04:Somewhat high credibility", "1.01.05:High credibility" ]</div>

    1. Exaggerated/minimized claims

      Does the author use exaggerations/minimizations or generally seems to represent situations and events in a proportional manner?

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.17.01:Yes, there are a mix of exaggerations and minimizations", "1.17.02:Yes, there are exaggerations", "1.17.03:Yes, there are minimizations", "1.17.04:No, the text seems generally proportional (avoids exaggeration and minimization)" ]</div>

    2. Emotional valence

      Is the language extremely negative, extremely positive, or somewhere in the middle?

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.16.01:Extremely negative", "1.16.02:Somewhat negative", "1.16.03:Neither negative nor positive", "1.16.04:Somewhat positive", "1.16.05:Extremely positive" ]</div>

    3. Acknowledgement of uncertainty

      Does the author acknowledge uncertainty, or the possibility things might be otherwise?

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.15.01:Yes", "1.15.02:Sort of", "1.15.03:No" ]</div>

    4. Acknowledgement of uncertainty

      Does the author acknowledge uncertainty, or the possibility things might be otherwise?

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.15.01:Yes", "1.15.02:Sort of", "1.15.03:No" ]</div>

    5. Confidence in claims made by sources

      To what extent does the author's confidence in claims made by sources seem justified?

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.14.01:Completely justified", "1.14.02:Mostly justified", "1.14.03:Somewhat justified", "1.14.04:Slightly justified", "1.14.05:Not at all justified" ]</div>

    6. Other types of sources

      Are any experts, organizations, or studies separate from the central study quoted in the article?

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.13.01:Yes", "1.13.02:No" ]</div>

    7. Types of sources

      Which of the following are cited?

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.08.01:Experts", "1.08.02:Studies", "1.08.03:Organizations", "1.08.04:Other" ]</div>

    8. Types of sources

      Does the article cite sources?

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.08a.01:Yes", "1.08a.02:No" ]</div>

    9. Single study?

      Is the article primarily about a single scientific study?

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.07.01:Yes", "1.07.02:No" ]</div>

    10. An Iceberg the Size of Delaware Just Broke Away From Antarctica

      Clickbaitiness

      What clickbait techniques does this headline employ?

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.05.01:Listicle (\"6 Tips on ...\")", "1.05.02:Cliffhanger to a story (\"You Won't Believe What Happens Next\")", "1.05.03:Provoking emotions, such as shock or surprise (\"...Shocking Result\", \"...Leave You in Tears\")", "1.05.04:Hidden secret or trick (\"Fitness Companies Hate Him...\", \"Experts are Dying to Know Their Secret\")", "1.05.05:Challenges to the ego (\"Only People with IQ Above 160 Can Solve This\")", "1.05.06:Defying convention (\"Think Orange Juice is Good for you? Think Again!\", \"Here are 5 Foods You Never Thought Would Kill You\")", "1.05.07:Inducing fear (\"Is Your Boyfriend Cheating on You?\")", "1.05.08:Other" ]</div>

    11. An Iceberg the Size of Delaware Just Broke Away From Antarctica

      Clickbaitiness

      Is the headline clickbaity?

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.04.01:Very much clickbaity", "1.04.02:Somewhat clickbaity", "1.04.03:A little bit clickbaity", "1.04.04:Not at all clickbaity" ]</div>

    12. An Iceberg the Size of Delaware Just Broke Away From Antarctica

      Title Representativeness

      How is the title unrepresentative? (select all that apply)

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.03.01:Title is on a different topic than the body", "1.03.02:Title emphasizes different information than the body", "1.03.03:Title carries little information about the body", "1.03.04:Title takes a different stance than the body", "1.03.05:Title overstates claims or conclusions in the body", "1.03.06:Title understates claims or conclusions in the body", "1.03.07:Other" ]</div>

    13. An Iceberg the Size of Delaware Just Broke Away From Antarctica

      Title Representativeness

      Does the title of the article accurately reflect the content of the article?

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.02.01:Completely Unrepresentative", "1.02.02:Somewhat Unrepresentative", "1.02.03:Somewhat Representative", "1.02.04:Completely Representative" ]</div>

    14. Overall Credibility

      Rate your impression of the credibility of this article

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.01.01:Very low credibility", "1.01.02:Somewhat low credibility", "1.01.03:Medium credibility", "1.01.04:Somewhat high credibility", "1.01.05:High credibility" ]</div>

    15. Overall Credibility

      Rate your impression of the credibility of this article

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.01.01:Very low credibility", "1.01.02:Somewhat low credibility", "1.01.03:Medium credibility", "1.01.04:Somewhat high credibility", "1.01.05:High credibility" ]</div>

    1. Overall Credibility

      Rate your impression of the credibility of this article

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.01.01:Very low credibility", "1.01.02:Somewhat low credibility", "1.01.03:Medium credibility", "1.01.04:Somewhat high credibility", "1.01.05:High credibility" ]</div>

    2. Overall Credibility

      Rate your impression of the credibility of this article

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.01.01:Very low credibility", "1.01.02:Somewhat low credibility", "1.01.03:Medium credibility", "1.01.04:Somewhat high credibility", "1.01.05:High credibility" ]</div>

    1. Exaggerated/minimized claims

      Does the author use exaggerations/minimizations or generally seems to represent situations and events in a proportional manner?

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.17.01:Yes, there are a mix of exaggerations and minimizations", "1.17.02:Yes, there are exaggerations", "1.17.03:Yes, there are minimizations", "1.17.04:No, the text seems generally proportional (avoids exaggeration and minimization)" ]</div>

    2. Emotional valence

      Is the language extremely negative, extremely positive, or somewhere in the middle?

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.16.01:Extremely negative", "1.16.02:Somewhat negative", "1.16.03:Neither negative nor positive", "1.16.04:Somewhat positive", "1.16.05:Extremely positive" ]</div>

    3. Acknowledgement of uncertainty

      Does the author acknowledge uncertainty, or the possibility things might be otherwise?

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.15.01:Yes", "1.15.02:Sort of", "1.15.03:No" ]</div>

    4. Confidence in claims made by sources

      To what extent does the author's confidence in claims made by sources seem justified?

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.14.01:Completely justified", "1.14.02:Mostly justified", "1.14.03:Somewhat justified", "1.14.04:Slightly justified", "1.14.05:Not at all justified" ]</div>

    5. Other types of sources

      Are any experts, organizations, or studies separate from the central study quoted in the article?

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.13.01:Yes", "1.13.02:No" ]</div>

    6. Types of sources

      Does the article cite sources?

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.08a.01:Yes", "1.08a.02:No" ]</div>

    7. Single study?

      Is the article primarily about a single scientific study?

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.07.01:Yes", "1.07.02:No" ]</div>

    8. Coconut oil isn't healthy. It's never been healthy.

      Clickbaitiness

      What clickbait techniques does this headline employ?

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.05.01:Listicle (\"6 Tips on ...\")", "1.05.02:Cliffhanger to a story (\"You Won't Believe What Happens Next\")", "1.05.03:Provoking emotions, such as shock or surprise (\"...Shocking Result\", \"...Leave You in Tears\")", "1.05.04:Hidden secret or trick (\"Fitness Companies Hate Him...\", \"Experts are Dying to Know Their Secret\")", "1.05.05:Challenges to the ego (\"Only People with IQ Above 160 Can Solve This\")", "1.05.06:Defying convention (\"Think Orange Juice is Good for you? Think Again!\", \"Here are 5 Foods You Never Thought Would Kill You\")", "1.05.07:Inducing fear (\"Is Your Boyfriend Cheating on You?\")", "1.05.08:Other" ]</div>

    9. Coconut oil isn't healthy. It's never been healthy.

      Clickbaitiness

      Is the headline clickbaity?

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.04.01:Very much clickbaity", "1.04.02:Somewhat clickbaity", "1.04.03:A little bit clickbaity", "1.04.04:Not at all clickbaity" ]</div>

    10. Coconut oil isn't healthy. It's never been healthy.

      Clickbaitiness

      Is the headline clickbaity?

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.04.01:Very much clickbaity", "1.04.02:Somewhat clickbaity", "1.04.03:A little bit clickbaity", "1.04.04:Not at all clickbaity" ]</div>

    11. Coconut oil isn't healthy. It's never been healthy.

      Title Representativeness

      Does the title of the article accurately reflect the content of the article?

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.02.01:Completely Unrepresentative", "1.02.02:Somewhat Unrepresentative", "1.02.03:Somewhat Representative", "1.02.04:Completely Representative" ]</div>

    12. Overall Credibility

      Rate your impression of the credibility of this article

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.01.01:Very low credibility", "1.01.02:Somewhat low credibility", "1.01.03:Medium credibility", "1.01.04:Somewhat high credibility", "1.01.05:High credibility" ]</div>

    1. Overall Credibility

      Rate your impression of the credibility of this article

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.01.01:Very low credibility", "1.01.02:Somewhat low credibility", "1.01.03:Medium credibility", "1.01.04:Somewhat high credibility", "1.01.05:High credibility" ]</div>

    1. Overall Credibility

      Rate your impression of the credibility of this article

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.01.01:Very low credibility", "1.01.02:Somewhat low credibility", "1.01.03:Medium credibility", "1.01.04:Somewhat high credibility", "1.01.05:High credibility" ]</div>

    1. Types of sources

      Which of the following are cited?

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.08.01:Experts", "1.08.02:Studies", "1.08.03:Organizations" ]</div>

    2. Types of sources

      Does the article cite sources?

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.08a.01:Yes", "1.08a.02:No" ]</div>

    3. Single study?

      Is the article primarily about a single scientific study?

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.07.01:Yes", "1.07.02:No" ]</div>

    4. Trump Lashes Out After Reports of ‘Quiet Resistance’ by Staff

      Clickbaitiness

      Is the headline clickbaity

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.04.01:Very much clickbaity", "1.04.02:Somewhat clickbaity", "1.04.03:A little bit clickbaity", "1.04.04:Not at all clickbaity" ]</div>

    5. Trump Lashes Out After Reports of ‘Quiet Resistance’ by Staff

      Title Representativeness

      Does the title of the article accurately reflect the content of the article?

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.02.01:Completely Unrepresentative", "1.02.02:Somewhat Unrepresentative", "1.02.03:Somewhat Representative", "1.02.04:Completely Representative" ]</div>

    6. Overall Credibility

      Rate your impression of the credibility of this article

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.01.01:Very low credibility", "1.01.02:Somewhat low credibility", "1.01.03:Medium credibility", "1.01.04:Somewhat high credibility", "1.01.05:High credibility" ]</div>

    1. Types of sources

      Which of the following are cited?

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.08.01:Experts", "1.08.02:Studies", "1.08.03:Organizations" ]</div>

    2. Types of sources

      Does the article cite sources?

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.08a.01:Yes", "1.08a.02:No" ]</div>

    3. Single study?

      Is the article primarily about a single scientific study?

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.07.01:Yes", "1.07.02:No" ]</div>

    4. Trump Lashes Out After Reports of ‘Quiet Resistance’ by Staff

      Clickbaitiness

      Is the headline clickbaity

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.04.01:Very much clickbaity", "1.04.02:Somewhat clickbaity", "1.04.03:A little bit clickbaity", "1.04.04:Not at all clickbaity" ]</div>

    5. Trump Lashes Out After Reports of ‘Quiet Resistance’ by Staff

      Title Representativeness

      Does the title of the article accurately reflect the content of the article?

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.02.01:Completely Unrepresentative", "1.02.02:Somewhat Unrepresentative", "1.02.03:Somewhat Representative", "1.02.04:Completely Representative" ]</div>

    6. Overall Credibility

      Rate your impression of the credibility of this article

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.01.01:Very low credibility", "1.01.02:Somewhat low credibility", "1.01.03:Medium credibility", "1.01.04:Somewhat high credibility", "1.01.05:High credibility" ]</div>

  15. Aug 2018
    1. Overall Credibility

      Rate your impression of the credibility of this article

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.01.01:Very low credibility", "1.01.02:Somewhat low credibility", "1.01.03:Medium credibility", "1.01.04:Somewhat high credibility", "1.01.05:High credibility" ]</div>

    2. Overall Credibility

      Rate your impression of the credibility of this article

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.01.01:Very low credibility", "1.01.02:Somewhat low credibility", "1.01.03:Medium credibility", "1.01.04:Somewhat high credibility", "1.01.05:High credibility" ]</div>

    3. Overall Credibility

      Rate your impression of the credibility of this article

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.01.01:Very low credibility", "1.01.02:Somewhat low credibility", "1.01.03:Medium credibility", "1.01.04:Somewhat high credibility", "1.01.05:High credibility" ]</div>

    4. Overall Credibility

      Rate your impression of the credibility of this article

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.01.01:Very low credibility", "1.01.02:Somewhat low credibility", "1.01.03:Medium credibility", "1.01.04:Somewhat high credibility", "1.01.05:High credibility" ]</div>

    1. Evidence for primary claim

      What evidence is given for the primary claim?

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.23.01:Correlation", "1.23.02:Cause precedes effect", "1.23.03:The correlation appears across multiple independent contexts", "1.23.04:A plausible mechanism is proposed", "1.23.05:An experimental study was conducted (natural experiments OK)", "1.23.06:Experts are cited", "1.23.07:Other kind of evidence", "1.23.08:No evidence given" ]</div>

    2. Evidence for primary claim

      What evidence is given for the primary claim?

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.23.01:Correlation", "1.23.02:Cause precedes effect", "1.23.03:The correlation appears across multiple independent contexts", "1.23.04:A plausible mechanism is proposed", "1.23.05:An experimental study was conducted (natural experiments OK)", "1.23.06:Experts are cited", "1.23.07:Other kind of evidence", "1.23.08:No evidence given" ]</div>

    3. Causal claims

      Is a general or singular causal claim made?

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.22.01:General causal claim", "1.22.02:Singular causal claim", "1.22.03:No causal claim" ]</div>

    4. Exaggerated claims

      Does the author exaggerate claims?

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.21.01:Yes", "1.21.02:Sort of", "1.21.03:No" ]</div>

    5. Emotionally charged tone

      Does the author use outrage, snark, celebration, horror, etc?

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.20.01:Yes", "1.20.02:Sort of", "1.20.03:No" ]</div>

    6. Naturalistic fallacy

      Does the author suggest something is good because it is natural, or bad because it is not natural?

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.19.01:Yes", "1.19.02:Sort of", "1.19.03:No" ]</div>

    7. Scare tactics

      Does the author exaggerate the dangers of a situation (the appeal to fear fallacy)?

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.18.01:Yes", "1.18.02:Sort of", "1.18.03:No" ]</div>

    8. Slippery slope

      Does the author say that one small change will lead to a major change?

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.17.01:Yes", "1.17.02:Sort of", "1.17.03:No" ]</div>

    9. False dilemma

      Does the author present a complicated choice as if it were binary?

      Choices:

      <div>[ "1.16.01:Yes", "1.16.02:Sort of", "1.16.03:No" ]</div>