421 Matching Annotations
  1. May 2022
    1. limum

      limus, -i: mud

    2. alveus

      alveus, -i: a hollow channel, riverbed

    3. madida

      last syllable is long

    4. in latum

      "into a wide [opening]"

    5. conchaeque sonanti inspirare iubet

    6. turbine

      turbo, -inis: a spiral, coil, whirl

    7. tortilis

      tortilis, -e (adj): twisted

    8. innato murice

      murex, -icis, m: a sea snail used to make Imperial purple dye

    9. tricuspide telo 

      i.e. his trident

    10. stagnare

      stagno, -are: to form a pool/lake, overflow

    11. oracla

      This later became the oracle of Apollo at Delphi, when he killed the monster Python at Mount Parnassus

    12. Themin

      Themis is a Greek word for justice, and worshipped as the goddess of law/justice

    13. Corycidas nymphas
    14. tori

      torus, -i, m. bed, marriage bed

    15. latus

      latus, -a, -um - wide (as opposed to latus, lateris, n.)

    16. Phocis
    17. pepercit

      parco, -ere, peperci: to spare +dative

    18. prosunt

      prosum: to do good, to help +dative

    19. Nereides

      "Daughters of Nereus" - sea nymphs

    20. habenas

      the reins which control or hold back a horse

    21. canis

      canus, -a -um - gray/white

    22. vineta

      vinetum, -i. vineyard

    23. ulmo

      ulmus, -i, f. elm tree

    24. adunca

      aduncus, -a, -um: hooked, curved

    25. cumba

      cumba, ae - a small boat

    26. omnia pontus erant

      This has some similarities to Greek mythology, the Biblical story of Noah's ark, and the Mesopotamian myth Atrahasis, pointing to shared traditions between Greeks and Near Eastern cultures. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_Greek_flood_myths

    27. satis

      sero, seri, sevi, satum - to sow, grow as a crop

    28. exspatiata

      exspatio, -are = erro, -are (Ovid invented this word)

    29. terram percussit

      Neptune is also the god of earthquakes

    30. caeruleus frater

      i.e. Neptune, Jove's brother, god of the sea

    31. Aeoliis

      Aeolus is the god of the winds. In the Odyssey, he puts the winds in a bag for Odysseus in order to let him sail safely home, but Odysseus' sailors open the bag while he is asleep, and they get blown off course. In the Aeneid, Juno offers to let Aeolus marry a nymph in exchange for causing a storm to blow Aeneas off course, but Aeolus says she only needs to ask. Neptune, when he realizes what is happening, puts an end to the storm.

    32. Cyllene

      ablative; a mountain in Arcadia where Hermes was said to have been born (his mother, a nymph, is also named Cyllene)

    33. inritus

      inritus (adv): in vain

    34. coloni

      colonus = agricola

    35. fragor

      fragor, -oris: crash, break

    36. rorant

      roro, -are: to drip

    37. flamina

      antecedent of quaecumque, which is the subject of fugant

    38. Notum

      = Auster

    39. Aquilonem

      the Roman equivalent of Boreas

    40. cyclopum

      The Cyclopes (plural of Cyclops) are monsters who work the forge of Vulcan/Hephaestus in Mt Etna, according to mythology

    41. adfore tempus

      A Stoic idea about the cosmos: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ekpyrosis

    42. axis

      axis, -is: the North Pole, or the whole sky

    43. sibi

      i.e. to Jupiter

    44. tura

      tus, turis: incense

    45. orbae

      orbus, -a, -um: orphaned, bereft, deprived of

    46. iactura

      iactura, -ae: loss, throwing away (subject of est)

    47. partes adsensibus inplent

      impleo, -ere: to fulfill (as in, to play a role, with partes) adsensus, -us: agreement

    48. frementi

      fremo, fremere: to roar, resound

    49. rabiem

      rabies, -ei: madness, frenzy

    50. delabor

      delabor, delabi (deponent): to slip down, to descend

    51. admissum

      admitto, -ere: to commit, as a crime

    52. talia

      object of ausum

  2. Apr 2022
    1. Tonantis

      Tonans, Tonantis - "Thundering," an epithet of Jove

    2. Lycaoniae

      Lycaon tried to trick Jove into eating human flesh (story below)

    3. altaque congestos struxisse ad sidera montis

      The Giants were supposed to have attacked the gods by piling three mountains (Olympus, Ossa, and Pelion) on top of each other

    4. ocius

      sooner, more quickly

    5. Erinys

      A Fury, a goddess of vengeance, violence, and rage: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erinyes

    6. villos

      villus, -i: tuft of hair, fur

    7. obsidis

      obses, obsidis: hostage

    8. gravem somno

      i.e. "me" (Jupiter)

    9. necopina

      necopinus, -a, -um: unexpected

    10. crepuscula

      crepusculum, -i: twilight

    11. pineta

      pinetum, -i: pine grove

    12. latebris

      latebrae, -arum: shadows, den(s)

    13. Maenala

      Maenalus is a mountainous part of Arcadia (a wild inland part of Greece, in mythology)

    14. lustro

      lustro, -are: to wander through, examine, review, look at

    15. substitit

      subsisto, -ere: to stop, halt

    16. inmedicabile

      "untreatable," "incurable"

    17. Nereus
    18. flumina

      i.e. the river Styx, which the gods swear oaths on

    19. qua centum quisque parabat inicere anguipedum captivo bracchia caelo

      The "Hundred-Handers" were another group of mythological monsters - in other versions they help Zeus overthrow the Titans: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hecatoncheires

    20. caesariem

      caesaries, -ei: dark hair

    21. Palatia

      The Palatine hill was where the Romans with the greatest wealth and social status lived in Republican times, and where the emperors and their families lived beginning with Augustus

    22. pater

      i.e. Jove/Jupiter, son of Saturn

    23. perfusam multo natorum sanguine Terram

      Terra, or Gaia, was said to be the mother of the Giants in Greek mythology; children of Gaia are usually sinister, destructive, monstrous enemies to the Olympian gods

    24. gigantas
    25. novercae

      "wicked stepmothers" in myth include Medea (also a poisoner) and Phaedra

    26. socer a genero

      A famous father-in-law and son-in-law pair from Ovid's own time were Pompey and Caesar (Pompey married Caesar's daughter Julia, so he was Caesar's son-in-law until she died in 53 BCE), who fought a civil war in 49-46 BCE

    27. aetas

      The "myth of ages" or "ages of man" is an idea first found in Hesiod's Theogony in classical literature - his version is slightly different from Ovid's: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ages_of_Man

    28. prius

      goes with communem

    29. insultavere

      insulto: to leap on, leap along

    30. venae peioris

      literally a less valuable vein of ore

    31. frutices

      frutex: shrub, hedge

    32. canduit

      candeo, -ere - to glow

    33. canebat

      caneo, canere: to go white/pale

    34. aera

      Greek accusative; agrees w habendum

    35. vindice

      vindex: avenger, punisher, enforcer

    36. induit

      induo, -ere: to put on (like clothing)

    37. sublime

      sublimis, -e: high, lofty

    38. dedit

      subject is Prometheus again

    39. satus

      born to - i.e., son of Iapetus (Prometheus)

    40. nitidis

      nitidus: shining

    41. orba

      orbus: orphaned, deprived of + abl of separation

    42. dissaepserat

      dissaepio: to fence off, pen in

    43. lanient

      lanio, laniare: to tear, lacerate

    44. recessit

      give up; separate

    45. septemque triones

      The Septem Triones are the seven stars of what we call Ursa Major or the Big Dipper, including/pointing to the North Star

    46. tepescunt

      tepesco, -ere: to grow warm

    47. matutinis

      matutinus, -a, -um: of morning

    48. quin

      negative purpose - "so that they don't"

    49. flamina

      flamen, flaminis, n. breath, blast

  3. Mar 2022
    1. plagae

      plaga, -ae: region, climate

    2. quae, diversa locis, partim sorbentur ab ipsa,               40 in mare perveniunt partim campoque recepta liberioris aquae pro ripis litora pulsant.

      antecedent of quae is flumina<br> quae, diversa locis, <br>partim sorbentur ab ipsa, <br /> in mare perveniunt partim <br> campoque recepta liberioris aquae / pro ripis litora pulsant.

    3. glomeravit

      glomero: to make a globe or sphere<br> [in speciem magni orbis]

    4. exemit

      eximo, -ere: to remove, release

    5. spisso

      spissus, -a, -um: thick, dense

    6. diremit

      dirimo, -ere: to split up, end

    7. litem

      lis, litis: quarrel (like litigation)

    8. egens

      "lacking" + genitive of the thing missing

    9. Titan

      i.e. Helios/Sol

    10. dixere

      3rd person plural perfect

    11. toto naturae

      dative of possession

    12. coeptis
      • meis

      "beginnings," "things begun"

    13. In nova fert animus mutatas dicere formas corpora

      mutatas formas [in nova corpora] <br>dicere <br>fert animus

    1. Praetor intellegens negare sibi placere, quod senatus consultum ratum esse non deberet, id me Romam deportare.

      Praetor intellegens negare * sibi placere, * __quod senatusconsultum ratum esse non deberet, * id me Romam deportare.

    2. cum fratre meo

      He specifies later that he's talking about his first cousin, Lucius. Cicero's brother is Quintus Tullius Cicero, who had a political career of his own: he was Cicero's campaign manager for the consulship in 63, helped Cicero get recalled from exile in 57, and later served with Caesar in Gaul in 54.

    3. me

      the subject of adferre; vim is its object

    4. Theoractum

      A Greek pun - Theo comes from the word for god; Mnastus from the word for remembering; and ractus from the word for breaking

    5. tabellas non commendaticias sed tributarias

      litterae commendaticiae = recommendation letter written for a friend or client to get them access and support; tabellae tributariae = letter of credit, i.e. a record of a loan

    6. optime convenisset

      i.e. was on very good terms

    7. germanum

      usually means twin or sibling, but here = verum

    8. discessio

      a division, i.e. into yeas and nays in the debate

  4. Feb 2022
    1. rationem

      an accounting, like a ledger

    2. praefuerat

      praesum, praeesse: to be in charge of + dative

    3. olei

      olive oil is rubbed on athletes in the palaestra, hence the connection

    4. dicendo

      gerund - "by speaking"

    5. quantum

      "as much as", "to the extent that"

    6. in ius

      in court, in an official audience/capacity

    7. fratre

      actually his cousin (his uncle's son)

    8. cecidisset

      <caedo, caedere - to strike

    9. commonefaceret

      commonefacio: moneo + facio, to bring to mind, to remind of

    10. ipso senatus consulto

      a senatus consultum is a decree or decision of the senate, the announcement of the outcome of their debate

    11. de Sex. Peducaeo, qui de illa civitate totaque provincia optime meritus esset, sese antea, cum audissent ei negotium facessitum, cumque eum publice pro plurimis eius et maximis meritis laudare cuperent, a C. Verre prohibitos esse; iniquum esse, tametsi Peducaeus eorum laudatione iam non uteretur, tamen non id prius decernere quod aliquando voluissent quam quod tum cogerentur.

      de Sex. Peducaeo, * qui de illa civitate totaque provincia optime meritus esset, sese antea, * cum audissent ei negotium facessitum, * cumque eum publice pro plurimis eius et maximis meritis laudare cuperent, <br><br>a C. Verre prohibitos esse; iniquum esse, * tametsi Peducaeus eorum laudatione iam non uteretur, <br>tamen non id prius decernere * quod aliquando voluissent * quam * __quod tum cogerentur.

    12. ut

      purpose clause

    13. qua de re ad senatum referant

      senate debates are announced beforehand on a particular topic; "refero" is the verb used for referring or proposing a matter to the senate for debate, and the topic is "de re publica" generally or "de" + a specific topic.

      In Rome (as opposed to Syracuse or Greek cities), senatorial debates go in a particular order, starting with the consuls elect and going down the hierarchy from there; only senators can speak. At public assemblies, only praetors, tribunes, consuls, or specifically invited orators can speak.

    14. multo plus illi laudatio mali quam boni posset adferre

      mali and boni are partitive genitives with plus

    15. laudationem

      i.e. of Verres

    16. eo minus

      adverbial - "that much less", "because of that...less"

    17. illam statuam

      i.e. the one in the Curia

    18. ipsum

      i.e. Verres

    19. palaestritis

      palaestrita, ae, m., = παλαιστρίτης, the director of a wrestling-school

    20. sententiam

      an opinion or speech given in a senate debate

    21. consurgitur

      impersonal - by the senators

    22. Heracli

      Heraclius, a Syracusan citizen introduced below

    23. Mamertinam

      the Mamertina civitas is Messana (see above)

    24. nam turpitudinem summam esse arbitrantur referri in tabulas publicas pretio adductam civitatem, et pretio parvo, ea quae accepisset a maioribus vendidisse atque abalienasse
      • nam turpitudinem summam esse ... <br>arbitrantur
      • ...referri in tabulas publicas
      • __pretio adductam civitatem, et pretio parvo, ea ...
      • ____quae accepisset a maioribus
      • __...vendidisse atque abalienasse
    25. Graecos homines

      as opposed to Roman people, he's suggesting

    26. hospites

      object of ducere

    27. pretio adductam

      i.e. motivated by money

    28. qui


    29. desierunt

      <desino, -ere - to stop

    30. Licet

      impersonal - "let's say that...", "granted that..."

    31. gravius

      comparative adjective with quam

    32. mystagogos

      mystagogus, i, m., = μυσταγωγός,

      one who conducts a person through secret and sacred places as a guide, an initiator, a mystagogue

    33. quem cum audisset interfectum permoleste tulisse

      quem antecedent is Archimedem, subject of audisset and tulisse is Marcellus

      • __quem ...
      • cum audisset
      • __...interfectum <br>permoleste tulisse
    34. Archimedem
    35. pluris esse a Syracusanis istius adventu deos quam victoria Marcelli homines desideratos

      pluris...quam sets up a comparison between deos and homines desideratos

    36. habetote

      2nd person plural imperative - "think of it this way," "understand the situation this way"

    37. in Capitolio, hoc est in terrestri domicilio Iovis

      in Capitolio = in terrestri domicilio Iovis

    38. Ponti

      "The Sea," i.e. the Black Sea/Euxine Sea; Pontus is also the name of a kingdom on the shore of that sea, now northeastern Turkey. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingdom_of_Pontus

    39. Flamininus
    40. Aristaei
    41. Paeanis
    42. studia ac delicias

      negative connotations - obsessions, hobbies

    43. homo elegantissimus atque eruditissimus, Verres

      heavy sarcasm

    44. Sappho
    45. argumenta

      argumentum, -i: figure, representation

    46. esto

      archaic imperative - "let it be so," "granted"

    47. operari

      operarius: a working man, a manual laborer (derogative, referring to Verres)

    48. aedilibus

      Aediles are junior magistrates in charge of infrastructure, games, and exhibitions

    49. Tusculanum

      a Tusculan villa, a status symbol - Cicero ended up buying one later in his political career (and was resented by the old-money crowd for it). Tusculum is a town just outside Rome.

    50. Silanionis
    51. gramineas

      gramineus, -a, -um: made of grass or bamboo

    52. bullas

      bulla, -ae: knob, stud

    53. Gorgonis
    54. honestius

      comparative neuter singular adjective: "a more respectable thing"

    55. verum tamen honestius est rei publicae nostrae, iudices, ea quae illis pulchra esse videantur imperatorem nostrum in bello reliquisse quam praetorem in pace abstulisse

      verum tamen honestius est rei publicae nostrae, iudices, * ea * __quae illis pulchra esse videantur * imperatorem nostrum in bello reliquisse * __quam praetorem in pace abstulisse

    56. dictu

      supine form - "unbelievable to say/in saying"

    57. liquido

      adverb - =plane, certe

    58. primarios

      =nobiles, honestos

    59. Vereor ne haec qui non viderunt omnia me nimis augere atque ornare arbitrentur; quod tamen nemo suspicari debet, tam esse me cupidum ut tot viros primarios velim, praesertim ex iudicum numero, qui Syracusis fuerint, qui haec viderint, esse temeritati et mendacio meo conscios

      Vereor * ne haec ... * __qui non viderunt * ...omnia me nimis augere atque ornare * arbitrentur; quod tamen nemo suspicari debet, * tam esse me cupidum * __ut tot viros primarios velim, [praesertim ex iudicum numero], * _qui Syracusis fuerint, * _qui haec viderint, * __esse temeritati et mendacio meo conscios

    60. Siciliae regum ac tyrannorum
    61. tabulas
    62. meretriciam

      see note on section 71

    63. Aedis Minervae
    64. ornamento urbi

      double dative - ornamento is a dative of purpose, urbi a dative of advantage

    65. aedibus

      i.e. suis

    66. rationem

      reasoning, calculation

    67. aedem Honoris et Virtutis
    68. victoriae
    69. pepercit

      parco, -ere: to spare, leave unharmed (takes a dative object)

    70. periculi nihil

      periculi is a partitive genitive with nihil: no amount of danger

    71. quam ad summam

      "at the highest point of which"

    72. Neapolis

      Greek for "new city" (nea + polis)

    73. Tycha

      Tyche or Tycha is the Greek word for Fortune

    74. prytanium

      = πρυτανεῖον,

      the town-hall, a public building in some of the Grecian states, where the Prytanes assembled and dined, and where those who had done special service to the State were entertained at the public expense

    75. fons

    76. operiretur

      operio, -ire: to cover, overwhelm

    77. Arethusa
    78. Hieronis