85 Matching Annotations
  1. Jul 2020
    1. 2020-06-06

    2. Leppanen, J., Tosunlar, L., Blackburn, R., Williams, S., Tchanturia, K., & Sedgewick, F. (2020, July 6). Critical incidents in anorexia nervosa.

    3. Background: Although social-emotional difficulties are believed play a key role in anorexia nervosa (AN), there is uncertainty regarding what these difficulties might look like. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to ask about critical events in the lives of people with experience of AN. Method: Thirty-four participants aged 16-48 with current or past AN completed an online survey describing critical positive and difficult events. Results: When discussing positive critical events, many participants talked about Moments of celebration, which involved increased external focus, but the majority talked about Unexpected positive outcomes, which revealed some negative biases. Difficult events were broadly divided into eating disorder (ED) related and Non-ED life events, the former of which involved discussion of how the illness caused conflict and distress, difficulties with ED-services, and the challenges surrounding having to face the illness. Interestingly, relational conflict which solidified some participants negative expectations of other was identified in both ED-related and Non-ED related difficult events. Discussion: The findings suggest that AN is characterised by negative emotionality and information processing biases. However, reduced self-focused attention and increased “big-picture” thinking, and shifting negative expectation may be helpful in AN and could be useful targets for further research.
    4. Critical incidents in anorexia nervosa
    1. Schwartze, M. M., Frenzel, A. C., Goetz, T., Marx, A. K. G., Reck, C., Pekrun, R., & Fiedler, D. (2020, July 6). Excessive Boredom Among Adolescents: A Comparison Between Low and High Achievers.

    2. 2020-07-06

    3. Existing research shows that high scholastic boredom is correlated with a range of undesirable behaviors and personality traits and that the main antecedents of boredom are being over- or under-challenged. No study to date, though, seems to have systematically compared students who are highly bored and low-achieving (thus, likely over-challenged) with students who are highly bored and high-achieving (thus, likely under-challenged). Hence, merely knowing that students are highly bored might be insufficient for drawing conclusions about students’ behavior and personality, without taking their achievement level into account. We, therefore, investigated if low- versus high-achieving students who experience strong mathematics boredom show different behaviors and personality traits. The sample consisted of 1,404 German secondary school students (fifth to 10th grade, mean age 12.83 years, 52% female). We used self-report instruments to assess boredom in mathematics, behavior (social and emotional problems, positive/negative affect, emotion regulation), and personality traits (neuroticism and conscientiousness). In comparing highly bored students (more than one SD above M, n = 258) who were low versus high achievers (as indicated by the math grade, n = 125 / n = 119), results showed that there were no mean level differences across those groups for the behavior and personality trait constructs, with only three exceptions: conduct problems and expressive suppression (higher for low achievers) and positive affect (higher for high achievers). In conclusion, our results suggest that high boredom can occur in both low and high achieving students and that bored low- and high-achievers show largely similar behaviors and personality profiles.
    4. Excessive Boredom Among Adolescents: A Comparison Between Low and High Achievers
  2. Jun 2020
    1. 2020-06-19

    2. Can Suicide Risks be Predicted ? NIMHANS MHECON 2020
    3. Agarwal, A., & Faruqui, Z. (2020). Can Suicide Risks be Predicted ? NIMHANS MHECON 2020 [Preprint]. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/kd2j7

    4. 10.31234/osf.io/kd2j7

    5. Studies have suggested that the interplay of intrapersonal factors plays a major and more significant role than interpersonal factors in the elevation of emotions and distortion of cognition to the levels where it exceeds the individual’s bearing capacity and suicide becomes a possible option. The ongoing distress of an individual’s intrapersonal factors is reflected in the individual’s interaction with the world, especially with social media. The changes in social media activity provides a greater insight towards understanding the psychological pain the individual might be suffering. The aim of the paper is to study the Social Media Activity of individuals who have once or more attempted suicide over a period of stipulated time to identify the onset of indicators for psychological pain
    1. Barbaro, N., Richardson, G. B., Nedelec, J. L., & Liu, H. (2020). Assessing Effects of Life History Antecedents on Age at Menarche and Sexual Debut Using a Genetically Informative Design [Preprint]. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/xqfg8

    2. Life history derived models of female sexual development all propose menarche timing as a key regulatory mechanism driving subsequent sexual behavior. The current researchutilized a twin subsample of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health; n=520)to comprehensively evaluate effects of life history antecedents onmenarche timing and sexual debut, and extend understanding of these life history models witha genetically informative design.The results show mixed support for each life history model and did not provide evidence any effecton age at menarche. Results of this research call to question the underlying assumptions of life history derived models of sexual development and highlight the need for more behavior genetic research in this area.
    3. Assessing Effects of Life History Antecedents onAge at Menarche and Sexual DebutUsing a Genetically InformativeDesign
    4. 2020-06-19

    1. Baer, T., & Schnall, S. (2020). Quantifying the Cost of Decision Fatigue: Supoptimal Risk Decisions in Finance [Preprint]. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/j4wef

    2. 10.31234/osf.io/j4wef
    3. Quantifying the Cost of Decision Fatigue: Supoptimal Risk Decisions in Finance
    4. 2020-06-16

    5. Making decisions over extended periods of time is cognitively taxing and can lead to decision fatigue, which is linked to a preference for the ‘default’ option, namely whatever decision involves the least cognitive effort. Such effects have been demonstrated across a number of applied settings, including forensic and clinical contexts. An open question, however, is whether this necessarily leads to worse decision outcomes. Using 26,501 credit restructuring applications evaluated by credit officers of a major bank, here we show that in this real-life financial risk taking context credit loan approvals across the course of a day decreased during midday compared to early or later in the workday, reflecting a preference for the default option. We then modeled the bank’s additional credit collection if all decisions had been made during early morning levels of approval. This would have resulted in $509,023 extra revenue for the bank, for one month. Thus, we provide further evidence for decision-fatigue, and that it can have a substantial negative impact in the finance sector that warrants considerations to counteract it.
    1. 2020-06-04

    2. Altay, S., de Araujo, E., & Mercier, H. (2020, June 4). “If this account is true, it is most enormously wonderful”: Interestingness-if-true and the sharing of true and false news.

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/tdfh5

    4. Why would people share news they think might not be accurate? We identify a factor that, alongside accuracy, drives the sharing of true and fake news: the ‘interestingness-if-true’ of a piece of news. In two pre-registered experiments (N = 604), participants were presented with a series of true and fake news, and asked to rate the accuracy of the news, how interesting the news would be if it were true, and how likely they would be to share it. Both interestingness-if-true and accuracy played an important role in explaining the sharing of true and fake news, with participants more willing to share news they thought interesting-if-true, and accurate. Participants also found fake news less accurate but more in-teresting-if-true than true news, and were more likely to share true news than fake news. Higher trust in mass media was associated with a greater ability to discern between true and fake news, and partic-ipants rated as more accurate news that they had already been exposed to (especially among true news). These results suggest that people may not share news of questionable accuracy by mistake, but instead because the news has qualities that make up for its potential inaccuracy, such as being interesting-if-true.
    5. 1“If this account is true, it is most enormously wonderful”:Interestingness-if-true and the sharing of true and false news
    1. 2020-05-29

    2. Farr, C. (2020, May 23). Why scientists are changing their minds and disagreeing during the coronavirus pandemic. CNBC. https://www.cnbc.com/2020/05/23/why-scientists-change-their-mind-and-disagree.html

    3. Key PointsThe changing recommendations during the Covid-19 pandemic on things such as whether to wear face masks has confused the public and caused them to lose faith in science.But changing your mind based on new evidence is a badge of honor in the scientific community.The situation is complicated by the fact that pre-print research is often being debated in public on social media, instead of behind closed doors. 
    4. Why scientists are changing their minds and disagreeing during the coronavirus pandemic
  3. May 2020
    1. MSF Scientific Days bring together researchers, practitioners, academics and patient representatives to catalyse improvements in the quality of care provided to patients and populations at risk. By supporting research and innovation in our projects, MSF aims to improve outcomes, find efficiencies and create a culture of best practice, constantly improving the standards of care provided to our patients.
    2. MSF Scientific Days
    1. Fast Science and Philosophy of Science | Jacob Stegenga. (2020, May 11). BSPS. http://www.thebsps.org/auxhyp/fast-science-stegenga/

    2. DATE?

    3. We are living through one of the strangest and most anxiety-provoking times that most of us can remember—in lockdown, separated from friends, lovers, colleagues, work, extended family, and in some cases immediate family, to slow the spread of this new virus, SARS-CoV-2. The threat of this virus, and the effectiveness and harms of the social policies meant to mitigate this threat, have become the most important scientific issues of a generation. So it is worth asking: what is the role, if any, of philosophy of science during this pandemic and global lockdown? Should we be trying to get in on the dispute between, say, Neil Ferguson (the most prominent epidemiologist whose models predicted dire consequences of the pandemic and who encouraged strict lockdown policies) and John Ioannidis (the most prominent epidemiologist who has criticized the dire model forecasts and lockdown policies)? I recently posed this question to colleagues on social media. The responses were insightful, and suggested that the discussion could benefit from broader engagement with our discipline. Thus, here I reproduce some of the motivation for the question and summarize several themes from the responses.
    4. Fast Science and Philosophy of Science
    1. 10.1126/science.abc0473

    2. Drew, D. A., Nguyen, L. H., Steves, C. J., Menni, C., Freydin, M., Varsavsky, T., Sudre, C. H., Cardoso, M. J., Ourselin, S., Wolf, J., Spector, T. D., Chan, A. T., & Consortium§, C. (2020). Rapid implementation of mobile technology for real-time epidemiology of COVID-19. Science. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abc0473

    3. 2020-05-05

    4. Rapid implementation of mobile technology for real-time epidemiology of COVID-19
    5. The rapid pace of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic (COVID-19) presents challenges to the robust collection of population-scale data to address this global health crisis. We established the COronavirus Pandemic Epidemiology (COPE) consortium to bring together scientists with expertise in big data research and epidemiology to develop a COVID-19 Symptom Tracker mobile application that we launched in the UK on March 24, 2020 and the US on March 29, 2020 garnering more than 2.8 million users as of May 2, 2020. This mobile application offers data on risk factors, herald symptoms, clinical outcomes, and geographical hot spots. This initiative offers critical proof-of-concept for the repurposing of existing approaches to enable rapidly scalable epidemiologic data collection and analysis which is critical for a data-driven response to this public health challenge.
  4. Apr 2020
    1. 2020-04-08

    2. In response to recently announced restrictions for mothers due to give birth, Dr Abigail Wright, a member of the DECP Committee, has produced some helpful advice for parents and carers dealing with new babies and young children during the current situation.

      ann:summary

    3. Parenting young babies whilst self isolating and social distancing

      ann:title