108 Matching Annotations
  1. Nov 2022
  2. Sep 2022
    1. What will your choice be?

      Claim to policy

    2. The pendulum swung from a physicalto a virtual society without any examina-tion or recognition of the changes ...”(Agres et al.).
    3. Yothedegreethatwecultivatethecapacitytoenterdeeplyintotheexperenceofthemoment,WEalsocultivatetheexperienceofjoy.plentinade,andwell-beingin ourlives.Thisrequiresfewthings,butthecapacitawithprofoundinten-ytoknowandenjoy thersity,It isaprocess,finally,ofcultivauingelationshipswithoneselfandoF_.Mainstreamsocietyconsistsothersof the exact opposite ev ex-briefer andmore superficial encounters with everlargerquantitiesofgoods,servicpeopleThereisnopleasureoFCOTtact,onlythegiddyadrenaline-fueledwhirlofchangingexperience withoutsubstance, touchwithoutintimacy,information withoutmeaning,companywithoutcommunity.(qd.inPierce305
    4. Moreplacedeachdayandmanybeensaved(Wireless”)


    5. both

      Appeal to character

    6. Acultureoncebase{exclusivelyonphysicaleoritactisintheprocessofbeingtranslotmedintooneWhere\goodsandservicesateccessiblewithouttheneedforface-to-facecontact withotherpeopleTechnolog)ansformationtowalahasenabledthisUnyistheglueechnologvirtualsocieties.74]socieuiesplausiblathatmakesviTttonedoesnot\buttechnologyaleviabilityofthevirtualguaranteeih mustsociety,forthetechnicalpow\beusedintelligeand deliberatelybyaninformedpopulation.(qud.In\|Aoresetal.


    7. (Slouka).


    8. (Maney\


    9. Samsung,Company


    10. (AT&T).

      Stat? Fact?

    11. As everyone knows, unreality increaseswith speed. Walking across a landscapeat six miles an hour, we experience theparticular reality of place: its smells,sounds, colors, textures, and so on.Driving at seventy miles an hour, theexperience is very different. The carisolates us, distances us; the worldbeyond the windshield—whether des-ert mesa or rolling farmland—seemsvaguely unreal. At supersonic speeds,the divorce is complete. A landscape at30,000 feet is an abstraction, as unliketeal life as a painting. (3)

      Testimony? Fact

    12. Webelieve that somehow if we do everythingfaster, we will have more free time.

      Appeal to need

    13. And the more an addiction takes over,the more our true needs are not being met.

      Appeal to need

    14. he Encyclopedia of Psychologydescribes an addiction as an’ “overpow-ering desire or need for anor interaction ...actionthat produces a psy-chophysical ‘high.’ This desire or need isrepetitive, impulsive, and compulsive innature” (Hatterer 16).


    15. ellphonecustomersused1.5trillionMOUS(minutesofuse)in2005,up36%from1.1trillionin2004(“Wireless”)


    16. akemyfriendRandy,forexample.


    17. Humanbeingsaresocialbynature.

      Appeal to need

    18. AccordingtoareportbytheUnitedStatesDepartmentofTransportation,cellphone subscriptionsrosefrom340,213in1985 toawhopping117,000,000in2001(155).


    19. IntheUnitedStates,therearenow 194,479,364cellphoneusersand203,824,428Internetusers(UnitedStates,CentralIntelligenceAgency).


    20. Appealing to ourdesires for connectedness and more leisuretime, communication conglomerates spendbillions of dollars on advertising campaigns.

      Appeal to need

    21. resent the fact that the outsideworld attempts to persuade me to compro-mise my values for mass-produced values.

      Appeal to character and value(?)

    22. “reach outand touch” family and friends in ways thatwere previously not available.

      appeal to need

    23. “In point of fact,humans have been creating ways to trans-mit, store and manipulate information andmessages for centuries—if not millennia”(Thurlo et al. 37).


    24. |treasure the choice to talk to whom | choosewhen I choose, time to enjoy a lazy walk inthe woods where the only sound is nature,real-time, face-to-face conversations withclose friends over a nice dinner and a bottleof wine.

      appeal to character

    25. 1am bombarded with catchy commer-cials, communication catalogs, and peoplewho are trying to convince me all of thistechno stuff is inevitable, a sign of the times,the way of the world.

      Anecdote ish?

    26. I admit it! 1 am a technophobe. Or intechnospeak, a P.O.N.A. (acronym for personof no account).

      Appeal to character

    27. BlackBerry, Razr, and Firefly.


    28. A jogger runs down the Leelanau Trailtalking on a cell phone. A student text-messages while in class. High-speed. Real-time. BlackBerry, Razr, and Firefly.

      Scenario, anecdote?

    1. Brown relies on personal testimony to set up his main idea \Smith develops an appeal to need with several paragraphs.Brown directly addresses opposing assumptions about transportation. !Johnson immediately appeals to emotion by connecting the topic, telemarketers, to apredatory economic climate—to the fear and quiet anger associated with corporatepower,

      use instead

    2. Evaluation (ClaimsofValue)Browndoesagoodjobofsupportinghismainidea.Smith'sideasarerightontarget.Browneffectivelyconvincesmethatwearereliantonautomobileculture.Idon’tacceptSmith'sclaimsLamsuspiciousofJohnson’ideasbecausetheyseemungrounded.


    3. Evaluation isthe worth of an argument.

      Evaluation def

    4. Whilethepreviouspitfallfocusestoomuchonanimaginedaudience,thethirdpitfalleauthor'sintent.

      Describing authors intent def

    5. describing the effect of the original argument. In thissituation, the writer describes how the argument (or a part of it) might affect an audience.

      describing the effect def

    6. irst,some writers get lured inside the points of the argument they are analyzing, andrather than remain outside of that argument, on solid analytical ground, they beginmaking a case for the argument.

      Don't make a case: analyze

    7. bothidentifytheargumentativemove(suchasanappealtovalue)andthenexplainhowitworks.

      Identify and explain

    8. Analyzinganargumentiscommonlycalledrhetoricalanalysis

      Rhetorical analysis def

    9. Tobeananalyticalreader,wehavetoaskhowthepassageworks.

      Ask how passage works

    10. analysis seeks to make claims of fact rather thanclaims of value.

      Analysis def 2

    11. such questions must be put aside.

      Reflex needs to be put aside for analysis

    12. nalysis is the act of investigating how something works.

      Analysis def

    1. Tim would be a good president because he is presidential material is circular reasoning,

      ex of begging the question

    2. They are used to fend off any doubts about the arguer’s credibility.

      appeals to character reason

    3. Appeals to value make a connection between the topic and a shared value or principle (such as fairness, equality, honor, kindness, selflessness, duty, responsibility, profit, or practicality).

      appeals to value def

    4. subject and a basic human need (such as intimacy, self-realization,

      Appeal to need def

    5. Jones would come back!

      appeal to emotion: fear

    6. this has been proven by science, comrades)

      fake news

    7. Unfortunately, Lauren was not able to continue with her bid for Cherry Queen. Instead, she fought bravely to save her own life and the following winter died from the cancer, which had spread to her brain.

      Appeal to emotion

    8. Appeals to emotion draw on the emotions (f s, hopes, sympathies, yearnings) of the audience.

      Appeal to emotion def

    9. Appeals to character draw attention to the arguer’s (writer/speaker’s) personal nature, integrity, experience, wisdom, or personality.

      Appeals to character def

    10. Golden age fallacies characterize the past as broadly and inherently better.

      Golden age def

    11. reductio ad Hitlerum.

      reductio ad Hitlerum

    12. Association fallacies claim that two people or things share a quality just because they are somehow associated, connected, or related.

      Association def

    13. Bandwagon fallacies claim that because everyone else is doing it, you should, too,

      Bandwagon def

    14. ed herring fallacies are deliberate attempts to change the subject. Instead of deal- ing with the actual argument, the arguer introduces irrelevant points to distract the audience.

      Red herring def

    15. Begging the Question (also called circular reasoning and, in Latin, petitio principii) involves supporting a claim by restating (in different words) the claim itself.

      Begging the q def

    16. Slippery slope fallacies claim that a certain way of thinking or acting will necessar- | ily lead to more of the same—that once you begin sliding down a slippery slope, you | will keep sliding.

      Slippery slope def

    17. on sequitur (Latin for it does not follow) skips or confuses logical steps. The conclu- sion cannot logically be arrived at through the premises.

      Non sequitur def

    18. Hasty generalizations draw conclusions based on too little evidence.

      Hasty g def

    19. Either/or fallacies oversimplify an issue by claiming that only two options exist when there are more options to choose from.

      Either/or def

    20. Post hoc, ergo propter hoc (or faulty cause-effect) fallacies claim that if one thing happened before another, then the first thing must have caused the second.

      Post hoc ergo propter hoc def

    21. Strawperson fallacies involve misrepresenting a position and then dismissing it as wrong.

      Strawperson def

    22. Ad hominem (Latin for to the person) fallacies are personal attacks. Instead of responding to the ideas someone has put forth,

      Ad hominem def

    23. A fallacy is a false- hood, so a logical fallacy is a logical falsehood that makes no sense within a given situation.

      Fallacy def

    24. Grounds: I've received high marks on every assignment thus far. (support for the claim) Claim: I'm going to receive a high grade in the course. (an assertion that requires support) Warrant: High grades on all assignments will lead to a high grade in the course. (why the grounds support the claim

      Grounds, claim and warrant ex

    25. Analogical reasoning depends on comparisons (or analogies).

      Analogical reasoning def

    26. enthymeme, which is a line of reasoning that contains an unstated premise. The unstated premise is so widely accepted that it goes unmentioned.

      Enthymeme def

    27. warrant, which is the link between a claim and its grounds (the claim's supporting reason). The warrant (which is sometimes stated, sometimes unstated) expresses why a person would accept a claim based on the grounds.

      Warrant def

    28. I’ve received high marks on every assignment thus far, so I'm going to receive a high grade in the course, she omits a point: high grades on all the assignments will lead to a high grade in the course. This point is so widely assumed that it can safely be left unsaid.

      Ex of enthymeme

    29. Inductive reasoning builds from specific premises and leads to a general claim.

      Inductive reasoning def

    30. Deductive reasoning builds a conclusion from accepted premises or general principles.

      Deductive reasoning definition

    31. In the long run, schools with | less funding become less important to students and less important within the community as a whole. The summer recreation program is just one example of this subtle, or silent, | breakdown.

      Appeal to logic

    32. subtle line of 1] reasoning: a series of logical steps (or premises) that lead arguer and audience to a main | | claim. If the path is well crafted—with few missteps or gaps between premises—readers | follow along and become more accepting of the overall argument.

      Logical appeals lead you down a logical trail

    33. his, it seems, is merely a matter of constitutional law

      Appeal to logic

    34. Let us consider the following reasons . . . ® Because of the stated conditions, we can only conclude that .. . ® Yet another reason to accept the idea... ® Given the following rationale, we should dismiss the idea of . .

      Appeal to logic starting statements

    35. appeal must be constructed \| out of logical steps, shared values, beliefs, or needs.

      Difference b/t appeal and evidence

    36. ppeals are a major form of support in argumentation. They call on the reader's sense it of logic, character, emotion, need, or value,

      Appeal def

    37. Notice that the verb mood often changes in scenarios from the indicative (“Americans overcome their own desires”) to the subjunctive (‘Americans could overcome their own desires”).

      Literary stuff

    38. When arguers use scenarios, they should signal the audience that they are in hypotheti- cal territory.

      Scenario needs to be pointed out

    39. Imagine three students all achieve a 4.0 in a class. James's final score was 93%, Tonya’s 95%, and Will's 100%. The 4.0 final grade would not reflect the broad range of performance between James and Will, In fac


    40. SCENARIOS are fictional or hypothetical examples.

      Scenarios def

    41. ILLUSTRATIONS are graphic descriptions or representations of an idea.

      Illustrations def

    42. Martin Grove

      Anecdotes can add to a claim by appealing to emotion

    43. mples are specific occurrences of a p

      Examples def

    44. vidence is a type of support that already exists, unlike appeals, which are created by a writer,

      Evidence def

    45. FACTS are agreed-upon bits of knowledge that do not require further support in an argument.

      Fact def

    46. AUTHORITIES are experts who offer specialized knowledge.

      Authority def

    47. ANECDOTES are short accounts of a particular event or incident.

      Anecdote def

    48. In the 1980s, commercial music boasted a beguiling host of sexy pop chicks like Deborah Harry, Belinda Carlisle, Pat Benatar, and a charmingly ripe Madonna. Late Madonna, in contrast, went bourgeois and turned scrawny. Madonna's dance-track acolyte, Lady Gaga, with her compulsive overkill, is a high-concept fabrication without an ounce of genuine eroticism.


    49. We have even laundry so we don't have to leave our cars. We have drive-thrus for food, banking, to wait in line. And now, different u-scan checkouts at grocery stores so We don’t have speeds at which we can choose to move through life.


    50. but their origin should be revealed to the audience so that readers know not just the numbers, but the process that gives them meaning.

      Be careful w credibility of stats

    51. The annual number of breast enlargements actually grew, hugely, from 32,607 in 1992 to 225,818 last year.


    52. The study, which tracked the effect of confusion and other emotions on students’ responses, showed that a higher percentage (68%) of learning gains were achieved when the students were met with confusion (4).


    53. ccording to the National Association of Colleges and Employers’ 2002 Salary Survey, starting salaries for some majors exceed $50,000—chemical engineering: $50,387; computer science: $50,352: mechanical engineering, management information systems! business data processing, accounting, civil engineering, and economics/finance all start above $40,000 (Geary).


    54. According to the League of Education Voters, in the state of Washington, for example, from 1993 to 1999 state funding per student increased $528, Yet because of inflation, there was actually a decrease—of $527.


    55. Ann Donnelly,


    56. David Tennebaum, a science, health, and environment writer (for ABCNEWS.com, Technology Review, Bio-Science, Environmental Health Perspectives, American Health, and other publications).


    57. “primary emotions”—-feelings such as aggression and fear that are instinctive and require no conscious thought.


    58. testimony, a type of evidence, gives a personal angle to the issue.

      Reasoning behind testimony

    59. grounds or proofs,

      Support called grounds or proofs

    60. apposilive,

      Quickly explaining someone's credibility

    61. authorities, tes- i \ timony, facts, statistics, allusions, anecdotes, illustrations, scenarios, appeals to logic, i 1 appeals to character, appeals to emotion, appeals to need, and appeals to value.

      Examples of support

  3. Sep 2020
  4. Aug 2020
    1. Most representative governments favormajority rule: the opinions of the majority of the peoplehave more influence with government than those of the minority.

      Then how can the electoral college override the popular vote?

    2. Government provides other valuable goods and services such as publiceducation, public transportation, mail service, and food, housing, and health care for the poor (Figure 1.2)

      So the electoral branch cannot take away our right to vote by mail?

    3. For example, in China, the government is run by members of the Chinese Communist Party.

      Ironic that the example of socialism uses a party entitled the " Chinese Communist Party."

    4. Great gaps in wealthbetween the owners of major businesses, industries, and financial institutions and those who work forothers in exchange for wages exist in many capitalist nations

      Is this not against John Locke's ideology for everyone's right to life, libert and the pursuit of happiness (property)?

    5. Sometimes governmental systems are confused with economic systems. This is because certain types ofpolitical thought or governmental organization are closely related to or develop with certain types ofeconomic systems

      Communist countries like Russia have economic systems that bleed into their government.