178 Matching Annotations
  1. May 2022
    1. The ability to create singular written works is mostly impervious to education and technical supplementation; it is overwhelmingly what we used to call gifted or God-given and today call either genetic or inspired.

      CLM: The majority of the variance between individuals in terms of being able to produce novel and nontrivial insights is determined by genetic factors that are out of their control.

      Hmmm the genetic argument is now extended to cover not just "being organized", but "being able to produce novel and nontrivial insights". Here I start to get more skeptical. What about skill acquisition / learning for example? Or collaboration with transformative peers? Or... mathematical notation? Or abstractions and algorithms? Why learn computational modeling, or engage in practices of field notes and memo-ing and iterative passes over data (for qualitative theory-building)?

    2. you are unlikely to author anything very profound or forceful, so long as you are possessed by the Knowledge Graph ideology

      CLM: If you believe that merely linking documents without active attempts to add structure is sufficient to generate insight, you are unlikely to generate profound or forceful insights.

    3. most of the variance between individuals is genetic and relatively invulnerable to intervention

      CLM: The majority of the variance between individuals in terms of attaining a state of order in their information/data is determined by genetic factors that are out of their control.

  2. Apr 2022
    1. 1970’s found that participants of the trial were more likely to complete high school than counterparts not involved in the trial. [1]

      this was the 70's. we are currently in 2022, highschool dropout rates have decreased in the US without OBI

    2. awful job just to pay the bills

      that JUST LIFE. we do what we haev to

    1. ReconfigBehSci. (2020, November 25). @ToddHorowitz3 @sciam do you mean the specific article is bad, or the wider claim/argument? Because as someone who does research on collective intelligence, I’d say there is some reason to believe it is true that there can be “too much” communication in science. See e.g. The work of Kevin Zollman [Tweet]. @SciBeh. https://twitter.com/SciBeh/status/1331672900550725634

  3. Feb 2022
  4. Jan 2022
    1. But now that I’m a mom, I realize the importance of knowing where your children truly are at all times

      This claim is a claim of policy, saying that if you are a parent, it is important to know where your child is at all times

    1. The change is emblematic of Spielberg’s failure, because it isn’t only visual imagination and fantasy that he can’t match.

      Richard Brody states that he is the only person right in this sentence to make it apparent and what the movie was lacking.

    2. But, instead of reconceiving the story, they’ve shored it up with flimsy new struts of sociology and psychology, along with slight dramatic rearrangements.

      Here the writer is stating that the remake of the movie was "flimsy." This is a claim of value because the writer is stating that the movie is bad.

    1. these covid concentration camps are going to be ramped up into extermination / death camps

      Argument by assertion fallacy and claim of fact: Repeating the claim again and again, does not make it true.

    2. the government is literally waging a war of extermination against the American people.

      Claim of fact, slippery slope: Leaping to the conclusion that the government wants to exterminate the entire human race, based on the fact that health officers are allowed to quarantine people?

    3. WAC 246-100, which would authorize “health officers” (Democrat vaccine Gestapo) to kidnap anyone at gunpoint and throw them into covid concentration camps which have already been activated.

      Straw man fallacy, claim of fact: WAC 246-100 is a bill stating that health officers may order people to quarantine when a COVID-19 infection is suspected. The bill never mentions anything about kidnapping or "covid concentration camps". In fact, you can verify this by clicking on the hyperlink provided in this very article.

    4. Democrats have built death camps in America

      Argument by assertion fallacy and claim of fact: Restating this claim once again.

    5. covid concentration camps are actually politically-motivated death camps

      Argument by assertion fallacy and claim of fact: The article has repeated this claim multiple times.

    1. Tablets can cause damage to your eyes.

      Type of Claim: Claim of Fact

      The author states that tablets can cause damage to one's eyes as a true fact without any evidence.

    2. Staff Writer

      Argument Structure: Classical Orientation

      The author uses classical orientation in his article to prove to his audience how his views are correct, and anyone who thinks differently is wrong. The argument is week because it is missing a statement of background, a refutation and a proposition. Without these key elements in Pecoraro's essay, the readers are less likely to be persuaded to join in agreement with him. Without those crucial steps, the readers doubt that Pecoraro knows a lot about the topic at hand. The reader also feels like the author is biased when there is no refutation. The author doesn't even acknowledge there is issues with his opinion. This article is also missing a lot of evidence. The author in each body paragraph practically just states a claim, and then gives his reasoning. Typically not with evidence which also loses his audience's trust. The author lacks pathos, making his audience not persuaded by his essay.

      Type of Claim:Implicit

      The author never directly says his issue with tablets, he just says in several different ways why textbooks are better.

    3. I feel that textbooks are much better than tablets because textbooks are irreplaceable.

      Type of Claim: Claim of Value

      Author is arguing in this claim textbooks are good by saying they are better than tablets.By labeling something as better, typically means the person believes that item is good

    4. It’s much cheaper to replace a textbook than a tablet.

      Type of Claim: Claim of Fact

      Author claims textbooks are cheaper than tablets without any proof.

    5. Textbooks are strong and hard to break

      Type of Claim: Claim of Fact

      Author states the sturdiness of textbooks without any evidence backing it up.

  5. Dec 2021
    1. hen rights are consistently denied, a cause should be pressed in the courts and in negotiations among local leaders, and not in the streets

      (Toulmin method) Assumptions: Legal action will result in "correct" or just rulings. People can wait for courts to decide justice

    2. We do not believe that these days of new hope are days when extreme measures are justified in Birmingham

      Claim of value

    3. these demonstrations are unwise and untimely.

      Claim of value

    4. When rights are consistently denied, a cause should be pressed in the courts and in negotiations among local leaders, and not in the streets

      (Toulmin Model) Assumptions: Legal actions will result in "correct" or just rulings. People can wait for the courts to decide justice.

    1. This is because using hyphens instead of underscores makes it easier for Google’s web crawler to compute the information that your website has and create consistent results.
  6. Nov 2021
    1. Globalization has played a huge role in the fashion industry; in fact, the rapid change in this industry is arguably among the most significant effects of globalization. As a result of globalization, the fashion industry has opened up to a variety of new styles, influences, and methods of production

      Here, the author is making a clear claim - globalization and the fast fashion industry go hand in hand. Ledezma initiates this by introducing the idea of fast fashion and globalization through the realization of readily available fashion trends all across American malls. This is effective in making this connection clear for any audience members that are oblivious to the effects globalization has had on the fashion industry. By starting the article this way, Ledezma is able to quickly educate the reader on the topic she will be discussing. It might be eye opening for some readers that globalization has caused a negative shift on the fashion industry.

  7. Oct 2021
  8. Sep 2021
    1. But it is always important to remember that those are not language concepts. Those are community concepts that only exist in our heads and in the names of some library methods.

      I'm not sure about this. I get what he's saying and agree that singleton methods are nothing but a naming convention for the more fundamental/atomic construct called instance methods (which indeed are the only kind of method that exist in Ruby, depending how you look at it), but I think I would actually say that singleton methods are language concepts because those methods like Object#define_singleton_method, ... are always available in Ruby (without needing to require a standard library first, for example). In other words, I would argue that something belonging in the Ruby core "library" (?) by definition makes it part of the language -- even if it in turn builds on even lower-level Ruby language features/constructs.

    1. There is a huge explanation about why the dot is important quoting issues about DNS and character encoding

      It doesn't seem like the dot, in this context, would have anything to do with/help with either DNS or character encoding

    2. But I realized after a lot of research that the problem was that I did not copy the right URL address from the iTunes API documentation. It should have been https://itunes.apple.com/search?term=jack+johnson. not https://itunes.apple.com/search?term=jack+johnson Notice the dot at the end There is a huge explanation about why the dot is important quoting issues about DNS and character encoding but the truth is you probably do not care. Try adding the dot it might work for you too. When I added the "." everything worked like a charm.
  9. Aug 2021
  10. Jul 2021
  11. Jun 2021
    1. Li, X., Ostropolets, A., Makadia, R., Shoaibi, A., Rao, G., Sena, A. G., Martinez-Hernandez, E., Delmestri, A., Verhamme, K., Rijnbeek, P. R., Duarte-Salles, T., Suchard, M. A., Ryan, P. B., Hripcsak, G., & Prieto-Alhambra, D. (2021). Characterising the background incidence rates of adverse events of special interest for covid-19 vaccines in eight countries: Multinational network cohort study. BMJ, 373, n1435. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.n1435

  12. May 2021
  13. Apr 2021
  14. Mar 2021
    1. In both cases, genetic analyses confirmedthat the nuclear DNA and mitochondria DNA of themonkey offspring originated from the nucleus donorcell and the oocyte donor monkey, respectively.Thus, cloning macaque monkeys by SCNT is feasibleusing fetal fibroblasts.

      Answers the question of whether using SCNT to clone monkeys is possible. They back up this claim using their findings from genetic analyses.

    1. Circumstances varied from the state to state, but the dynamics were the same: first came biracial agrarian rebellion, then new constitutions, new restrictions, and a new equilibrium of white elite dominance over land, labor and capital.

      The author develops his final claim which is that after the Lodge Bill was dropped, many counties/states started to face similar problems, which ended as a result favoring the whites dominance. As a result, the author is stating that the filibustering of the Lodge's bill delayed the justice for African Americans and continued White segregationist policies.

    2. This is the story of how a bill to save the vote and preserve a semblance of democracy for millions of Americans died at the hands of an intransigent, reactionary minority in the Senate, which used the filibuster to do its dirty work

      The author starts off by personifying "the bill" as something that was supposed to save millions of Americans, but rather was killed by Senators. He immediately provides a brief overview of the claim of his essay before developing his narrative. This way, the audience gets a glimpse of the issue that the author will tackle. Also, by using words such as "intransigent and reactionary", the audience already understands that the author is going to be criticizing the senators for their action.

  15. Feb 2021
    1. Devoted to Trump, and committed to his fictions about the election, Republicans are doing everything they can to keep voters from holding them and their leaders accountable. They will restrict the vote. They will continue to gerrymander themselves into near-permanent majorities. A Republican in Arizona has even proposed a legislative veto over the popular vote in presidential elections

      The author starts the paragraph by explaining the Republicans as people who are "devoted to Trump". This makes it seem as Trump were god and everyone has to follow his orders. It gives both a humorous appeal to the audience and illustrates to them the sly techniques that the Republicans are using to escape from punishment. Furthermore, when the author said that the Republicans were ready to propose a veto against the popular vote, it was very ironic. As senators, they are supposed to give constitutional rights to the citizens, but rather they are taking it away for their own purpose. This further emphasizes the extent at which Republicans do not want to lose power to the Democrats.

    2. naked attempt to change the rules of American politics to benefit one party”

      The previous paragraph emphasizes the benefits of the HR.1 and how it specifically helped restore the voting system. However, in this paragraph, McConell exclaims that it is a vague attempt to benefit one party even though the Act was created to benefit the public. This illustrates to the readers the misuse of power by republican senators, which is one of the author's main points.

    3. — and not to lose the next presidential election the way they lost the last one. To that end, they have introduced bills to restrict the vote, to make the race for the Electoral College — a

      The author uses multiple dashes in this paragraph to show the different ways that the republicans will go to stop the Democrats from gaining power. The dashes emphasizes the extent at which republicans are willing to restrict votes. Without the dashes, it would simply sound as an example of what Republicans are doing, but the dashes creates a pause and further emphasis. Also, from John Lewis, the claim shifted to the extreme techniques that Republicans are using to stop Democratic power from taking over.

    1. consider when a manager tells em-ployees that they must do a task in a certain waybecause it is so specified in the union’s collectiveagreement, but the manager has no idea whetherthis specification in the collective agreementactually exists or not. In this case, the manager isconsciously bullshitting. They are not lying,because they do not know whether the task isactually specified in the collective agreement.

      This is true and unethical; One cannot work on an intellectually sound level by guessing that there is ground to stand on.

    1. Our system has room for two major political parties. One of them, however imperfectly, at least attempts to govern. The other has devoted its energy to entertainment. It is a tragedy for the people of Texas that at this moment of danger, they have to deal with a government of showmen.

      The author finishes by once again restating his claim on explaining how the Republicans and some officials fail to fix the problem but rather creates more mistakes and arguments. The author developed his claim throughout the essay by adding contents to his argument as the essay goes on. For example, in here, he added the information about the Democrats to attribute that he recognizes their effort. Also, through the many examples that he provided, it makes the audience see the different ways that these officials have avoided conflict and brought up irrelevant information instead.

    2. In his Inaugural Address, President Biden urged “unity.” This wasn’t a call for bipartisanship. It was a plea to “lower the temperature” and to “see each other not as adversaries but as neighbors.”

      Biden is a democrat. For most of the essay, the author was looking on the republican side of the topic and addresses Democrats to show the audience that he understands that the Democrats are trying hard but their effort would not be enough unless everyone participates. I learned from the They Say, I say that it is important for a person to visualize both sides of the argument to make an argument of their own. They Say I Say book

    1. (h) Knowingly committing or performing with such frequency as to indicate a general business practice any of the following unfair claims settlement practices:
    1. (g) No insurer shall attempt to settle a claim by making a settlement offer that is unreasonably low. The Commissioner shall consider any admissible evidence offered regarding the following factors in determining whether or not a settlement offer is unreasonably low:

      unreasonably low

    2. (b) Upon receiving proof of claim, every insurer, except as specified in subsection 2695.7(b)(4) below, shall immediately, but in no event more than forty (40) calendar days later, accept or deny the claim, in whole or in part. The amounts accepted or denied shall be clearly documented in the claim file unless the claim has been denied in its entirety.

      40 day time limit

    3. (2) if requested by the claimant, promptly provide the claimant with the name of at least one repair individual or entity that will make the repairs for the amount of the written estimate. The insurer shall cause the damaged property to be restored to no less than its condition prior to the loss and which will allow for repairs in a manner which meets accepted trade standards for good and workmanlike construction at no additional cost to the claimant other than as stated in the policy or as otherwise allowed by these regulations; or,

      2695.9(d)(2) If requested

    4. (3) reasonably adjust any written estimates prepared by the repair individual or entity of the insured's choice and provide a copy of the adjusted estimate to the claimant.

      2695.9(d)(3) Reasonably adjust

    5. (1) pay the difference between its written estimate and a higher estimate obtained by the claimant; or,

      2695.9(d)(1) pay the difference

    6. Where an insurer denies or rejects a first party claim, in whole or in part, it shall do so in writing and shall provide to the claimant a statement listing all bases for such rejection or denial and the factual and legal bases for each reason given for such rejection or denial which is then within the insurer's knowledge. Where an insurer's denial of a first party claim, in whole or in part, is based on a specific statute, applicable law or policy provision, condition or exclusion, the written denial shall include reference thereto and provide an explanation of the application of the statute, applicable law or provision, condition or exclusion to the claim. Every insurer that denies or rejects a third party claim, in whole or in part, or disputes liability or damages shall do so in writing.

      Cited in Farmers claim letter

    7. Section 2695.9. Additional Standards Applicable to First Party Residential and Commercial Property Insurance Policies (a) When a residential or commercial property insurance policy provides for the adjustment and settlement of first party losses based on replacement cost, the following standards apply:

      Floor refinishing - Base regulation.

    8. (2) When a loss requires replacement of items and the replaced items do not match in quality, color or size, the insurer shall replace all items in the damaged area so as to conform to a reasonably uniform appearance.

      Floor refinishing - uniform appearance

    9. (1) pay the difference between its written estimate and a higher estimate obtained by the claimant; or, (2) if requested by the claimant, promptly provide the claimant with the name of at least one repair individual or entity that will make the repairs for the amount of the written estimate. The insurer shall cause the damaged property to be restored to no less than its condition prior to the loss and which will allow for repairs in a manner which meets accepted trade standards for good and workmanlike construction at no additional cost to the claimant other than as stated in the policy or as otherwise allowed by these regulations; or, (3) reasonably adjust any written estimates prepared by the repair individual or entity of the insured's choice and provide a copy of the adjusted estimate to the claimant.

      Farmers choice on submission of claim

    10. (b) No insurer shall require that the insured have the property repaired by a specific individual or entity. (c) No insurer shall suggest or recommend that the insured have the property repaired by a specific individual or entity unless: (1) the referral is expressly requested by the claimant; or (2) the claimant has been informed in writing of the right to select a repair individual or entity and, if the claimant accepts the suggestion or recommendation, the insurer shall cause the damaged property to be restored to no less than its condition prior to the loss and repaired in a manner which meets accepted trade standards for good and workmanlike construction at no additional cost to the claimant other than as stated in the policy or as otherwise allowed by these regulations.

      Shall note require Service Master

  16. Jan 2021
  17. Oct 2020
  18. Sep 2020
    1. Aside from being an implementation nightmare, I think the proposal in this RFC is strictly better than props-in-style — it gives you the same expressive power in a neater, more idiomatic way, along with the global theming ability.
  19. Aug 2020
  20. Jul 2020
    1. OK is technically an acronym. It comes from the phrase "oll korrect," a humorous alteration of "all correct."

      Was "oll korrect" intended to be a humorous alteration of "all correct" or is it simply due to variations in language? (korrect looks a bit like German. What language could oll be?

    1. Visualizing is not the only way to imagine.

      Strong point. Very interesting to be because not visualization doesn't mean non-imaginative. Are they talking from experience or is there evidence to back them up?

  21. Jun 2020
  22. May 2020
    1. In some contexts, "ops" refers to operators. Operators were the counterparts to Developers represented in the original coining of the term DevOps.

      I have always believed the Ops was short for Operations, not Operators.

      https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DevOps even confirms that belief.

    1. quantum blockchain

      Do they really use a quantum blockchain? What exactly do they mean by that? Probably just a buzzword they're using to attract interest but aren't actually meaning literally.

    2. Did the marketing team create a new landing page that isn't searchable? Osano is aware of hidden pages and keeps you in the loop about what is loaded where – everywhere on your site.

      How would it "know" about hidden pages unless the site owner told them about their existence? (And if that is the case, how is this anything that Osano can claim as a feature or something that they do?) If it is truly hidden, then a conventional bot/spider wouldn't find it by following links.

    1. Most web browsers are set by default to protect your privacy unless you opt for tracking yourself. For example, Internet Explorer automatically enables its “Do Not Track” option and Google Chrome blocks any 3rd-party cookies by default.
    1. Taxonomy, in a broad sense the science of classification, but more strictly the classification of living and extinct organisms—i.e., biological classification.

      I don't think the "but more strictly" part is strictly accurate.

      Wikipedia authors confirm what I already believed to be true: that the general sense of the word is just as valid/extant/used/common as the sense that is specific to biology:

      https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taxonomy_(general) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taxonomy_(biology)

    1. after nearly 10 years of continuous improvement

      Not necessarily a good or favorable thing. It might actually be preferable to pick a younger software product that doesn't have the baggage of previous architectural decisions to slow them down. Newer projects can benefit from both (1) the mistakes of previously-originated projects and (2) the knowledge of what technologies/paradigms are popular today; they may therefore be more agile and better able to create something that fits with the current state of the art, as opposite to the state of the art from 10 years ago (which, as we all know, was much different: before the popularity of GraphQL, React, headless CMS, for example).

      Older projects may have more technical debt and have more legacy technologies/paradigms/integrations/decisions that they now have the burden of supporting.

    2. open source

      So open-source that there is no link to the source code and a web search for this product did not reveal where the source code is hosted.

      They're obviously using this term merely as a marketing term without respect for the actual meaning/principles of open source.

  23. Mar 2020
    1. This difference is due to the fact that the Cookie Solution automatically excludes from the counting, the pageviews generated by bots.

      It seems that Google Analytics could/would exclude those as well.

    1. a complete snapshot of the user's browser window at that moment in time will be captured, pixel by pixel.

      Is this even technically possible?

      If it were:

      • how are they not disclosing this better, since it seems like a privacy concern since there could be any amount of private data in that form, that would what, get sent to Google??
      • wouldn't that be a lot of pixels (a lot of data to upload), which would take a lot of time to upload, especially at high screen resolutions?
  24. Nov 2019
    1. Super flexible & extensible SilverStripe fits the outcomes you want, and doesn't force your business outcomes into an out-of-the-box solution. Customise to your needs!
  25. Sep 2018
    1. Put more directly what you are really saying is that you claim the right to be unhappy – Alright, I claim the right to be unhappy

      The use of the phrase "claim the right to be unhappy" here is most indicative of the type of culture that the film created. Emotions are no longer inherent or natural, they are something you must claim or fight for. To have "the right" to something inherently means that it is not simply given. It makes the issue one of possession rather than oppression. It's not that the new society is oppressing the emotions, but rather that they are no longer claiming/possessing them.

  26. Aug 2018
    1. When Russian forces delivered Asam al Alasam, the ISIS Supreme Leader in Iraq, to the American airbase as promised, he had an item with him they did not expect. Al Alasam had a nearly new, unlocked iPhone X. The phone was unscrambled and not secure at all, so it was believed to be a personal and family use phone. Still, the army chief engineer wanted it looked at. After nearly six weeks of unblocking text and manipulating code, they found a hidden phone list with direct numbers to some of the most powerful men on the planet. Al Alasam had Barack Obama, Justin Trudeau, Malcolm Reynolds, Sandy Batt AND President Dale Goff all on speed dial. Just knowing Sandy Batt is a crime in Russia.
  27. Oct 2017
    1. s the late Brian Southam has noted, Austen benefited personally from thisimportant educational development through her access to an extraordinarilybroad range of literature from a very young age.8By the time she came topublish her novels, the benefits of this advance in education were being felt inan unparalleled expansion and sophistication of literary culture.

      Here, the author ties Austen's education in with her expectations of her readership.

    2. Austen’s expectation of readerly ingenuity is ultimately what sets her apartfrom other novelists of the Romantic period. As generations of critics havefound, Austen’s work is deliberately, at times even maddeningly, puzzling toreaders.

      The author claims that Austen has high expectations of "readerly ingenuity." I am not sure that the evidence here from a mystery writer quite supports the claim. I would have preferred that Murphy perform a close reading of a passage that is "deliberately, at times even maddeningly, puzzling to readers" to demonstrate her point here.

  28. May 2017
    1. The reason all these people believe the Great Barrier Reef is dying is because they all get their fake news from the same green-left-liberal echo chamber

      test

    1. Right now, the shelf works like a giant bottle-stopper that slows down ice trying to flow from the land into the sea. If it collapses, the ice could flow into the ocean more rapidly, an effect that has already happened on a much smaller scale in other areas of Antarctica. The most vulnerable parts of the West Antarctic ice sheet could raise the sea level by 10 to 15 feet, inundating many of the world’s coastal cities, though most scientists think that would take well over a century, or perhaps longer. They are worried about a possible rise of as much as six feet by the end of this century.
    2. The warmer water seems to be doing the most damage to a series of glaciers that flow into a region of West Antarctica called the Amundsen Sea. Satellites have identified the most rapid loss of ice there, raising a critical question: Has an unstoppable collapse of the ice sheet already begun?
    3. But the story is not straightforward, and the warmer water attacking the ice has not been linked to global warming — at least not directly. The winds around the continent seem to be strengthening, stirring the ocean and bringing up a layer of warmer water that has most likely been there for centuries. Are those stronger winds tied to human-caused global warming? Some scientists think so, but others say the case is unproven. “We’re not sure because we don’t have enough data, for long enough, to separate signal from noise,” said Eric J. Steig, a scientist at the University of Washington who has studied temperature trends in Antarctica.
    4. The acceleration is making some scientists fear that Antarctica’s ice sheet may have entered the early stages of an unstoppable disintegration. Because the collapse of vulnerable parts of the ice sheet could raise the sea level dramatically, the continued existence of the world’s great coastal cities — Miami, New York, Shanghai and many more — is tied to Antarctica’s fate.
    5. Already, scientists know enough to be concerned. About 120,000 years ago, before the last ice age, the planet went through a natural warm period, with temperatures similar to those expected in coming decades. The sea level was 20 to 30 feet higher than it is today, implying that the ice sheets in both Greenland and Antarctica must have partly disintegrated, a warning of what could occur in the relatively near future if the heating of the planet continues unchecked.
    6. Though the role of global warming is unclear now, it is likely to be a factor in the relatively near future. Many experts think warmer air temperatures could start to weaken the ice of West Antarctica from above, even as warmer ocean water attacks it from below. The warmer water seems to be doing the most damage to a series of glaciers that flow into a region of West Antarctica called the Amundsen Sea. Satellites have identified the most rapid loss of ice there, raising a critical question: Has an unstoppable collapse of the ice sheet already begun?
    7. But the story is not straightforward, and the warmer water attacking the ice has not been linked to global warming — at least not directly. The winds around the continent seem to be strengthening, stirring the ocean and bringing up a layer of warmer water that has most likely been there for centuries. Are those stronger winds tied to human-caused global warming? Some scientists think so, but others say the case is unproven. “We’re not sure because we don’t have enough data, for long enough, to separate signal from noise,” said Eric J. Steig, a scientist at the University of Washington who has studied temperature trends in Antarctica.
    8. Incorporating recent advances in the understanding of how ice sheets might break apart, they found that both West Antarctica and some vulnerable parts of East Antarctica would go into an unstoppable collapse if the Earth continued to warm at a rapid pace. In their worst-case scenario, the sea level could rise by six feet by the end of this century, and the pace could pick up drastically in the 22nd century. Dr. DeConto and Dr. Pollard do not claim that this is a certainty — they acknowledge that their analysis is still rough — but they argue that the possibility should be taken seriously.
    9. Remote as Antarctica may seem, every person in the world who gets into a car, eats a steak or boards an airplane is contributing to the emissions that put the frozen continent at risk. If those emissions continue unchecked and the world is allowed to heat up enough, scientists have no doubt that large parts of Antarctica will melt into the sea. But they do not know exactly what the trigger temperature might be, or whether the recent acceleration of the ice means that Earth has already reached it.
    10. Recent computer forecasts suggest that if greenhouse gas emissions continue at a high level, parts of Antarctica could break up rapidly, causing the ocean to rise six feet or more by the end of this century. That is double the maximum increase that an international climate panel projected only four years ago. But those computer forecasts were described as crude even by the researchers who created them. “We could be decades too fast, or decades too slow,” said one of them, Robert M. DeConto of the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. “There are still some really big question marks about the trajectory of future climate around Antarctica.”
    11. The acceleration is making some scientists fear that Antarctica’s ice sheet may have entered the early stages of an unstoppable disintegration. Because the collapse of vulnerable parts of the ice sheet could raise the sea level dramatically, the continued existence of the world’s great coastal cities — Miami, New York, Shanghai and many more — is tied to Antarctica’s fate.
    1. This will require anunderstanding of the nature of the relationship between discursive prac-tices and material phenomena, an accounting of “nonhuman” as well as“human” forms of agency, and an understanding of the precise causalnature of productive practices that takes account of the fullness of matter’simplication in its ongoing historicity

      We need to understand the influence of language and matter together in order to more properly understand the world around us as well as fully understand the history of matter's influence on the development of culture and society.

    2. In this article, I offer an elaboration of performativity—amaterialist, naturalist, and posthumanist elaboration—that allows matter itsdue as an active participant in the world’s becoming, in its ongoing “intra-activity.”4It is vitally important that we understand how matter matters.

      Barad aims to argue why and how "matter matters" in the world and why language has been given too much power in the development of society at the expense of matter.

  29. Apr 2017
    1. Although thc standard models of rhetorical situation can tell us much about the elements that are involved in a particular situation, these same models can also mask the fluidity of rhetoric.

      It seems like Edbauer is attempting to reverse what Quintillian did many years ago by compartmentalizing rhetoric, which in his mind would be a better way to understand it and practice it. However, rhetoricians have since argued that this has been problematic to the field, with which I think Edbauer would agree. In order to display a truer form of rhetoric, Edbauer wants to create a model that will showcase all of its aspects.

    1. at risk.

      hyperlink supposedly provided strong supporting evidence for a claim, but again, the text fails to provide any useful information

    1. natureofthosecontextsinwhichspeakersorwriterscreaterhetoricaldiscourse:

      We have discussed "context" itself in depth in this class, but I like thinking about the "nature" of context itself. Bitzer argues that a rhetorical situation is the nature of the context in which rhetorical discourse is created, and indicates that he will explore more deeply what exactly a rhetorical situation is.

    2. rhetoricaladdressgivesexistencetothesituation;onthecon-trary,itisthesituationwhichcallsthediscourseintoexistence.

      A situation determines the necessity of discourse; discourse does not give existence to a situation. In other words, proper rhetoric comes about as a result of a situation and is required to address certain problems, questions, etc. You don't speak just to speak, in order to engage rhetoric appropriately there must be a prior reason to do so.

    1. current globalclimate models are not fit for the purpose of attributing the causes of recentwarming or for predicting global or regional climate change on timescales of decades to centuries, with any high level of confidence.
    2. Itis an empirical fact that the Earth’s climate has warmed overall for at least the past century.However, we do not know how much humans have contributed to this warming and there is disagreement among scientists as to whether human-caused emissionsof greenhouse gasesisthe dominant cause ofrecentwarming, relative to natural causes.
    1. Parallel universes then, is an inappropriate metaphor; perpendicu~ far universes is perhaps a more accurate visual description.

      Suggests again that black and white rhetorics are not completely separate, but instead intersect and therefore influence one another.

    2. Black rhetoric is not utterly divorced from white rhetoric.

      This is an important point to remember—just as context and culture influence rhetoric, so too do diverging rhetorics influence one another and incorporate aspects generally considered a part of a particular rhetorical tradition.

  30. Mar 2017
    1. I 1say that I know Jane Austen's intentions with the sentence, at least in its main lines. But can I really call what I know in this sense knowledge? It is clearly subjective, it cannot be proved by any deductive chain of reasoning or by any ordinary laboratory experiment, and it is obviously doubtable both in the sense that many readers will not see it and can doubt it honestly and in the sense that anyone who is determined to doubt what cannot be demonstrated can say he doubts it.

      This sums up the beauty of literature--the different interpretations that each reader can glean from what the author writes. Booth argues that this is not knowledge, because it is subjective to each individual who reads and interprets the material; knowledge, Booth says, should be more widely accepted and generally uncontested.

    2. t the goal of all thought and argument is to emulate the purity and objec-tivity and rigor of science, in order to protect oneself from the errors that passion and desire

      Booth disagrees with the Enlightenment ideas of rhetoric, reflected by rhetoricians such as Astell and Hume, that the goal of rhetoric is to be as logical and rational as possible and disregard the importance of emotion, which he defines here as scientism.

    1. hreshold of the existence of signs. Yet even here, things are not so simple, and the meaning of a term like "the existence of signs" requires elu-cidation. What does one mean when one say!, that there are signs, and that it is enough for there to be signs for there to be a statement? What spe-cial status should be given to that verb to be?

      The existence of the statement proves that signs exist. However, they are not one in the same: first, one must determine what he or she means by "signs;" then, he or she must determine exactly the connotation of "to be" for something "to be a statement" or "to be a sign," because this distinction can change the meaning one assigns to what a statement or a sign is.

    2. conditions necessary for the appear-ance of an object of discourse, the historical con-ditions required if one is to "say anything" about it, and if several people are to say different things about it, the conditions necessary if it is to exist in relation to other objects, if it is to establish with them relations of resemblance,

      Foucault argues that rhetorical objects are contingent upon many conditions in order to enter the historical discussion. He also mentions that the time in history that a rhetorical object is being discussed influences what is said about it, because the cultural practices vary throughout time and influence those living in that time period and the way they think.

    1. The completeness of any reference varies; it is more or less close and clear, it "grasps" its object in greater or Jes~ degree.

      There is ambiguity within meaning in terms of the accuracy of certain symbols; e.g. some symbols are more accurate than others, but that is not necessarily clear at first glance. It must be studied and researched in order to determine what definition is the most accurate.

    1. So that A may become non-A. But not merely by a leap from one state to the other. Rather, we must take A back into the ground of its existence, the logical substance that is its causal ancestor, and on to a point where it is con-substantial with non-A; then we may return, this time emerging with non-A instead.

      The idea that in order to reinvent something, you must take it back to its basic form. Once it is in its basic form, you can better understand it; once you have an understanding of it, only then can you transform it into something else.

  31. Feb 2017
    1. and if we consider that the same process must have gone on with the words of our mother tongue from childhood upwards, we shall clearly see that the earliest learnt and of-tenest used words, will, other things equal, call up images with less loss of time and energy than their later learnt synonyms.

      Spencer states that the simple words we first learn as children are more efficient than the synonyms we learn later in life. There are less connections to be made with the original word that we use, and therefore using original language is more economic.

    1. I rejoice, because I am persuaded that the rights of woman, like the rights of slaves, need only be examined to he un-derstood and asserted, even hy some of those, who arc now endeavoring lo smother the irre-pressible desire for mental and spiritual freedom which glows in the breast of many, who hardly dare to speak their sentiments.

      She's ecstatic that women, like the slaves, will be able to fight for more rights and free themselves from oppression, even if that end result is still far down the road. At least people are starting to "wake up" to how subservient and lower class women are seen as in this time, even those most adamant on keeping those customs.

    2. Until our inlercourse is purified by the \ \ forgelfulness of sex,-until we rise above the present low and sordid views which entwine themselves around our social and domestic inter-change of senliment and feelings, we never can derive lhat benefit from each other's society which it is the design of our Creacor that we should.

      Grimke is saying that we will not live to our full potential, what God has destined for us, if we continue to live our lives in extreme separation between the sexes. Interesting point to suggest that society was living against what God manifested for humanity.

    1. Wherefore, my respected friends, let us no longer talk of prejudice, till prejudice becomes extinct at home. Let us no longer talk of opposition, till we cease to oppose our own. For while these evils exist. to talk is like giving breath to the air, and labor to the wind.

      Discussing prejudice ironically keeps it alive; it is only through action and relationships that prejudice can be phased out.

      This sentiment is slightly concerning, though. If one never discusses how they may be prejudiced against, will they ever be able to recognize it and act appropriately? Can prejudice by solved through action and character alone?

    2. f such women as are here described have t-.... once existed, be no longer astonished then, my s brethren and friends, that God at this eventful pe-5~ riod should raise up your own females to strive, ~' by their example both in public and private, to · assist those who arc endeavoring stop the strong current of prejudice that flows so profusely against us at present. No longer ridicule their ef-forts, it will be counted for sin. For God makes use of feeble means sometimes, to bring about his most exalted purposes.

      Here, Stewart is arguing that in many past respected societies (Greek, Roman, Jewish), women were well-respected in a religious sense. As a reference to her earlier claim, that she was visited by the Holy Spirit and therefore had the temerity and the right to speak publicly on religious grounds. I do find it interesting that she said: "For God makes use of feeble means sometimes, to bring about his most exalted purposes." Her use of the word "feeble" is interesting, because it seems like she is ascribing to the expected gender roles/personalities, in that women are the "softer sex," and not perceived as strong or powerful.

    3. Take us generally as a people, we arc neither lazy nor idle; and considering how Huie we have to excite or stimulate us, I am almost astonished that there arc so many industrious and ambitious ones to be found; although I acknowledge, with extreme sorrow, that there arc some who never were and never will be serviceable lo society. And have you not a similar class among your· selves'!

      This is a nice summary of one of Stewart's main points: African Americans, of any sex, are just as capable, just as intelligent, and just as American as whites are. She concedes that there are some who are "idle," but counters that this does not just apply to African Americans, but also to whites (and by extension, all races). I wonder if this helped the reception of her speech: acknowledging shortcomings, but pointing out that these shortcomings apply to others as well, suggesting that all people are equal.

  32. Oct 2016
    1. The cultural divide has two daunting consequences.

      EFFECTS. (1) media careers come from college degrees; (2) political interns/congressional staffers come from college degrees. Discuss the implications here.

    1. . One of the distinct pleasures in Pixar’s films is the pleasure of seeing the deepest of human struggles, timeless philosophical questions projected in and through remote forms of representation.

      one of the pleasures of pixar movies

    2. Pixar habitually leaves behind the playful in its adult address and gives sustained attention to dark musings traditionally minimized in the G-rated

      giving attention to what would over wise in other "childrens movies" be minimized

    3. Few sequences in contemporary cin-ema evoke the sense of isolation we get from the sequence where a panicked Jessie refuses to go back into “stor-age,

      A scene evokes powerful emotional fears of isolation and perhaps a fear of the unknown.

    4. WALL-E not only anthropomorphizes but Westernizes our robot hero and the loving sequences between WALL-E and the two loves of his life, EVE and his pet cockroach, are loaded with Disney’s signal sentimen-tality

      This is what we as an audience are comfortable with.

    5. the peculiar self-alienation—and particularly the alienation from the body—experienced by technologically immersed humans
    6. Presenting objects with a utopian kinesthetic, they grant them just a bit more fluidity and less gravity than they have in reality. These films have therein shifted spectatorial possi-bilities—and enabled additional payoffs with repeat viewing (Belton 198).
    7. The de-cision of Pixar to mirror the techniques of the cinema—to render things not in perfect focus but to invent in the realm of the digital blurry focus, shadow and darkness, is an important part of the emotional and philosophical make-up of these films, and links Pixar with “so-phisticated” cinema, making it a part of a cinematic canon in ways that margin-alized animation has rarely been.
    8. Sharing with Toy Story the trope of mounting an overwhelming set of ethi-cal tragedies and concerns beneath the veneer of fun, kinetically-driven enter-tainment, the first several minutes of WALL-E underscore the literal massive-ness of Earth’s problems

      Pixar films often mask serious issues beneath their fun, family friendly exteriors.

    9. resonant with the his-tory of slavery. Jessie tries to convince Woody that he is “valuable property” (a virtue we don’t know quite how to take) and that although he will be sold away from his “owner,” this is a good thing because he will be sold as “a set” with herself, Bullseye, and Pete—mak-ing him part of a new family with which he was always destined to belong. There is much anxiety about being sold away from the “set”—and about being left be-hind. In the same sequence, Stinky Pete even asks Buzz if Andy “broke” him, a double entendre that takes on a disci-plinary resonance within the surround-ing discourse on ownership, auctioning and captivity.

      Author makes note of the underlying issue of historical slavery hidden in "Toy Story 2", and issues of being human property (objectification).

    10. If identification with the object is ex-hilarating, it is also, at moments, fright-ening. The Toy Story films and WALL-Ealso generate important, though embed-ded, insights on both human and inani-mate objectification

      The author makes a connection to the audience identifying with an object, with human objectification and the fears associated with that issue.

    11. Nostalgia is one of the central pleasures of the Pixar films, which not only focus on “classic,” vintage objects (the world worn, low-tech WALL-E and his collection of ephemera, and timeless classic toys in Toy Story), but also on a nostalgia for Hollywood

      This could be considered the 'thesis' of this section. It lets us know what it will be about.

    12. These films transform the interstitial space between man and his graven objects (robots and toys) into a virtue, exploiting its uncan-niness to provoke a distant kind of fear while maintaining an innocent and un-censorable narrative.

      Thought provoking (and thought extending) closing.

    13. While its uncertain jitters are less obvious than the uncontrolled movement of a child, there is a sense in which adulthood is less about gaining control than about steadily losing control. It is about, as Woody and Buzz discuss, managing to fall gracefully rather than to fly.

      Well said.

    14. Thus, these Pixar features exploit the tendency of the ratings system to judge the “adult-ness” of a film based on its sex and vio-lence quotient alone. They remind us of something that the rating system appar-ently doesn’t know: that sexual titilla-tion and violence are not the only wages of adulthood. They are only manifesta-tions of far deeper crises and struggles. The films revive a broad cinematic discourse open to child and adult alike about the strange, imaginary life of ob-jects and the complexity of the project of material being

      Compelling closing argument.

    15. The encouragement these toys offer each other to stop struggling and accept death undermines the hope-fulness of previous Toy Story texts, be-cause it reminds us that these toys will ultimately become maimed, broken, and tortured “junk.” It reminds us of the du-bious status of the object—and of the objectified—in a culture built around commodity fetishism. It encourages a kind of revisionist mental return to the previous texts, revising their innocent themes and visual pleasures against the weight of so dreadful a demise. What is more, it places spectators in the position of identifying with the toys in their help-lessness and in their reversion to junk

      Powerful--and thought provoking--final claims.

    16. Reflect-ing perhaps Western concerns about the artificial extension of life through ma-chines, the Toy Story series represents a fear not so much about life’s brevity as about its unendurable length amidst hardly bearable changes.

      Bold claim. Smart reading of the films.