360 Matching Annotations
  1. Mar 2021
    1. An answer to Mr. Bendetsen's testimony came from Milton S. Eisenhower, former president of Johns Hopkins University, who in 1942 directed the Federal War Relocation Authority.In a written statement, Mr. Eisenhower, who was unable to attend because of illness, called the internment of Japanese-Americans ''an inhuman mistake.'' Moreover, he said, the threat of Japanese forces' invading the West Coast was ''extremely remote.''He said that the relocation furor could have been avoid, ''had not false and flaming statements been dinned into the people of the West Coast by irresponsible commentators and politicians.''
  2. Feb 2021
    1. In history, for example, he told me, “history was taught from the perspective that America was wrong – and always wrong and … uniquely evil, uniquely pernicious, never ever morally right, never ever justified in any decision that we ever made.”

      I'd be curious to see Miller take his high school textbook and point to specific phrasing to back this up. Even now most US History textbooks are espousing American exceptionalism.

    1. Even worse, Shadow Stat's numbers show so much inflation the past 25 years that, as Jim Pethokoukis points out, it implies the economy hasn't grown at all during that time.

      Important Point

      Real economic numbers validate a 25 year period (or more) of manipulated inflation and low growth economy. INCOME INEQUALITY statistics and recent studies ALL validate fuzzy math, rosy picture for the 1% and stagnant dismal picture for average Americans. Trump based his entire campaign and Presidency on Making America Great Again

      Supporting Link

    2. So which seems likelier: that we're no better off than we were a quarter century ago, or that Shadow Stats is total bunk?

      Great Question

      This is an easy question to answer from my perspective. For me (age 62) and most of my peers, their kids and their peers, we are NO better off than we were a quarter century ago! A large part is the change from Industrial/Manufacturing to Technology and the outsourced labor and manufacturing. America has changed, this is FACT

    1. “We’ve moved away from the whole ethic of what was industrial capitalism.”

      Defend this argument in 2021 America.<br> Refute this argument in 2021 America.<br> Contemplate the genesis behind this argument Share opinion regarding this argument.

    2. And essentially, we became what’s called a rent-seeking economy, not a productive economy. So, when people in Washington talk about American capitalism versus Chinese socialism this is confusing the issue. What kind of capitalism are we talking about?

      What kind of capitalism are we talking about?

      We are starting to see critical thinking and discussion around "hard" but necessary truths. These truths center around complicated concepts, controlled by politicians, MSM and others who would rather not have this discussion. America's general population seems lost, gorging on the dumb-down need to know culture (those that have and can dictate what the rest need to know) and group think, herd mentality.

    1. The Oxford English Dictionary says that the global network is usually "the internet", but most of the American historical sources it cites use the capitalized form.
  3. Jan 2021
    1. For instance, the colonists charge the British king with failing to provide, or even interfering with, representative government

      This is not wrong, but I wanted to flag somewhere that Britain actually possessed a representative government (Parliament) at the time. George III did his best to ignore it, but it existed. It just didn't include representation for colonies.

      I'm not tagging this "these people are stupid" because that's not the issue; they are attempting to make US representative government look more innovative than it actually was.

    2. The world is still—and will always be—divided into nations, not all of which respect the rights of their people, though they should
    3. There was not yet, formally speaking, an American people. There were, instead, living in the thirteen British colonies in North America some two-and-a-half million subjects of a distant king. Those subjects became a people by declaring themselves such and then by winning the independence they had asserted as their right.

      • There were many American peoples. None of them were White.
      • "those subjects became a people by declaring themselves such and then by winning the independence they had asserted as their right" - OK no. Quite a lot of people did not have the autonomy to "declare themselves" part of a people, and indeed were not recognized as such. There were also loyalists. And this idea of "a people" is...really complicated.
      • While it's true that the first citizens of the United States were former British subjects, it is worth noting that a lot of other people lived in the current United States at the time who were tribal citizens, French colonists, Spanish colonists, and enslaved people who weren't considered citizens of anywhere.
    4. its people have shared a history of common struggle and achievement, from carving communities out of a vast, untamed wilderness, to winning independence and forming a new government, through wars, industrialization

      We gotta do this clause by clause:

      • "its people have shared a history of common struggle and achievement" - no. Aside from the long history of dispute about who born in the United States really "counts" as an "American", there has never been a common struggle.
      • "carving communities out of a vast, untamed wilderness" - no. As of this writing I have finished reading the first half of the document and there has, as yet, been no mention of Indigenous peoples. (Also, see the vast literature on the relationship between expansionism, the "frontier", and American exceptionalism.)
      • "winning independence and forming a new government" - dramatic oversimplification. Interesting fact about this document: in contains almost no references to state government.
      • "wars, industrialization, waves of immigration, technological progress, and political change" - not highlighting this because it's wrong, but because it implies a strictly linear progress of history that is typical of American exceptionalism and intellectual arguments for racism, colonialism, etc.

      All in all, what Luke said.

    5. therefore our history is far more one of self-sacrifice, courage, and nobility.

      AHAHAHAHAHAHAHAHAHAHAHAHAHAHAHA crack a book, y'all.

      We are not going to do an accounting here of whether "America" (hi, America is two continents, we're talking about the US) has on balance done more good than harm. That is disingenuous. The fact is that the United States has done great harm that is not erased by its good, and it is more urgent to deal with the harm than to pat ourselves on the back about the good.

    6. “city on a hill”

      This line, associated with Reagan, is from a sermon by John Winthrop, a Puritan immigrant who was primarily interested in establishing a theocracy. It is emblematic of the idea of "American Exceptionalism", which you are about to be beat over the head with. See further https://www.neh.gov/article/how-america-became-city-upon-hill#:~:text=That%201630%20sermon%20by%20John,center%20of%20his%20political%20career.

  4. Nov 2020
    1. In order to even see the danger, to recognize the depth of tensions or the possibilities of fracture, we had to control for American exceptionalism, for the implicit belief that we were the United States of America, and we were different.
    1. yet each tree was touched here and there with vivid snatches of the brightest red; the smaller twigs close to the trunk forming brilliant crison tufts, like knots of ribbon. One might have fancied them a band of young knights, wearing their ladies’ colors over their hearts. A pretty flowering dogwood close at hand, with delicate shaft and airy branches, flushed with its own peculiar tint of richest lake, was perchance the lady of the grove, the beauty whose colors were fluttering on the breasts of the knightly oaks on either side.

      This writing is an absolute perfect example of romanticized and even heroic themed literature. The personification of the trees as characters who complement each other paired with the reoccurring theme of the application of femininity to nature both contribute to American pastoral romanticism. The careful, detailed, and delicate descriptions of nature within this excerpt are key signs of its romantic qualities, which results in the reader consuming nature more poetically and intellectually. This influence creates and supports a relationship with nature that is characterized by inspiration, awe, and observance. This personified narrative supports pastoral leaning tones by emphasizing a courted relationship between the trees and describes the dogwood as this desired beauty of many. This leads one to further question what American pastoralism exactly means. Here Gordon M. Sayre points out the oxymoron of the idea. “In Marx’s formulation American pastoralism is an ideology that has mediated conflicting desires for technological progress and bucolic retreat, “a desire, in the face of the growing power and complexity of organized society, to disengage from the dominant culture and to seek out the basis for a simpler, more satisfying mode of life in a realm ‘closer,’ as we say, to nature”” (1). This definition understands American pastoralism as a progressive search for technological advance, but also as a desire to live a simpler life more in touch with nature. I think Cooper’s A Dissolving View leans heavily into an emotional connection with nature, but not so much in a simple way. This poetic comprehension of nature provides a deep appreciation and admiration of nature which submits to the gratuity motifs of pastoralism, but more so aligns with a romantic enlightening idea of nature.

      Arizona Quarterly: A Journal of American Literature, Culture, and Theory, Volume 69, Number 4, Winter 2013, pp. 1-23 (Article)

  5. Oct 2020
    1. It happened in 2000, when Gore had more popular votes than Bush yet fewer electoral votes, but that was the first time since 1888.

      it happened again in 2016

    1. However the political crisis within the state apparatus develops over the next month, American democracy is at death’s door. The serendipitous accident of the White House pandemic cannot restore health to a social and political system that is rotten to the core.
    1. given that I was in Nashville to talk with teens about how technology had changed their lives.

      I have to wonder who the sociologists were from the 60's that interviewed teens about how the telephone changed their lives. Or perhaps the 70's sociologist who interviewed kids about how cars changed their lives? Certainly it wasn't George Lucas' American Graffiti that informed everyone of the issues?

    1. Elizabeth Freeman (Mum Bett), the first enslaved African American to sue for her freedom in the courts based on the law of the 1780 constitution of the state of Massachusetts, which held that "all men are born free and equal." The Jury agreed and in 1781 she won her freedom. Her lawyer had been Theodore Sedgwick.
    1. In fact, only two regional cultures consistently exhibit urban-rural vote splitting, and together they account for just 15 percent of the population. Only in the Midlands has the split been a stark one.
  6. moodle.southwestern.edu moodle.southwestern.edu
    1. unbiased

      The Republican party will never stop claiming the media is bias, so I am surprised they are claiming they have resolved this issue. I would think they would want to keep acknowledging it as an issue.

  7. moodle.southwestern.edu moodle.southwestern.edu
    1. "The President has been regulating to death a free market economy" - it's interesting how much this preamble throws Trump under the bus

    2. "our enemies no longer fear us and our friends no long trust us" - I guess the democrats and republicans agree on this.

    3. "This platform is optimistic because the American people are optimistic." This is completely unsupported by everything stated before it.

    4. "covenant" "Creator" "God-given natural resources" "prepared to deal with evil in the world" show religious tone

    1. Friends and foes alike neither admire nor fear President Trump’s leadership

      I feel like there are countries who fear his leadership.

    2. The challenges before us—the worst public health crisis in a century, the worst economic downturn since the Great Depression, the worst period of global upheaval in a generation, the urgent global crisis posed by climate change, the intolerable racial injustice that still stains the fabric of our nation—will test America’s character like never before.

      I know that we are making history but it doesn't exactly feel like it. The election feels like a joke. There is a stark difference between what came out of Roosevelt's mouth and either of the presidential candidates mouth's. Now it is a matter of choosing the lesser of two evils than a heroic leader to help our country achieve greatness.

    3. a more perfect union

      I feel like this goal has been abandoned.

  8. Sep 2020
    1. So how should we think about federalism in the ageof coronavirus? The answer is to emphasize theimportance of building social solidarity — the beliefin a shared fate for all Americans that transcendsstate or regional identities

      What makes Americans not have a social solidarity?

    2. institutional antagonism willprevent the concentration of power, encouragesindividualist mentalities that lead to self-interestedactions and erode national unity.

      What makes Americans so individualistic? What is different about Taiwan’s society that made their people more selfless?

    1. “We’re changing federalism from the idea of shared expertise in different policy areas into partisan stakes in the ground that are meant to obstruct opponents,” Robertson says.

      This is so true with the Trump Administrations "Alternative Facts" it is as though we will soon be living in the dystopian novel Brave New World.

    2. “The coronavirus response is actually sort of a perfect measuring stick of our transition to our contemporary, very polarized model of federalism.”

      I want to reference the Netflix documentary Social Dilemma. The documentary says that the reason politics has become so polarized is because of social media. Everyone is operating off of a different set of facts.

    3. He has threatened to withhold federal funds from school districts that don’t open for in-person instruction.

      Is it within Trump's right to do this?

    4. He has threatened to withhold federal funds from school districts that don’t open for in-person instruction.

      Is it within trump's rights to do this?

    1. It could create incentives for action by conditioning a portion of funds going to states in any future relief packages on states’ adherence to the measures

      Why did this not happen? I feel like it isn’t the federalist system in general that are failing us— it’s the leaders of the system. Why did congress not make a playbook and create incentives for states to follow them? This reminds me of how the drinking age became 21 in every state from the funding of the highways.

    2. Lacking strong federal leadership to guide a uniform response, the United States quickly fulfilled the World Health Organization’s prediction that it would become the new epicenter of Covid-19.

      I wonder if a democrat was in office when covid hit if we would have stronger federal leadership. Would we have been in a state of emergency if someone who believed in the facts of science wasn’t in office? I have trouble believing that there is nothing the president could have done to prevent covid from getting this out of hand.

    3. subject to constitutionally protected individual rights such as due process, equal protection, and freedom of travel and association

      I didn’t know that it is within our rights to travel and associate with whomever we choose. I wouldn’t think the government would be able to control who would be able to leave their house or hang out with who anyway. I guess this shows how right the article about uninformed citizens we read last week is right.

    4. Strong, decisive national action is therefore imperative.

      I could not agree with this statement more. I think if the US had some kind of national healthcare program the coronavirus would be much more under control.

    1. In American folklore, the nation was built out of a wilderness by free-booting individuals - the trappers, cowboys, preachers, and settlers of the frontier. Yet this primary myth of the American republic ignores the contradiction at the heart of the American dream: that some individuals can prosper only through the suffering of others. The life of Thomas Jefferson - the man behind the ideal of `Jeffersonian democracy' - clearly demonstrates the double nature of liberal individualism. The man who wrote the inspiring call for democracy and liberty in the American declaration of independence was at the same time one of the largest slave-owners in the country.

      Some profound ideas here about the "American Dream" and the dark underbelly of what it may take to achieve not only for individuals, but to do so at scale.

  9. Aug 2020
  10. Jul 2020
  11. Jun 2020
    1. The furries are kind of like the new age Native American where they have the spirit animal or connection, or like, they take on that personal animal. . . . And whatever you put on, [you] take on those characters [and] aspects, and, for some people with social stigma who can’t interact, they put on the suit and they’re a completely different person.

      Make note of Sarah Marie Henry's Furries, Fans, and Feminism: Querying and Queering of the Furry Fandom. Sarah Marie Henry made a very good point about the appropriation of Native American culture in the furry fandom, something that is not exactly the nicest thing to do. Traditions stay within certain groups for a reason. A direct quotation/reference may be impossible, as the only copy of this master's thesis is locked up in San Francisco State University, and there's a pandemic. 😕

    1. Here the diagnosis slips from requiring both being “less than 100% human” and “being 0% human” to only requiring the first criterion—being “less than 100% human.” The implications of this rhetorical slip are a vast shift in proportion, since it triples the number of furries who are potentially diagnosable as having species identity disorder (from 31 to 99 [or 46%] of the 214 furries who answered).

      I would argue that this is too loose of a definition. It does not simply refer to a physical body, which has pretty clear criteria for being considered 100% human. To be "less than 100% human" psychologically, while being a good basis for a disorder, does not adequately consider groups with a spiritual connection to animals, such as the Native American tradition of "spirit animals". This vague definition and exclusion of established cultural practices could prove harmful to the legitimacy of "species identity disorder".

  12. May 2020
    1. etting hold of the right papers was also complicated. One of the first requirements was a valid passport. However, from 25 November 1941, Germany collectively stripped all German Jews living outside the territory of their nationality, insofar as they had not yet been individually “ausgebürgert”. Although there were diplomats in Europe who could provide stateless people with emergency passports, this measure seriously complicated the emigration process.

      from 25 November 1941

  13. Apr 2020
    1. In short, the borderlands constitute the cutting edge of technological imagi-nation.

      Do borderlands create this area for testing because they are regions of no-man's land? That they aren't robustly populated and thus available for this interplay? If we take this out of an American context - in places that don't see borders in the same way as Americans do - would this hold up?

  14. Oct 2019
  15. newclasses.nyu.edu newclasses.nyu.edu
    1. heAm.FurCoareabouttoreestablishatradinghouseatL.LakeinchargeofMrWmDavenport,formerlyincharg

      AFC is about to open trade port at Leech Lake

    2. SomelatemeasuresoftheAmFurCaAtoEiewallthemeetineustriousandenterprisingiggmhereanddrewethersaw

      AFC is affecting population surrounding the missions

    3. snotcarrieaintoeffect-onthecontrarytheclerksaresentbacktoallthepostssaveone-RedCedarLakewherehissonwaskill

      Aitkins didn't remove the AFC, just the one post near Red Cedar Lake

    4. ThetimehasnowcomeIthinkforourMissionstodeclarethem—selvesindipendentoftheh.M.F.Compan

      Seymour suggests to Greene that the missions severe connection to the American Fur Company

    5. esaidhewoulddoit,iftheyshouldbethereinseason.Theyshiptheirgoodsaboutthe10thMay.

      Hall says that Greene can send goods to the Mission through the American Fur Company

    1. In fact, only two regional cultures consistently exhibit urban-rural vote splitting, and together they account for just 15 percent of the population. Only in the Midlands has the split been a stark one.
    1. "The Fifteenth Amendment stated that people could not be denied the right to vote based on “race, color, or previous condition of servitude.” This construction allowed states to continue to decide the qualifications of voters as long as those qualifications were ostensibly race-neutral. Thus, while states could not deny African American men the right to vote on the basis of race, they could deny it to women on the basis of sex or to people who could not prove they were literate." Before the 15th amendment women and colored men and women were not allowed to vote but the 15th amendment allowed these privileges and prevented discrimination amongst the rights of someone based on their race and gender and states cannot deny these rights to the people because it is a constitutional law.

  16. Sep 2019
  17. Jul 2019
  18. americanlibrariesmagazine.org americanlibrariesmagazine.org
    1. Toronto Public Library’s Tor Browser

      Tor como navegador en la Biblioteca Pública de Toronto. ¡Súper!

    2. ALA expressed concern about changes announced on June 17 by Hachette Book Group (HBG) and on July 2 by Simon & Schuster (S&S) to their ebook and digital audiobook lending models for libraries

      Están preocupados por las propuestas de préstamo de libro digital.

    3. The American Library Association (ALA), along with seven other professional organizations, released a joint statement on June 17 promising to uphold the standards of equity, diversity, and inclusion (EDI).

      Bibliotecas y diversidad

    4. NEWSMAKERGeorge Takei p. 10International Innovatorsp. 28PLUS:Exhibit Hall Highlights and Battling MisinformationAnnualConferencewrap-up2 019p. 12July/August 2019

      Revista de ALA, Junio / Julio 2019

    1. A new study published this year in the American Psychologist finds that this well-established bystander effect may largely be a myth. The study uses footage of more than 200 incidents from surveillance cameras in Amsterdam; Cape Town; and Lancaster, England.

      The study suggests that people are willing to self-police to protect their communities and others.

    1. Introduction "This Land Belongs to Me"

      A simple title, but there is a lot to unpackage here! Just from skimming, I can tell this is a very dense read, and it will take a lot of work and time to analyse this from a feminist, militarist, economic, ethnic, racial, religious, linguistic, and legal perspective.

  19. Jun 2019
    1. Warren’

      I suppose I may be a bit biased, being a "Warren" college student. ; ) In all honesty however it is likely that it is the high profile nature of the claim, and the intense politicization that brings so much publicity to this particular case.

    2. Donald Trump, have mocked the senator’s claims by calling her “Pocahontas.”

      Wow! such a shame :(

    3. Ultimately, the panel expressed hope that instead of continuing to double down on her ancestry claims

      What more can Elizabeth Warren do to placate the Cherokee? It looks like this might seriously hurt her campaign, and if she does become president, then this could simply sour relations between the United States and the Cherokee. Some have accepted her apology, and “understand that she apologized for causing confusion on tribal sovereignty and tribal citizenship and the harm that has resulted,” Julie Hubbard, a spokeswoman for the tribe said. “The chief and secretary of state appreciate that she has reaffirmed that she is not a Cherokee Nation citizen or a citizen of any tribal nation.”

      But others are still not satisfied. “This still isn’t transparent,” said Twila Barnes, a Cherokee genealogist who has been critical of Ms. Warren’s claims of native ancestry since it became national news in 2012. “She needs to go public and say she fully takes responsibility and that the DNA test was ridiculous. There is still something about this that feels off.” It seems that only time will tell in this case. https://www.nytimes.com/2019/02/01/us/politics/elizabeth-warren-cherokee-dna.html

    4. eugenics

      I believe the precise term to be used here is Anthropometry, or human measurement, which was a key aspect of pre-genetic Eugenic ideology, and continues today in genetic biology, under more 'subtle' labels such as euthanizing, sterilizing, or preventing intermarriage between people with 'genetic diseases.' http://www.eugenicsarchive.org/html/eugenics/static/themes/6.html (I mean i'm not saying I am denying genetic disease research and treatment is based on science, but so was eugenics back in the day, it's just science has 'improved' since then... or has it? Maybe, but it is policy that is more important in these regards.)

    5. “Native nations have a fundamental right to weigh in when one makes a claim to kinship.”

      What does this mean exactly? This is extremely important and I don't know exactly what is being articulated here.

    6. ancestry, background, and blood, rather than citizenship, nationhood, and sovereignty, which subtly undermines recognition and the sovereign status of tribal nations.

      This isn't really subtle at all. Most of the public I speak to outside of my family and college seem to view Native Americans as a racial classification that receives certain government benefits as reparations based on past discrimination. Reservations tend to be spoken of as segregated zones, rather than sovereign nations. Public misconceptions by Non-Natives seem to inform the issue.

    7. Warren’s statement betrays a deep misunderstanding of Native nationhood. “Even though histories of colonialism have made our processes of defining citizenship messy, complicated, painful, and even racist,” he said, “Native nations have a fundamental right to weigh in when one makes a claim to kinship.”

      This statement is vague because it does not clarify what the misunderstanding is, and what it means to weigh in, and precisely what kinship means. Ethically, what is the distinction here? Did Warren make an ethical violation when she publicly claimed to have Cherokee ancestry, without first notifying tribal authority? What constitutes as kinship, versus ancestry. It seems to take the power away from individual identity, and grant it to institutions. It is an opportunity cost of self-determination. What would be the proper course of action for Warren to take afterwards? Make a public apology, or publicly make a statement denying kinship?

    8. “I am not enrolled in a tribe, and only tribes determine tribal citizenship. I understand and respect that distinction. But my family history is my family history.”

      Based on this Rhetoric, she sounds sincere, but what is so controversial about this statement? Are there other statements where she made different kind of claims?

    9. “They all descend from full-blooded Cherokee great-grandmothers,”

      Assimilation and 'whitewashing' could indeed produce a large number of un-enrolled people who are of Cherokee descent, and also produce false accounts where people genuinely believe they have some Cherokee ancestry but are mistaken based on an old family story. What is implied here is that there is a malicious, intentional fabrication of Native Ancestry to advance one's own personal agenda. There is a fine line between a claim that should illicit the response, "Really? How neat, what an interesting heritage story," and "I see under race/ethnicity you put down 'Cherokee' on your application. That is very serious claim, do you have any documentation?" I think there is a difference. How harmful is it for someone to claim 'unofficial' or unverifiable ancestry, and what problems does this present? How should these be viewed/enforced differently.

    10. “I Have a Native Ancestor”

      Only a fraction of a percentage of Americans claim to be Cherokee, but high profile cases make a big impact. "In 2000, the federal census reported that 729,533 (0.26%) Americans self-identified as Cherokee. By 2010, that number increased, with the Census Bureau reporting that 819,105 (0.26%) Americans claimed at least one Cherokee ancestor" https://slate.com/news-and-politics/2015/10/cherokee-blood-why-do-so-many-americans-believe-they-have-cherokee-ancestry.html

      About 300,000 Cherokee are enrolled, so that is under half of all Americans who claim to be of Cherokee descent. In other words, there is about 3 Americans who claim to be Cherokee for every 2 enrolled Cherokee. It is difficult to say how big of a problem this really is; it could be a minor inconvenience, or it could be a catastrophic threat. It is difficult to say how this should or can be enforced. It could be that a simple fine could dissuade people, or even a public service announcement, or this may be a breach of freedom of speech. Maybe only in instances where fraud is involved, for financial gains or in high profile cases? It is hard to say.

    1. Critics always are the Ìrst to point to the excesses and potential for crime and to give examples of criminal activity; however, every tribe must be free and empowered to be able to determine the course of their nation.

      This seems to be at the heart of the issue. Indian gaming can best be viewed as an exercise in self determination, and an important asset on the road towards economic self sufficiency.

    2. ese questions must be answered on a case-by-case, tribe-by-tribe basis

      In the readings, this seems to be a recurring theme. There is no one-size-fits-all approach, no magic bullet solution that will work for all tribes, which are highly diverse in values, economy, and needs.

    3. Downey Home Man changes into a but-terÈy, Èies into the kiva, and leads the girls out to safety. Earth Winner is full of trickery and changes into a white butterÈy “to lure them away from the young man.”

      This is a really epic story. The theme of butterflies makes sense because of butterfly migrations through the region.

    4. Bisti Badlands
    5. ). However, there is a need for more research regarding per capita and its impact on the social fabric of tribal communities.

      That might be a good opportunity for someone studying Native American History to pursue! It seems like an exciting topic to research.

    6. e murder-for-hire plot added to the already precarious image of gaming in Southern California.

      Can this be considered defamation? It must have had a substantial monetary impact.

    7. e genocide in California was nearly successful.

      "The California Genocide refers to actions in the mid to late 19th century by the United States federal, state, and local governments that resulted in the decimation of the indigenous population of California following the U.S. occupation of California in 1846.

      Actions included encouragement of volunteers and militias to kill unarmed men, women and children.

      Location California

      Date 1846–1873 Target Indigenous Californians Attack type: Genocide, ethnic cleansing Deaths 4,500-16,000 Indigenous Californians outright killed, thousands more died due to disease and other causes Perpetrators: United States Army, California State Militia, white settlers"

      https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/California_Genocide

    8. But most agree

      This is problematic. Most scholars agree, but does the United States government? Does the American Public? Outside of Historians and scholars, do most agree?

    9. Fuck Indians

      Really? Wow, now that's hate speech. Fuck whoever sprayed that, seriously.

    10. ). e Mashantucket Pequot have withstood racism regarding their “low blood quantum

      In other words, "They don't LOOK Indian." Whatever that means and who's the judge of that, other than their tribe?

    11. Does Indian gaming increase crime on reservations and oÅ reservation? Generally, it does not increase crime.

      This is an important statement. It is a commonly accepted narrative that must be challenged. It is considered 'common sense' to the average American that Indian gaming increases crime in America, because it attracts organized crime, or money laundering or some such narrative. Media portrayal is invariably consistent with this. James Bond would be less cool if he were gambling at a Casino and he WASN'T attacked by mobsters. Right?

    12. “need to control criminal activity associated with gambling and the alleged inability of tribes to deal with such crime” (Mason ‚ƒƒƒ, ——)

      While controlling criminal activity is important, doesn't it fall under jurisdiction of tribal law enforcement? Even organized crime?

  20. May 2019
    1. “What happens in Vegas, stays in Vega

      I have always considered this term to have a sexual connotation, but did not associate it specifically with use by male visitors potential to encourage gender violence, especially in the context of Native American women.

    2. Indian gaming causes crime, deteriorates neighborhoods, and gives Indians special privileges in the form of casinos and sovereignty

      This sounds like economic envy! What is the problem with these 'special privileges?' A sovereign nation can use its independence as it pleases, but this is a decision that they must make and assume responsibility for; what about Swiss banks? They have an international reputation for better or for worse.

    3. face of Indian Country and the nation as a whole.

      It can sometimes be overlooked that Native American issues can have a drastic impact on the nation as a whole, the development of a massive gaming industry is an example of this, also natural resources such as fossil fuels and uranium.

    4. ©ª« ¬ª® ̄

      Cheryl Redhorse Bennett is an author, as well as an "Assistant Professor in American Indian Studies at Arizona State University. Bennett is an enrolled citizen of the Navajo Nation and also descended from the Comanche Nation." And focuses on issues such as justice and violence against Native Americans and their communities.

    1. The question I would like to put forth to this conference, to the delegates of other countries here present is that why have you not rec-ognized us as sovereign people before? Why did we have to travel this dis-tance to come to you? Had you not thought that the U.S. government in its deliberate and systematic attempt to suppress us, had you not thought that was the reason that they did not want to recognize us as sovereign people?

      Here is the original question again, but elaborated.

    2. Why Have You Not Recognized Us as Sovereign People Before?”

      Is this question answered in the passage?

    3. terminate

      Possible rhetorical response to termination policy, which was opposed by Indian movements. Taking the term termination and cleverly re-applying it, transforming the concept.

    4. we are united by blood

      Reminds me of blood quantum racial thought, but applied to pan-Indian movement, and more broadly applied outside the United States! Inclusive, rather than exclusive.

    5. I have a message of Panama. “The Indian women of Panama greet our inseparable companions in the struggle, in the Indian movement that are present here today to question and to achieve positive acts for our nations.

      Using a current event as an example to prove their point. Linking current issues to American history to influence policy decisions.

    6. We are undergoing a modern form called sterilization, which has been going on for hundreds of years, to totally exterminate the Red man.

      Explicitly framing the issue of sterilization as being consistent with an underlying motivation of genocide, based on a persistent dynamic of Native American destruction that predates the use of the term genocide, but fits the definition.

    7. sterilization abuse to sovereignty, genocide, and global indigeneity.

      I wonder if framing the problem as human rights issues is related structurally in any way to post-Vietnam war era rhetoric about the Nigerian civil war...

    8. Consider how Sanchez, who became a tribal judge on the Northern Cheyenne Reservation

      Interesting position title, about self-determination through governance of tribes by members, for positions such as judges.

    9. Women of All Red Nations (WARN)

      This, as well as DRUMS, are examples of creative acronyms that are easily recognizable and gain media attention in this era. One negative example coined by opponents is CREEP, for re-electing Nixon.

    1. Just over half of the state’s tribes operate casinos, but only 16 are full Vegas-style resorts. And 47 of the state’s 109 tribes have no casinos at all, with some reservations still struggling to provide running water and electricity. “Not all tribes are rich from gaming,” Vialpando said.

      Wow, this is some important context... the industry is unequally distributed and doesn't help the less fortunate tribes!

    2. Two centuries of slaughter, land theft and discrimination have left California’s Native Americans with lower median incomes and education levels coupled with higher rates of poverty and unemployment than the general population.

      The 'plight' rhetoric.

    3. might give Native Americans an unfair advantage in the market.

      Same rationalization as in some of the readings!

    4. “It’s a long pattern in this state,” Vialpando said. “There’s a history of marginalizing tribes. There’s a history of not wanting to engage with tribes.”

      In this context, the Tribes being unfairly barred from this new market is not so surprising, but how is this implemented, and by whom?

    5. The Iipay Nation of Santa Ysabel opened the Mountain Source cannabis store about two weeks ago, in the front part of a failed casino that tribal leaders abandoned in 2014.

      Casino failed, locals had to adapt.

    6. a building that once let visitors try their hand at slot machines and poker tables is now a shop that sells cannabis flower and marijuana-infused truffles.

      Gambling -> Marijuana

    7. are being shut out In a state where weed is legal, groups hope for equal footing.

      This is interesting, and highly unexpected! Tribes not allowed to grow, but the rest of the state IS!

    8. new gambling fo

      Example of gambling linked to marijuana as a concept of tribal different legal restrictions to federal law.

    1. In short, the Indians ask for assis-tance, technical and financial, for the time needed, however long that may be, to regain in the America of the space age some measure of the adjust-ment they enjoyed as the original possessors of their native land.

      The wording here is not entirely clear to me... what is "Some measure of the adjustment they enjoyed?"

    2. We insist again that this is not special pleading. We ask only that the United States be true to its own traditions and set an example to the world in fair dealing.

      Here is the problem! "We ask" Instead of "We demand"

    3. Consider whether the following excerpts from the Declaration of Indian Purpose should be read as blatantly milquetoast or latently radical and how the authors attempted to transform Indian politics into a Cold War imperative.

      This document is a criticism of the Declaration of Indian Purpose, and seeks to re-analyse and re-examine how Indian Interests and rhetorical/political strategies have evolved in the past 20 years.

    4. Challenges came from conservatives who feared its critical edge would be seen as un-American and ardent nationalists who believed that it did not go far enough in demanding sovereignty.

      Calling out the opposition and it's motivation. Explaining where the challenges for Native Americans are coming from, and posturing politically.

    5. Declaration of Indian Purpose’

      Framing this 1961 document in relation to the previous 1944, canonizing these with a shared Native American History within an explicitly recognized narrative. This is the framework that the author chooses to present this message.

      https://americanindianmovementehs.weebly.com/ "The Declaration of Indian Purpose is a book concerning the founding of the National Congress of American Indians in 1944. - 64 Indian tribes met in Chicago to emphasize "the right to choose their own way of life" and "the responsibility of preserving their precious heritage."

    1. The drums of our eternal people will sound once more forever across our lands.

      They mention brain-washing-Uncle-Tomakawkification ostensibly a reference to Uncle Tom's Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe, or more specifically the characterization of portrayal of Blacks in media as a caricature of white stereotypes typical of blackface minstrelsy, at the expense of Black interests, in order to appeal to white audiences. Appropriating this to the stereotypical portrayal of Native Americans as savage, or primitive, but then they mention recognizable 'stereotypes' such as ancient wisdom, drums, sacred hoops, mother earth, tree of peace... At first glance this segment may appear to be a contradiction, but it is a self conscious reclamation of these: they take these universally recognized symbols of colonialism and elimination, and re-brand them to represent an enduring authentic Nativism, rejecting the negative stolen usage,

      http://utc.iath.virginia.edu/interpret/exhibits/tomming/tomminghp.html

      " In the novel Tom is not an "Uncle Tom," which the dictionary defines as a black person who abjectly sells out the interests of his race to curry favor with the white power structure. Malcolm X's speeches and his Autobiography are probably most directly responsible for giving the term the rhetorical force it has today."

    2. or die, or

      How accurate is this assessment? What basis or evidence is there that the Indian organizations failed? Were these not the organizations that EMPOWERED movements such as the United Indians of All Tribes in the first place? From a historical perspective, this seems to be the trend, but at the time, perhaps this was not what was perceived...

    3. While President Lyndon Johnson pledged his support for self-determination in March 1968,

      Vietnam War era president, Kent State Massacre, Kennedy Assassination; great social anxiety and fear of civil unrest, tumultuous time in American society and media-coverage of fears in America at the time.

    4. The occupation of Alcatraz has seen the beginnings of a concept of unity long dreamed of by all our people.

      Pan Tribal/Pan Indian Rhetoric. By taking the initiative, they seek to garner support from the momentum of the already growing Pan-Indian movement. Much of this momentum was hard won by political maneuvering and legal battles, and peaceful protesting such as civil disobedience through fishing. But this decisive, militant action is an expression of that prevously gained power, and a great risk!

      "Pan-Indigenousism, formerly Pan-Indianism, is a philosophy and movement promoting unity among different Indigenous American groups in the Americas regardless of tribal or local affiliations."

  21. americanlibrariesmagazine.org americanlibrariesmagazine.org
    1. Digital BadgesHow schools and libraries use them today

      Interesante idea sobre educación

    2. Rather than simply posting event information on social media, give your followers a task within the post

      Interesante idea. ¿Cómo podría funcionar en la práctica?