512 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
  2. May 2022
  3. Apr 2022
    1. ReconfigBehSci [@SciBeh]. (2021, October 1). @alexdefig I get that you are against mandates. I am responding to the reasons you give for this. Those reasons should be evidence based, right? And they should also not include the claim you are trying to justify. That’s all. [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/SciBeh/status/1443960408105107459

    1. ReconfigBehSci [@SciBeh]. (2021, October 2). @alexdefig How could my identity possibly affect the evidence I provided and gave sources for? Does knowing my name make those articles more or less relevant in any way? And, if yes, by what mechanism? [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/SciBeh/status/1444360427903746055

    1. why do weclap at the end of a performance

      I can anecdotally confirm that my two year old used to imitate clapping at the end of songs on the radio because of what she'd seen us do in the past.



    1. ReconfigBehSci. (2020, November 25). @ToddHorowitz3 @sciam do you mean the specific article is bad, or the wider claim/argument? Because as someone who does research on collective intelligence, I’d say there is some reason to believe it is true that there can be “too much” communication in science. See e.g. The work of Kevin Zollman [Tweet]. @SciBeh. https://twitter.com/SciBeh/status/1331672900550725634

    1. ReconfigBehSci. (2021, February 1). @islaut1 @richarddmorey I think diff. Is that your first response seemed to indicate the evidence was the search itself (contra Richard) so turning an inference from absence of something into a kind of positive evidence ('the search’). Let’s call absence of evidence “not E”. 1/2 [Tweet]. @SciBeh. https://twitter.com/SciBeh/status/1356215051238191104

    1. ReconfigBehSci. (2021, February 2). @MichaelPaulEdw1 @islaut1 @ToddHorowitz3 @richarddmorey @MaartenvSmeden as I just said to @islaut1 if you want to force the logical contradiction you move away entirely from all of the interesting cases of inference from absence in everyday life, including the interesting statistical cases of, for example, null findings—So I think we now agree? [Tweet]. @SciBeh. https://twitter.com/SciBeh/status/1356530759016792064

    1. Dr Nisreen Alwan 🌻. (2020, March 14). Our letter in the Times. ‘We request that the government urgently and openly share the scientific evidence, data and modelling it is using to inform its decision on the #Covid_19 public health interventions’ @richardhorton1 @miriamorcutt @devisridhar @drannewilson @PWGTennant https://t.co/YZamKCheXH [Tweet]. @Dr2NisreenAlwan. https://twitter.com/Dr2NisreenAlwan/status/1238726765469749248

    1. Dr. Jonathan N. Stea. (2021, January 25). Covid-19 misinformation? We’re over it. Pseudoscience? Over it. Conspiracies? Over it. Want to do your part to amplify scientific expertise and evidence-based health information? Join us. 🇨🇦 Follow us @ScienceUpFirst. #ScienceUpFirst https://t.co/81iPxXXn4q. Https://t.co/mIcyJEsPXe [Tweet]. @jonathanstea. https://twitter.com/jonathanstea/status/1353705111671869440

    1. ReconfigBehSci. (2021, February 1). @islaut1 @richarddmorey I think of strength of inference resting on P(not E|not H) (for coronavirus case). Search determines the conditional probability (and by total probability of course prob of evidence) but it isn’t itself the evidence. So, was siding with R. against what I thought you meant ;-) [Tweet]. @SciBeh. https://twitter.com/SciBeh/status/1356216290847944706

    1. Dr Nisreen Alwan 🌻. (2021, March 14). Exactly a year ago we wrote this letter in the Times. We were gobsmacked! We just didn’t understand what the government was basing all its decisions on including stopping testing and the herd immunity by natural infection stuff. We wanted to see the evidence backing them. [Tweet]. @Dr2NisreenAlwan. https://twitter.com/Dr2NisreenAlwan/status/1371168531669258242

    1. ReconfigBehSci. (2021, February 1). @MaartenvSmeden @richarddmorey you absolutely did (and I would have been disappointed if you hadn’t ;-)! It was a general comment prompted by the fact that the title of the article you linked to doesn’t (as is widespread), and I actually genuinely think this is part of the “problem” in pedagogical terms. 1/2 [Tweet]. @SciBeh. https://twitter.com/SciBeh/status/1356227423067664384

    1. Maarten van Smeden. (2021, February 1). Personal top 10 fallacies and paradoxes in statistics 1. Absence of evidence fallacy 2. Ecological fallacy 3. Stein’s paradox 4. Lord’s paradox 5. Simpson’s paradox 6. Berkson’s paradox 7. Prosecutors fallacy 8. Gambler’s fallacy 9. Lindsey’s paradox 10. Low birthweight paradox [Tweet]. @MaartenvSmeden. https://twitter.com/MaartenvSmeden/status/1356147552362639366

    1. ReconfigBehSci. (2021, February 2). @MichaelPaulEdw1 @islaut1 @ToddHorowitz3 @richarddmorey as this account is focussed on COVID, maybe time to move the discussion elsewhere- happy to discuss further if you want to get in touch by email—U.hahn" "https://t.co/HOGwHragEb [Tweet]. @SciBeh. https://twitter.com/SciBeh/status/1356529368630239232

    1. ReconfigBehSci. (2021, February 1). Great list, but I think one of the main problems with “absence of evidence fallacy” is its phrasing: “absence of evid. Is not the same as evidence of absence” is a true statement, “absence of evidence is not evidence of absence” is literally false @richarddmorey [Tweet]. @SciBeh. https://twitter.com/SciBeh/status/1356172673651503104

    1. Carlos del Rio. (2021, June 7). Here’s Where That COVID-19 Vaccine Infertility Myth Came From—And Why It Is Not True https://t.co/DvBYcCsEJx The evidence firmly shows that the COVID-19 vaccines don’t cause infertility. [Tweet]. @CarlosdelRio7. https://twitter.com/CarlosdelRio7/status/1401928031787225091

    1. Even if the Speculum was copied only in parts, Vincent of Beauvais exposed the reader to multiple opinions on any topic he discussed. Neither the concordance nor the encyclo-pedic compendium resolved the textual difficulties or contradictions that they helped bring to light. Vincent explicitly left to the reader the task of reaching a final conclusion amid the diversity of authoritative opinions that might exist on a question: “I am not unaware of the fact that philosophers have said many contradictory things, especially about the nature of things. . . . I warn the reader, lest he perhaps be horrified, if he finds some contradictions of this kind among the names of diverse authors in many places of this work, especially since I have acted in this work not as an author, but as an excerptor, that I did not try to reduce the sayings of the philosophers to agreement but report what each said or wrote on each thing; leaving to the judgment of the reader to decide which opinion to prefer.”161

      Interesting that Vincent of Beauvais indicates that there were discrepancies between the authors, but leaves it up to the reader to decide for themself.

      What would the reader do in these cases in a culture before the scientific method and the coming scientific revolutions? Does this statement prefigure the beginning of a cultural shift?

      Are there other examples of (earlier) writers encouraging the the comparison of two different excerpts from "expert" or authoritative sources to determine which should have precedence?

      What other methods would have encouraged this sort of behavior?

  4. Mar 2022
    1. Strategic, cost-efficient evidence-building relies onstrong data governance that facilitates the access, pro-tection, and use of program and other administrativedata to enable and support secondary uses, including for
    2. The statutemakes agency evidence-building plans, known as LearningAgendas, foundational to building a culture of evidencegeneration and use.
  5. Feb 2022
    1. This explanation relies upon cultural notions about gender that hold women responsible for men’s aggression and that depict violence as a natural masculine response to frustration or provocation (Anderson & Umber- son, 2001; Connell, 1987).


    2. Domestic violence scholars con- tend that some men may use violence to regain a sense of control when they feel a loss of control (Campbell; Gondolf; Stets, 1988; Umberson et al., 2002).
    3. ith stoicism in the face of stress, pain, and ad- versity (Connell, 1995; Messner, 1992).

      stoicism (hiding emotions)

    4. Repressors constant- ly avoid and deny the experience of negative emotion; they “deny experiencing distress even in the face of objective signs indicating that they are distressed’” (Emmons, 1992, p. 143).

      coping with stress (a way)

    5. First, the masculinities liter- ature reveals a cultural image of masculinity in which aggression is an acceptable way for men to express emotion in our society—whether in the form of sport, roughhousing, or controlling the be- havior of others (Connell, 1995; Messner, 1992; Segal, 1990).

      violence is an acceptable way for men to express emotion



    1. Finally, Mr. Trump tweeted the typosquatted hashtag the Friday before Election Day.
    2. An anonymous account with 52,300 followers tweeted a conspiracy theory using the "famiily" misspelling. Oct. 17 Another anonymous account tweeted using the “ii” hashtag, this time retweeting one of the banned Himalaya accounts. Oct. 18 Dinesh D’Souza, a far-right author, tweeted the typosquat. Oct. 19 Users on Reddit’s r/DeclineIntoCensorship subreddit and 4chan’s Politically Incorrect board noticed #BidenCrimeFamily had been de-indexed. Oct. 20 Users on thedonald also noticed the de-indexing. “Twitter doesn’t allow #BidenCrimeFamily - But you can get thru with #BidenCrimeFamiily - Notice the two i’s,” an anonymous user posted. Oct. 22 Actor Kirstie Alley tweeted the typosquat, adding two shruggie emojis.
    3. But since Oct. 14, conservative radio talk shows used the slogan in more than 150 broadcasts. One segment, from Larry Elder on Oct. 28, is simply titled, “The New York Post vs. the Biden Crime Family.” Conservative news outlets used the slogan in headlines. Pundits used it on TV. The phrase, repeated over and over, drilled into people’s heads the idea of Joe Biden’s corruption.
    4. GNews pushed salacious conspiracy theories about Hunter Biden, with videos and photos. Twitter accounts with “Himalaya” in the handle used the #BidenCrimeFamily hashtag to spread those photos across Twitter.
    5. The hashtag seeded itself on alternative social networking sites. It was popular on Parler, which advertises itself as a home for people censored by mainstream social media
    6. In early October, Rudy Giuliani, the president’s personal lawyer, used the hashtag repeatedly,
    7. A reporter for One America News Network tweeted #BidenCrimeFamily to promote an interview about alleged “Biden Family Corruption.” Nov. 4 Sean Hannity said he thought there should be a criminal investigation opened up into Joe and Hunter Biden. Dec. #BidenCrimeFamily became a popular reply to posts about Trump’s impending impeachment. Feb. 10, 2020 Donald Trump Jr. told a crowd at a Trump rally in New Hampshire that his father was not like “the Biden crime family.”
    8. That moment wasn’t random. #BidenCrimeFamily is part of a yearlong, effective disinformation campaign against Joe Biden — one that was spread by social media, political influencers and the president himself.

      Evidence to support the author's view.

  6. Jan 2022
    1. ike Jungius, Boyle made use of loose folio sheets that he called memorials or adversaria; yet he did not worry too much about a system of self-referential relationships that enabled intentional knowl-edge retrieval. When he realized that he was no longer able to get his bearings in an ocean of paper slips, he looked for a way out, testing several devices, such as colored strings or labels made of letters and numeral codes. Unfortunately, it was too late. As Richard Yeo clearly noted, ‘this failure to develop an effective indexing system resulted from years of trusting in memory in tandem with notes’.69

      69 Yeo, ‘Loose Notes’, 336

      Robert Boyle kept loose sheets of notes, which he called memorials or adversaria. He didn't have a system of organization for them and tried out variations of colored strings, labels made of letters, and numerical codes. Ultimately his scrap heap failed him for lack of any order and his trust in memory to hold them together failed.

      I love the idea of calling one's notes adversaria. The idea calls one to compare one note to another as if they were combatants in a fight (for truth).

      Are working with one's ideas able to fit into the idea of adversarial interoperability?

    1. And no child in highschool regardless should be able to do that either because of dresscode, horny hormone infused teenage boys, and you never know if some of the teacher are attracted to children.

      The writer of this argument does not use a specific type of evidence (first-hand, second-hand, and quantitative). The writer does not use facts proven by trustworthy authority, personal experience that would be reasoning for the writers opinion, or data that can be measured, but rather simply stating their opinion as evidence.

    2. So

      Chloe Nelson: Types of Evidence: This argument does not contain any evidence, inserting first-hand evidence here should have been done in order for the claim to be supported and make the reader trust the argument.

    3. because of dresscode, horny hormone infused teenage boys, and you never know if some of the teacher are attracted to children.

      The speaker uses confirmation bias, providing evidence as to why minors should not be allowed to exercise or be on school property without shirt without providing any reason as to why a child in school may do so, and providing a counter argument. The speaker uses first hand evidence that supports the speaker claim while also ignoring contradictory evidence.



    1. One photograph showing an emaciated man is next to another of a starving cow.

      Quantitative Evidence:

      This evidence has statistics that can be measured and counted, giving Peta's argument actually facts and numbered data. Whether or not the data is accurate or trustworthy is up for debate. Considering the number of fallacies and faulty authority there seems to be in their argument, it is likely this too may not be accurate.

    2. The campaign, he added, was funded by a Jewish philanthropist, who wished to remain anonymous.

      Second-Hand evidence:

      Peta did not experience this themselves, they had to do research and get the words of other people in order to make a point. Not only is this information not as trustworthy because it is second-hand but it is also anonymous which lowers its credits even more.

    1. Prof. Gavin Yamey MD MPH. (2022, January 7). Thank you @j_g_allen for continuing to advocate for childhood vaccination & for sharing evidence on masks Yesterday, the U.S. saw a record number of COVID-19 pediatric hospital admissions, almost 1,000 Unvaxxed kids are 10 X more likely to be hospitalized than vaxxed kids 1/2 [Tweet]. @GYamey. https://twitter.com/GYamey/status/1479265484562386944

    1. Natural News covered this story on September 20, 2021, with a headline: CONFIRMED: Gov. Inslee setting up covid concentration camps in Washington state, issuing job listings for “strike team” coordinators.

      First-hand evidence, straw-man fallacy: Citing their own website again, and warping what the COVID-19 strike teams actually are.

    2. I covered this in great detail in a Situation Update podcast entitled, “Situation Update, Sep 21, 2021 – Washington State hiring “strike teams” for COVID quarantine camps.” It is available here

      First-hand evidence, false authority: Mike Adams cites a podcast ...made by Mike Adams.

    3. Over the next decade, we now know, nearly 1.5 billion people will die from vaccine-related injuries, cancers, neurological disorders, organ damage and economic collapse. Each day, another 30 million vaccines are being administered, leading to the eventual deaths of another 10 million people over the next decade or so. They are essentially murdering 10 million people per day. This is a Holocaust-scale event every 14.4 hours.

      Qualitative evidence, first-hand evidence: Citing their own website rather than a reliable secondary source.

    4. As Jen Psaki said herself, “Our work doesn’t stop there and we are going to continue to press to get 12-18-year olds vaccinated… that’s one of the reasons why we initiated these strike forces to go into communities…” Here’s the video of Psaki saying this, in case you find it hard to believe:

      Straw man fallacy, second-hand evidence: While it is true that Psaki said this, NaturalNews is misrepresenting what she is truly saying. According to WebMD, the COVID-19 strike forces are "...made up of health and logistics experts from several federal agencies, will conduct coronavirus testing, distribute medicines designed to fight the virus and boost local and state efforts to increase vaccinations,". They are not forcing people to take "KILL SHOTS".

    5. From that article: It’s official: The White House has publicly and un-apologetically announced the deployment of “strike forces” — a military term — to go door-to-door across America, targeting unvaccinated people in their own homes. This was proudly announced yesterday by Jen Psaki. Very quickly, this program will be ramped up to full mandatory status, which means gunpoint enforcement of deadly shots, essentially meaning the U.S. government is unleashing death squads across America.

      First-hand evidence. NaturalNews citing NaturalNews.

    1. Whereas once the area was sufficient for both sides, there’s now only room for one. (There’s no hint of the fact that San Juan Hill was, in fact, a predominantly Black neighborhood.) The filmmakers’ attempt to pin down a cause for the Jets-Sharks rivalry reflects their more general shift, in the new film, toward facile psychologizing.

      The speaker is mostly just talking about a specific topic here and why the filmmaker has not done a great job with the racial problem.

    1. “Holcaust on Your Plate”

      Quantitative Evidence:

      This evidence has statistics that can be measured and counted, giving Peta's argument actually facts and numbered data. Whether or not the data is accurate or trustworthy is up for debate. Considering the number of fallacies and faulty authority there seems to be in their argument, it is likely this too may not be accurate.

    2. The campaign, headded, was funded by a Jewish philanthropist, who wished to remain anonymous.

      Second-Hand evidence:

      Peta did not experience this themselves, they had to do research and get the words of other people in order to make a point. Not only is this information not as trustworthy because it is second-hand but it is also anonymous which lowers its credits even more.



    1. 17-track album during lockdown.

      Quantitative evidence

    2. Salt air, and the rust on your doorI never needed anything more

      First hand evidence

    3. I’m doing good, I’m on some new sh*tBeen saying “yes” instead of “no”I thought I saw you at the bus stop, I didn’t though.

      First hand evidence. Heard this himself

    1. According to procon.org, students who look at a screen all day can develop computer vision syndrome.  This syndrome can cause dry eyes, blurred vision, eyestrains, and headaches.

      Type of Evidence: Second-Hand Evidence

      The author is citing evidence from an article he read so he is getting information from the author who got information elsewhere, making the evidence be second-hand.

  7. Dec 2021
    1. A Marm Kilpatrick. (2021, November 24). How do we get broad immunity to SARS-CoV-2 that will protect against future variants? 2 studies (are there more?) suggest that vaccination followed by infection gives broader protection than infection followed by vaccination. @florian_krammer @profshanecrotty @GuptaR_lab https://t.co/rqdf6rE9ej [Tweet]. @DiseaseEcology. https://twitter.com/DiseaseEcology/status/1463391782742335491

  8. Nov 2021
    1. being an insider to a cul-tural group necessarily means that the insiderresearcher has intimate knowledge of the par-ticular and situated experiences of all membersof the group or that generalizations can orshould be made about the knowledge the re-searcher holds about her own culture. A

      Being an insider doesn't equate to intimate knowledge of situated experience.

    2. I did not pursue vague statements, gener-alities, or even participant-initiated leads withfollow-up probes. “The observations . . . easily. . . overlooked” along with “the many taken-for-granted assumptions about social behavior

      Not diving deeper into vague statement, because she thought she could infer based on her own experience.

    3. tancing emotionally and intellectuallyfrom the substance of the material to enhance“abstraction of models or patterns of and forbehavior” as a native researcher (Ohnuki-Tierney, 1984 p. 584) resulted instead in dis-tancing from the process of the research and theability to att

      Challenge - trying to be distant didn't obtain thick description.



    1. COVID-19 Living Evidence. (2021, November 12). As of 12.11.2021, we have indexed 257,633 publications: 18,674 pre-prints 238,959 peer-reviewed publications Pre-prints: BioRxiv, MedRxiv Peer-reviewed: PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO https://t.co/ytOhLG90Pi [Tweet]. @evidencelive. https://twitter.com/evidencelive/status/1459163720450519042

    1. It’s even possible that future window stickers on new cars may point out that a vehicle meets cybersecurity standards.

      Evidence of hacking evolution

    2. The best-known vehicle takeover occurred in 2015 when security researchers on a laptop 10 miles away caused a Jeep Cherokee to lose power, change its radio station, turn on the windshield wipers and blast cold air. Jeep’s parent company, FCA, recalled 1.4 million vehicles to fix the vulnerability.

      Demonstrative evidence

    3. In 2019, the automotive cybersecurity company Karamba Security posted a fake vehicle electronic control unit online. In under three days, 25,000 breach attempts were made, and one succeeded.

      Demonstrative evidence of hacking evolution

    4. Karamba has been working with a South American trucking company whose fleet was hacked to hide it from its tracking system, allowing thieves to steal its cargo unnoticed.

      Evidence: actual committed crime

    1. The goal of fast fashion is the optimization of the supply chain. Globaliza-tion in particular has provided the low-cost labour and international markets neces-sary for the creation of a global assembly line, which allows for cheaper and faster production of clothing.

      Ledezma introduces an economic perspective into the growth of fast fashion. This is important as the reason behind company's decisions regarding fast fashion are based on economic opportunity. Ledezma specifically states that globalization has facilitated the production of fast fashion since companies can produce clothes in third world countries where they are able to pay low wages. This allows clothing to be sold for a lower price, while generating a large profit. This idea ties into the idea of variable cost, and opportunity cost in economics. The rhetor's idea is to appeal to the audience's logos since she is highlighting the economic approach to fast fashion, rather than relying on emotions to appeal to her audience. This is effective since this claim can be further backed up by statistics and other forms of data.

    2. n 2007, a research team from MIT, Stanford, and Carnegie Mellon conducted a study studying using fMRI technology to examine how the brain reacts when Western customers shop for clothing. They discovered that the brain shows greatly increased activity when we shop (Knutson, Rick, Wimmer, Prelec, and Loewenstein 149). The researchers concluded that consumers gain direct pleasure from shopping but they gain an even greater pleasure from receiving a bargain.

      Not only does Ledezma lay out the argument that the culture of the U.S. elevate the popularity and success of fast fashion, but she provides readers scientific evidence of the impact our culture has on our very minds. Because the ideal of cheap, in style clothing is so desirable to westerners and so deeply ingrained in our psyche, are we totally at fault for buying into an unsustainable way of life? Will humanity be able to move away from fast fashion despite the strong emotions we as humans hold towards it? The rhetor's simple language makes this study easy to understand and interestingly applicable to the understanding of globalization and fast fashion.

    1. hearchitect did not follow the principles used in the planningof the "Eleanor Roosevelt" complex other than the orthogonal

      Morell Campus development didn't follow the community development ideals of Greenbelt Towns. for reasons unknown.

    2. In Ponce, to the south of the island, the PRRAallocated $500,000 for the development and construction of aworkers' settlement as part of the Slum Clearance Program.

      Slum clearance in Ponce -

    3. was a tract housing complex or"urbanizacion" of which two were developed, the "EleanorRoosevelt" and the "Morell Campos" housing complexes.

      Morell Campus has a tract housing style.

    4. o her the planners' ideas of community wassynonymous with village.6

      The village of rht Greenbelt Towns was community development, per Christensen.

    5. The American GardenCity and the New Town Movement, "the decision to buildcities was of profound importance since it signified anunderstanding that housing was only one dimension of theproblem. More fundamental was the generaldisenfranchisement of the poor who lacked voice andinfluence.1,6

      Greenway new towns were to not just deal with housing, but the disenfranchisement of the poor....

  9. Oct 2021
    1. The average acreage involved in urban renewal projects in the 253 cities that were in the program in mid- 1959 was 78.6 per city, or about one-eighth of a square mile. But one-fourth of all ur- ban renewal acreage was contained in five cities; half the total was in nineteen cities. In the remaining cities the average acreage per city was 42.5, or a little over one- sixteenth of a square mile.

      Descriptive statistics on urban renewal projects in cities.

    2. Whether urban renewal is a form of col- lective action that would call into opera- tion the organization of the entire com- munity may be debatable

      She concedes that urban renewal may not actually involved community collective action.



    1. ReconfigBehSci. (2021, May 26). @Richard_Florida this is the Giesicke argument from Sweden- it makes sense only if you assume there will be no medical progress in the delay period. With vaccines and treatment improvements we know this to be empirically false. [Tweet]. @SciBeh. https://twitter.com/SciBeh/status/1397341753590489090

  10. Sep 2021
    1. university anchor as city developer and planner

      Planning initiatives of universities that influence the city - esp in problematic deteriorating districts.

    2. Kellogg Commission on the Future of State and Land Grant Universities in 1996

      redefined engagement - establishing two-way relations between university and its neighbors as the new paradigm.

    3. he first was the designation of the Office of University Partnersqhips (OUP) and federal grants for Community Outreach Partnerships Centers (COPC) by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development

      Federal resources helped to increase the community-engaged university under HUD.

    4. fourth period largely emphasized outreach (and avoided physical intervention), including civic engagement, academic-based community research, and service learning

      engaged community, community research, service learning.

    5. World War II, as university anchors pursued direct intervention in neighborhoods to eliminate blight and expand the campus footprint.

      Urban blight elimination

    6. University and the Urban Laboratory

      Laboratory for addressing social problems and infrastructure issues.

    7. Morrill Act of 1862 (Act) represents the first federal intervention

      Morrll Act of 1862 creates land-grant colleges. meaning important in industry and agricultural contributions of land-grant universities. -- connection between regional economy and universities.



    1. While the Census figures suggest a $34,000 gap between homes inside and outside of the PAS catchment, a more detailed assessment of real estate transactions in University City (Steif, 2013) esti-mated a $100,000+ price differential.

      Price differential of $100,000 inside and outside of PAS catchment.

    2. Despite the WPI’s emphasis, the neighborhood’s homeownership rate remained steady.

      WPI didn't increase hoeownership.

    3. ing to Penn’s Department of Residential Services, in 2013, approximately 27% of Penn undergraduates (2,800) and 30% of graduate students (3,500) lived off-campus in University City—a stark improve-ment over the mid-1990s. Yet, Penn’s estimated off-campus student popu-lation accounts for less than 15% of the neighborhood’s total population and, geographically speaking, the concentration of students tends to dimin-ish as one moves beyond a three- to four-block radius from campus.

      The students live off campus. rate of student occupancy tight around three- to four-block radius of campus.