525 Matching Annotations
  1. Oct 2020
    1. In thehands of Calvin, the Roman Catholic Church is merely an earthly institutionthat presumptuously claims universal authority over nations and over souls.

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    1. The first author of speech was God himself, that instructed Adam how to name such creatures as he presented to his sight; for the Scripture goeth no further in this matter.
    2. For after the object is removed, or the eye shut, we still retain an image of the thing seen, though more obscure than when we see it. And this is it, the Latins call imagination, from the image made in seeing; and apply the same, though improperly, to all the other senses
    3. Special uses of speech are these; first, to register, what by cogitation, we find to be the cause of any thing, present or past; and what we find things present or past may produce, or effect: which in sum, is acquiring of arts. Secondly, to show to others that knowledge which we have attained; which is, to counsel, and teach one another. Thirdly, to make known to others our wills, and purposes, that we may have the mutual help of one another. Fourthly, to please and delight ourselves, and others, by playing with our words, for pleasure or ornament, innocently
    4. This decaying sense, when we would express the thing itself, (I mean fancy itself) we call imagination, as I said before: but when we would express the decay, and signify that the sense is fading, old, and past, it is called memory.
    5. our dreams are the reverse of our waking imaginations; the motion when we are awake, beginning at one end; and when we dream, at another
    6. without words, there is no possibility of reckoning of numbers; much less of magnitudes, of swiftness, of force, and other things, the reckonings whereof are necessary to the being, or well-being of mankind.
    7. The imaginations of them that sleep, are those we call dreams
    8. Much memory, or memory of many things, is called experi-ence
    9. Which kind of thoughts, is called foresight, and prudence, or providence; and sometimes wisdom; though such conjecture, through the difficulty of observing all circumstances, be very fallacious.
    10. For between true sci-ence, and erroneous doctrines, ignorance is in the middle. Natural sense and imagination, are not subject to absurdity
    11. The present only has a being in nature; things past have a being in the memory only, but things to come have no being at all; the future being but a fiction of the mind, applying the sequels of actions past, to the actions that are present; which with most certainty is done by him that has most experience; but not with certainty enough.
    12. When we say any thing is infinite, we signify only, that we are not able to conceive the ends, and bounds of the things named; having no conception of the thing, but of our own inability
    13. The best prophet naturally is the best guesser; and the best guesser, he that is most versed and studied in the matters he guesses at: for he hath most signs to guess by
    14. But this conjecture, has the same uncertainty almost with the conjecture of the future; both being grounded only upon expenence
    15. The signs of science, are some, certain and infallible; some, uncertain
    16. The use and end of reason, is not the finding of the sum, The use of and truth of one, or a few consequences, remote from the first reason. definitions, and settled significations of names; but to begin at these; and proceed from one consequence to another. For there can be no certainty of the last conclusion, without a certainty of all those affirmations and negations, on which it was grounded, and inferred.
    17. To conclude, the light of human minds is perspicuous words, but by exact definitions first snuffed, and purged from ambiguity; reason is the pace; increase of science, the way; and the benefit of mankind, the end. And on the contrary, metaphors, and senseless and ambiguous words, are like ignes fatui;* and reasoning upon them, is wandering amongst innumerable absurdities; and their end, contention, and sedition, or contempt [indifference].
    18. truth consisteth in the right ordering of Necessity of names in our affirmations, a man that seeketh precise truth, had definitions. need to remember what every name he uses stands for; and to place it accordingly; or else he will find himself entangled in words, as a bird in lime twigs;* the more he struggles, the more belimed
    19. Signs of prudence are all uncertain
    20. because to observe by experience, and remember all circumstances that may alter the success, is impossible
    21. such facts, or effects of nature, as have no dependence on man's will;
    22. The other, is civil history; which is the history of the voluntary actions of men in commonwealths

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    1. In keeping with the medieval ideal o f the whole, it includes the totality o f the spiritual and physical cosmos.
    2. hilosophy o f the early Renaissance does not seem to bear out Hegel’s presupposition that the full consciousness and spiritual essence o f an epoch is contained in its philosophy
    3. Cusanus is the only thinker o f the period to look at all o f the fundamental problems o f his time from the point o f view o f one prin­ciple through which he masters them all
    4. here is never any danger o f specialization or o f frag­mentation in his work.
    5. hen Cusanus takes up and elaborates any­thing, it comes to fit into an intellectual whole, and combines with his other efforts to form a subsequent unity
    6. To be sure, the concept o f docta ignorantia, and the doc­trine o f the ‘coincidence o f opposites’ based upon it, seem to do nothing more than to repeat thoughts that belong to the solid patrimony o f medieval mysticism.
    7. Medieval cosmology and faith, the idea o f universal order, and the idea o f the moral-religious order o f salvation here flow to­gether into a single fundamental view, into a picture that is at once o f the highest significance and o f the highest inner consequence.
    8. With this, every kind o f ‘rational’ theology is refuted—and in its place steps ‘mystical theology*.
    9. Nevertheless, the first sentences o f the work De doctaignorantia give birth to a new thought, and point to a completely new total intellectual orientation. Here, too, the starting point is the opposition between the being o f the absolute and the being o f the empirical- conditioned, i.e., between the being o f the infinite and o f the finite.
    10. Whenever these middle terms do not offer themselves immediately to natural thought, we must discover them by means o f syllogistic reasoning. Thus we can join the abstract with the concrete and the general with the particular in a definitely determined order o f thought.
    11. Aristotle’s criticism o f the Platonic doctrine begins with his objec­tion to this separation o f the realm o f existence and the realm o f ideal ‘meaning*. Reality is one
    12. The Neo-Platonic system is dominated by the Platonic idea o f ‘transcendence*, i.e., by the absolute opposition between the intelligible and the sensible
    13. The Maximum is not a quantitative, but a purely qualitative concept. It is the absolute foundation o f being as well as the absolute foundation o f knowledge.

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    1. members of the community of inquiry bring a scientific attitudeto the problematic situation
    2. community of inquiry
    3. participatory democracy
    4. Common to all communities of inquiry is a focus on a problematic situ-ation.

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    1. Speculative design is a discursive practice, based on critical thinking and dialogue
    2. Speculative design is a critical design prac-tice that comprises or is related to a series of similar practices known under the follow-ing names: critical design, design fiction, future design, anti-design, radical design, interrogative design, discursive design, adversarial design, futurescape, design art, transitional design etc.
    3. Such an approach to design does not focus on meeting the current and future consumer needs, but rather on re-thinking the technological future that reflects the complexity of today’s world.
    4. However, speculative design can also function in the so-called “real world”, i.e. in companies em-ploying designers to consider scenarios for future trends and research into the adop-tion of emerging technologies
    5. uses fiction and speculates on future products, services, systems and worlds, thus reflec-tively examining the role and impact of new technologies on everyday life;
    6. moves away from the constraints of the commercial practice
    7. Speculative design fictions find their inspiration in science fiction, which has a long history of creating imaginary scenarios,
    8. Today we can see that capital uses pro-motion and investments in the technology by programming the technological develop-ment to actually colonialize the future.8 In this technological context, design often acts in the so-called “Western melancholy”9 dis-course where “the problem” of technologi-cal alienation, manifested as the extinction of real social interactions, “is resolved” with the production of new technologies or new products
    9. where-as traditional design actually legitimizes the status quo, speculative design envisages and anticipates the future, at the same time help-ing us to understand and re-think the world of today
    10. Design is based on the observation and understanding of the world around us, and by practicing it we endeavour to articu-late our needs, desires and expectations.
    11. reaffirm the tech-nological progress instead of questioning or being critical of it.
    12. The approach and practice of speculative design is a particularly stimulative strategy for researching the “space” that lies beyond “current” and the “now”.
    13. Speculative practice is related to two basic concepts: speculation on possi-ble futures and the design of an alternative present.
    14. Speculative fictions do not exist solely in a futurist vacuum, because the past ( i.e. the present we live in ) funda-mentally impacts our designed vision of the future.

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    1. hat’s the real difference between con-spiracists and a popularized, that is a teachable version of social critique
    2. Matters of fact are only very partial and, Iwould argue, very polemical, very political renderings of matters of concernand only a subset of what could also be calledstatesofaffairs. It is this secondempiricism, this return to the realist attitude, that I’d like to offer as the nexttask for the critically minded
    3. What if explanations resorting automatically to power, society, dis-course had outlived their usefulness and deteriorated
    4. Artificially maintained controversies are not the only worrying sign
    5. I intended toemancipatethe public from prematurely naturalizedobjectified facts. Was I foolishly mistaken? Have things changed so fast?
    6. My question is thus:Can we devise another powerful descriptive tool that deals this time withmatters of concern and whose import then will no longer be to debunk butto protect and to care, as Donna Haraway would put it? Is it really possibleto transform the critical urge in the ethos of someone whoaddsreality tomatters of fact and notsubtractreality? To put it another way, what’s thedifference between deconstruction and constructivism?
    7. My argument is that a certain form of critical spirit has sent us down thewrong path, encouraging us to fight the wrong enemies and, worst of all,to be considered as friends by the wrong sort of allies because of a littlemistake in the definition of its main target. The question was never to getawayfrom facts butcloserto them, not fighting empiricism but, on the con-trary, renewing empiricism.
    8. The mistake we made, themistake I made, was to believe that there was no efficient way to criticizematters of fact except by movingawayfrom them and directing one’s at-tentiontowardthe conditions that made them possible. But this meant ac-cepting much too uncritically what matters of fact were.
    9. Philosophy never deals with the sort of beings we in sciencestudies have dealt with. And that’s why the debates between realism andrelativism never go anywhere
    10. hings have become Things again, objectshave reentered the arena, the Thing, in which they have to be gathered firstin order to exist later as whatstands apart.
    11. What set Whitehead completely apart and straight on our path is thathe considered matters of fact to be a very poor rendering of what is givenin experience and something that muddles entirely the question
    12. The so-lution or, rather, the adventure, according to Whitehead, is to dig muchfurther into the realist attitude and to realize that matters of fact are totallyimplausible, unrealistic, unjustified definitions of what it is to deal withthings
    1. If the United States and China do find it easier to cooperate on issues like climate change and global health it will be because both share similar cosmological discourses that constitute compatible purposes and goals
    2. First, a global anti- modern, anti- scientific movement could challenge the scientific cosmology at the heart of international order today.
    3. In the language I have introduced, Bull hypothesized that a common scientific ontology could support a shared orientation to the purpose of scientific and technological development.
    4. devel-opments within the scientific tradition itself could transform ideas about purpose. This change from within scientific cosmology might emerge from quantum mechanics, experiments at CERN, the biological and complexity sciences, or from recent claims that we are entering a new geological era, the anthropocene
    5. have shown that the scientific ideas that constitute international order are rich enough to constitute and natural-ize purposes and values.
    6. if international order could be reconstructed on the basis of a shared scientific cosmology, then common purposes and institu-tions acceptable to both the United States and China could be produced.
    7. First, the ecological sciences introduce new ontological and epistemic elements by reconceptualizing physical processes.
    8. On the other hand, for some, the ongoing ecological crisis presents a direct challenge to the modernist idea that humans ever controlled or dominated nature
    9. Second, the anthropocene forces a fundamental reconceptualization of time.42 By embedding humans in geologic time, the anthropocene nar-rative broadens time horizons.

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    1. ies less in philosophy and more in fields such as sociology, psy-chology, anthropology, communica-tions, and political science
    2. computational experts dealing with social phenomenon are rarely called to conversely embrace tradition-al sociological thought
    3. integrate the analytic lenses sup-plied by social science theories and methodologies.
    4. Per-haps the most important of these was computing’s unique disciplinary way of thinking and practicing, which, as narrated by Tedre and Denning,22 was variously labeled as “algorithmizing,” “algorithmic thinking,” “algorithmics,” and, more recently, as “computational thinking.”
    5. Along with this expansion have come bold claims about computing’s ability to better understand and ex-plain the social world without needing background in social theory, economic models, or psychological concepts.
    6. premise that compu-tational thinking will be a necessary part of all future work and thus it is es-sential that children learn it in school
    7. The Digital Humanities—that is, using computa-tional approaches and technologies within the humanities—was seen by its advocates as a way to refresh the humanities by modernizing its meth-ods, moving it out of dusty dark librar-ies and into the clean, bright air of the datacenter.5 Computational social sci-ence is another recent curricular ex-periment in adopting the methodolo-gies and techniques of computing
    8. instead of replacing social science ap-proaches, academic computing would be immeasurably improved by supple-menting its own with the methods, the-ories, and perspectives of the social sciences.
    9. One of the key insights (and values) of the social science of the past half century is its embrace of complexity.
    10. one could even go further and make the claim that not only would computing be improved by more social science, but that comput-ing today actually is a social science
    11. computing is already deeply impli-cated in relations of power. As re-nowned sociologist Manuel Castells noted, power relations are “the founda-tional relationship of society because they construct and shape the institu-tions and norms that regulate social life.”8
    12. This has already been recognized within legal studies, where scholars such as Karen Yeung, Shoshana Zuboff, Anthony Casey, and Anthony Nisbett, have made compel-ling arguments that algorithms are al-ready transforming the rule- and stan-dard-based nature of law and justice, to a privatized and force-based one implemented via algorithms.
    13. Recommendation 1: Embrace other disciplines’ insight.
    14. Moving forward, we need to do better, and be willing to inform both our work and our thinking, with the more nu-anced, historically grounded, empir-ically supported thinking of the so-cial sciences.
    15. Recommendation 2: Replace some computing courses with social science ones.
    16. A better under-standing of human psychology, power, and the incentive structures in society, may have allowed us to avoid some of the socio-technical problems we face today.
    17. Recommendation 3: Embrace mul-tidisciplinarity through faculty hiring.
    18. Just one look at the curriculum and a student will no doubt get the im-pression that the ethics course is not all that important in comparison to courses such as numeric theory, algo-rithm evaluation, and programming

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    1. they are perhaps now more than ever hindered in their abilities to extrapolate from the present in order to anticipate what the future will hold

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    1. Overall,wefindclimatepolicybundlesthatincludesocialandeconomic reforms such as affordable housing, a $15minimumwage,orajobguaranteeincreaseUSpublicsupport for climate mitigation.
    2. inking climate policy to economic and social issues is particularly effective at expandingclimate policy support among people of color.
    3. Providing informationabout costs, expenditures, and sponsorship ensuresthat respondents are not evaluating policy altern-atives based on implicit assumptions about theseattributes
    4. governments around the world have struggled to pass andimplement climate policies
    5. To break policy gridlock, US climate advocateshave begun to champion a new strategy: linking cli-mate policy to social and economic reforms.
    6. bundling climate policy with progressive socialand economic programs reflects an effort to expandthe scope of political conflict (Schattschneider1975)to engage new voters.
    7. To date, we have lackedempirical evidence to assess advocates’ claims thatbundling climate policy with economic and socialprograms can deliver broader support coalitions

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    1. narrative and calculative device that allowsentrepreneurs to explore a market and plays a performative role by contributing to the construction ofthe techno-economic network of an innovation
    2. role played by business modelsin the innovation process
    3. usiness models can be fruitfullyanalyzed as “market devices”

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    1. convey information about a resource or associations between resources
  2. link-springer-com.uaccess.univie.ac.at link-springer-com.uaccess.univie.ac.at
    1. The approach proposed here can allow us to examine howthe deployment of future-oriented grammars reflect (or, in fact, help to discursivelyconstitute) differential authority, access,and influence in relation to decision-making processes, at various levels of institutional power
    2. This leads me to my bet: by analyzing the form and content of futures talk in such sitesof hyperprojectivity, we can understand the mechanisms by which future projectionsaffect decisions, relations, and institutions
    3. pattern is suggestive enough to pose a number ofinteresting questions for a more extensive analysis (perhaps assisted by automatedtextual analysis). For example,
    4. I have made a number of theoretical arguments and placed somemethodological bets for future researc
    5. Second, I have argued that while some future projections are routinized andimplicit, others are developed through contentious communication, often elabo-rated in what I call“sites of hyperprojectivity.
    6. Yet while futures imaginaries exist“in our heads,”they are nevertheless subject to avariety of externalizations in text, talk, and material objects, which make them acces-sible to empirical study
    7. While there is an extensive subfield in sociology studying the sources,content, and consequences of collective memory
    8. ites of heightened, future-oriented public debate aboutpossible futures

      tag

    9. I present a preliminary analysis at the level ofnarrative and grammar, by analyzing the use of predictive, imperative, and subjunctiveverb forms in both programmatic and oppositional texts
    10. appily, theseprocesses of imagining have a variety of externalizations—in text, talk, andmaterial objects—that make them amenable to social research
    11. Data sources that tap into the externalization of future projections are quitevaried, although many of them involve spoken and written texts of various sorts.
    12. Narrative approaches
    13. alternative approach is to study narratives about desired and expected futures, aselaborated in various types of texts
    14. While myanalysis is based on hand-coded data, I suggest ways in which this strategy could bescaled up using automated tools for textual coding and analysis
    15. I argue thatfuture projections can be studied via their externalizations in attitudes, narratives,performance, and material forms
    16. Together with a team of graduate students at Rutgers University and the Universityof Notre Dame,8I have been working on the pilot coding of the first eighteendocuments posted under the rubric of“Proposals”on the web portal of the People’sSummit.
    17. study of future projections has been muchmore segmented and fragmentar
    18. At an individual level, these can come from responses to survey questions aboutexpectations and aspirations
    19. ake stock of the methodologicalchallenges involved in studying futures and their effects
    20. In our preliminary read of these documents, we noticed wide variation in thedegree to which they focus on broad, general statements of value (i.e.,“thefuture we want”); on exhortations to action (“what we must do”); on causalpredictions and if-then reasoning; and on detailed strategies of how to get from“here/now”to the“future we want”(or alternatively, how to prevent the futureswe do not want).
    21. different genres of future projection might be put to analytical use in studyingprocesses of interest to social scientists
    22. collective memory
    23. I focus here on survey, narrative, performative approaches, leaving adiscussion of material representations to future work
    24. externalization of future imaginaries through text, talk, and objects isshaped by—and helps to constitute—different contexts of action
    25. With the help of computer-basedautomated coding and natural language processing, we could move on to moresophisticated kinds of text-based pattern analysis
    26. rom in-depth interviews
    1. Jointly Told Tales

      Other type: Jointly told Ethnographies

    2. o be sure, ethnography has a long history, and its techniques, goals, and representational styles mean different things, not always complementary, to its many cu-rious readers.

    Tags

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    1. Like a Gestalt, this framework is embedded in the very terminology through which policymakers communicate about their work, and it is influential precisely because so much of it is taken for granted and unamenable to scrutiny as a whole. I am going to call this interpretive framework a policy paradigm

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    1. Second, the role of actors, the ‘bearers of ideas’, issometimes neglected in ideational analyses
    2. Third, ideational explanations typically rely on intangiblesthat are difficult to define and measure
    3. Finally,and related to the previous problem, there is an ambiguous relationshipbetween ideas and institutional change, including policy change

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    1. Logicians have, by and large, engaged in the convenient fiction that sen- tences of natural languages (at least declarative sentences) are either true or false or, at worst, lack a truth value, or have a third value often inter- preted as 'nonse
    2. Given fuzzy sets we can, in a straightforward way extend classical propositional and predicate logics to the corresponding fuzzy log
    3. Fuzzy propositional logic can be extended to fuzzy predicate logic in a straightforward way by defining valuations for predicates and for quan- tifiers
    4. We have been employing a many-valued logic in an attempt to provide an initial explication of fu

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    1. ur dataset is comprised of 165 annual “flagship” publications from six core organizations: the G7/8, the OECD, UNDP, UNEP, UNFCCC and the World Bank. To code the documents, we used a method of qualitative textual analysis that allowed us to capture complex changes in the economic ideas that inform policy, rather than only changes in the quantitative counts of certain keywords.

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    1. hedgedetection algorithm
    2. Boosting, using terms such asabso-lutely,clearlyandobviously, is a communicative strategyfor expressing a firm commitment to statements
    3. Hedging is a commonly used strategy in conversational management to show the speaker’s lack of commitment to what they com-municate
    4. Besides hedge words, people use discourse markers tohedge in conversations
    5. Words that reflect the speaker/writer’s mental stateor internal actions are known as epistemic words
    6. Hedge words that are composed of multiple words are sim-ply called multi-word hedges

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    1. With a number of computerized text analysismethods, we can now analyze these open-ended narratives quickly andobjectively
    2. Word patterns: Extracting meaning
    3. It’s really OK if theytell their stories. Even if you can’t analyze their data in the next few months,researchers in the decades ahead will view this data with genuine excitement –even when those self-reports you have collected will lose all interest to futuregenerations.
    4. With thedevelopment of computer technology over the last decade, we are now standing atthe threshold of a new era that suggests some novel ways to think about words,natural language, and narrative.
    5. Counting words: Content and style
    6. Word patterns: Comparing texts
    7. The factors that emerge represent groups of words that clumptogether and that reflect basic themes inherent in the stories.

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    1. One of the keys to R’s explosive growth (Fox & Leanage,2016; TIOBE,2017) hasbeen its densely populated collection of extension software libraries, known in R terminology aspackages, supplied and maintained by R’s extensive user community.
    2. se advanced software that enables this type of analysi
    3. One of the main advantages of performing text analysis in R is that it is oftenpossible, and relatively easy, to switch between different packages or to combine them.
    4. creasing importance of computational text analysis in communication research
    5. designed to promote this interoperability tomaximize flexibility and choice among users
    6. presents an overview of the text analysis operations that we address, categorized in threesections.

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  3. Local file Local file
    1. We also propose tostore attributes in a relational model, instead of the traditional text-based struc-tures, to facilitate learning data analysis and manipulation
    2. This thesis studies the use of sequential supervised learning methods on two tasksrelated to the detection of hedging in scientific articles: those of hedge cue identi-fication and hedge cue scope detection
    3. Hedge cues are composed of one or more words with a very clear semantic role such as, forexample, verbs of modality
    4. Compared with state-of-the-art methods, the results arevery competitive, suggesting that the approach to improving classifiers based onlyon the errors commited on a held out corpus could be successfully used in other,similar tasks
    5. suggesting the incorporation of expert knowledge intothe learning process through the use ofknowledge rules

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    1. publicly available hedge classification data-set [10] available at [18], which consists of a manuallyannotated test set of 1537 sentences (380 speculative)extracted from six full-text articles on Drosophila mela-nogaster (fruit-fly) and a training set of 13,964 sentences(6423 speculative) automatically induced using a proba-bilistic acquisition model.
    2. Medlock and Briscoe [10] extend Light et al.'swork by creating a publicly available hedging dataset anduse weakly supervised learning with an SVM classifier toimprove to a recall/precision break-even point (BEP) of0.76, from a BEP of 0.60 obtained using Light et al.'s sub-string matching method as the baseline.

    Annotators

    1. Conventions Used in This Book
    2. tidy data has a specific structure
    3. For example, some sentimentanalysis algorithms look beyond only unigrams (i.e., single words) to try to under‐stand the sentiment of a sentence as a whole.
    4. We thus define the tidy text format as being a table with one token per row
    5. This one-token-per-rowstructure is in contrast to the ways text is often stored in current analyses, perhaps asstrings or in a document-term matrix.
    6. bigramscan be especially useful when you have a very large text dataset
    7. Not every English word is in the lexicons because many English words are pretty neu‐tral. It is important to keep in mind that these methods do not take into account qualifiers before a word, such as in “no good” or “not true”; a lexicon-based methodlike this is based on unigrams only.
    8. to count the numberof times that two words appear within the same document, or to see how correlatedthey are.
    9. We found that using tidy data principles can makemany text mining tasks easier, more effective, and consistent with tools already inwide use
    10. the tidytext package doesn’t expect a user to keep text data in a tidyform at all times during an analysis.
    11. we could easily add “miss” to a customstop-words list using bind_rows(). We could implement that with a strategy such asthis:
    12. These network visualiza‐tions are a flexible tool for exploring relationships, and will play an important role inthe case studies in later chapters.
    13. When human readersapproach a text, we use our understanding of the emotional intent of words to inferwhether a section of text is positive or negative, or perhaps characterized by someother more nuanced emotion like surprise or disgust.
    14. Most operations for finding pairwise counts or correlations need to turn thedata into a wide matrix first.
    15. We can use sentiment analysis to understand how anarrative arc changes throughout its course or what words with emotional and opin‐ion content are important for a particular text.
    16. R packages including coreNLP (Arnold and Tilton 2016), cleanNLP (Arnold 2016),and sentimentr (Rinker 2017) are examples of such sentiment analysis algorithms.For these, we may want to tokenize text into sentences, and it makes sense to use anew name for the output column in such a case.
    17. Using term frequency and inverse document frequency allows us to find words thatare characteristic for one document within a collection of documents, whether thatdocument is a novel or physics text or webpage.
    18. flowchart of a typical text analysis that combines tidytext with other toolsand data formats, particularly the tm or quanteda packages.

    Annotators

    1. ForBruner, some of the functions of narrative include solving problems,reducing tension, and resolving dilemmas
    2. narrative mode of organizing experience in which events’ particularity andspecificity as well as people’s involvement, accountability, andresponsibility in bringing about specific events are more centrally importantthan are logical considerations.
    3. These research designs involve analyzing patterns of words innarratives using software and statistical tools
    4. Analyzing Narratives
    5. themselves and their worlds to other people (and to themselves).
    6. Narrative analysts study all sorts of texts,including interview transcripts, newspaper articles, speeches, plays, andworks of literature
    7. Still, narrative analysis will ideallyfollow the concept of methodological congruence advanced by Richardsand Morse (2013; see Creswell, 2014, p. 50). Methodological congruencerefers to the purposes, questions, and methods of a research project beinginterconnected and interrelated so that the study appears as a cohesivewhole rather than a collection of independent parts
    8. narrative analysis (or narratology)
    9. Stories bring together many plot elements,including digressions and subplots, in what is known as a process ofemplotment (White, 1978).
    10. Narratives areunderstood to be interpretive devices that people use to represent
    11. quantitativenarrative analysis (QNA)
    12. Structural approaches to narrative analysis operate mainly at a textuallevel of analysis, which is to say they focus on texts themselves rather thanthe social and historical contexts in which stories emerge, circulate, andchange
    13. The functionalist approach to narrative analysis was pioneered by thepsychologist Bruner (1990). Bruner argued that humans’ ordering ofexperience occurs in two basic modes. The first is the paradigmatic mode,or logico–scientific mode.
    14. Sociological narrative analysis analyzes texts as reflections ofcultural, historical, and political contexts in which particularstories are told by particular narrators to particular audiences.Sociological analysis makes use of qualitative research methodsincluding especially comparative historical methods.

    Annotators