213 Matching Annotations
  1. Feb 2024
    1. “Library hand” was a special kind ofbackward-slanting penmanship meant specically for card catalogs,and taught in library school through the 1920s.
    2. Even OCLC, one ofthe very best retrospective-conversion contractors in the business, isbound to make thousands of typos in the course of a huge projectlike the Harvard “recon.”

      "Recon" from RETROCON, a division of OCLC, which retroactively digitized and converted the data on library card catalog cards into digital format from roughly the late 1980s into the 90s.

  2. Sep 2023
  3. Aug 2023
    1. He believed in his own conception ofliberal education for all and looked upon any kind of trainingdirected to learning a trade, solely to make a living at it, asnarrowing and illiberal.

      definitions: illiberal

    2. The lib-eral artist learns to read, write, speak, listen, understand, andthink.

      Uncommon use of "liberal artist" as one who uses or practices the liberal arts.

  4. Jul 2023
    1. Ahmed allegedly created two fake accounts that masqueraded as "tick accounts"; accounts owned and controlled by the exchange that contained data about the liquidity provided by all liquidity providers for a particular price range.
  5. May 2023
    1. Words that people on Twitter don't think are words.I wrote a little script that runs every day. It searches the Twitter API for tweets containing the words, "is not a word". Each (non)word is then looked up using the Wordnik API. If we don't have any definitions for the word, it makes the cut and ends up on this list.
  6. Mar 2023
    1. “When I hear gaggles of people who come into the store, someone has read the book and they’re like, ‘Oh my God. You have to read this. The hero is so cute. He’s such a cinnamon roll’” — a term borrowed from fan fiction that means the male love interest is “really sweet, but he’s not a pushover.”
    1. Content management system (CMS) vendors have been rushing to either rebrand as “Digital Experience Platforms” (DXP for short) or position themselves as part of a “composable DXP” — a suite of marketing tools working together to handle the digital experience.
    1. Oppressed groups aren’t always infantilised – in a process known as ‘adultification’, children from racialised minorities are typically viewed as having more agency, which makes them more likely to be criminalised– but the right is happy to deploy a diversity of tactics.
    1. Even if I have not yet convinced you to abandon “criminal justice system” in favor of “carceral system,” I hope I have you thinking about the fact that some of our legal system’s common terms are viewed and experienced by others in non-neutral and harmful ways.
    1. Altfranzösisches etymologisches Wörterbuch : AGATE

      I recall that the Oxford English Dictionary was also compiled using a slip box method of sorts, and more interestingly it was a group effort.

      Similarly Wordnik is using Hypothes.is to recreate these sorts of patterns for collecting words in context on digital cards.

      Many encyclopedias followed this pattern as did Adler's Syntopicon.

  7. Feb 2023
    1. Think of it like “heteronormativity,” the idea that heterosexual couples “automatically, but inappropriately, assume all other people fit their own categories,” but for cars.
    2. That’s because a lot of us suffer from a malady called “car brain” — though Ian Walker, a professor of environmental psychology at Swansea University in Wales, prefers to call it “motonormativity.”
  8. Jan 2023
    1. In particular Erwin Schrödinger is said (Wigner (1981)) to have spoken of the Gruppenpest (German for “plague of group theory”) which ought to be abandoned. In his autobiography John Slater, an MIT physicist, claimed: It was at this point that Wigner, Hund, Heitler, and Weyl entered the picture with their “Gruppenpest”: the pest of the group theory… The authors of the “Gruppenpest” wrote papers which were incomprehensible to those like me who had not studied group theory, in which they applied these theoretical results to the study of the many electron problem. The practical consequences appeared to be negligible, but everyone felt that to be in the mainstream one had to learn about it. Yet there were no good texts from which one could learn group theory. It was a frustrating experience, worthy of the name of a pest. I had what I can only describe as a feeling of outrage at the turn which the subject had taken… As soon as this [Slaters] paper became known, it was obvious that a great many other physicists were as disgusted as I had been with the group-theoretical approach to the problem. As I heard later, there were remarks made such as “Slater has slain the ‘Gruppenpest’”. I believe that no other piece of work I have done was so universally popular.

      Gruppenpest, a word of German origin, which has also entered into English to mean "the plague of group theory" and group theorists (mathematicians) who were applying abstract algebra to physics and quantum mechanics in the mid-twentieth century.

      via https://ncatlab.org/nlab/show/Gruppenpest

    1. Complaints about information overload and ‘infobesity’ are age-old phenomena, as book historian Rindert Jagersma observes. Until the invention of printing, monks and officials used to copy texts by hand, which was a slow and expensive process. But with the advent of printing presses, books and other texts became cheaper to produce and consume.
  9. Dec 2022
    1. Splooting, or more technically heat dumping, is a process through which animals stretch their hind legs back and lie on cooler surfaces to reduce their body heat. It’s commonly done by squirrels and sometimes, by dogs, and it’s no reason for concern, it’s just a sign that the animal is hot and trying to cool off.
    1. In the liner notes of “Ambient 1: Music for Airports” (1978), Eno wrote, “Ambient Music must be able to accommodate many levels of listening attention without enforcing one in particular; it must be as ignorable as it is interesting.”
    1. The enshittification of Amazon – where you search for a specific product and get six screens of ads for different, worse ones – is the natural end-state of chokepoint capitalism: https://pluralistic.net/2022/11/28/enshittification/#relentless-payola
    1. I also know that I have um effectively eclectomania in terms of I can click and capture stuff or clip it clip out stuff 01:26:48 faster than I can really as a minimum process it's such that oh that's an interesting link right I've read the abstract or I've read this 01:27:00 intro paragraph Yes I want that so I capture it with its URL as a minimum and I know I captured it today kleptomania that is great yeah

      Quote timestamp 01:26:36 from Obsidian Book Club checkin on 2022-12-04

      Context: talking about note taking methods; note that the autogenerated transcription actually misses the word as eclectoamania which is interesting in itself as a potential word.

      cliptomania<br /> definition: an excessive enthusiasm or desire to clip interesting material into one's notes. It often manifests itself in online settings where digital tools allow one to easily highlight and keep information including a URL or permalink to revisit that information in the future; a portmanteau of "clip" and "mania"

      Examples of tools that allow or encourage this collection of material include Evernote and Hypothes.is.

      a phenomenon which is related to the so-called "collector's fallacy"

    1. “Goblin mode” has been chosen by the public as the 2022 Oxford word of the year. The term, which refers to “a type of behaviour which is unapologetically self-indulgent, lazy, slovenly, or greedy, typically in a way that rejects social norms or expectations”, has become the first word of the year to have been decided by public vote.
  10. Nov 2022
    1. And that, perhaps, is what we might get to via prebunking. Not so much attempts to counter or fact-check misinfo on the internet, but defanging the tropes that underpin the most recurringly manipulative claims so that the public sees, recognizes, & thinks:

      And that, perhaps, is what we might get to via prebunking. Not so much attempts to counter or fact-check misinfo on the internet, but defanging the tropes that underpin the most recurringly manipulative claims so that the public sees, recognizes, & thinks:😬

      — Renee DiResta (@noUpside) June 19, 2021
      <script async src="https://platform.twitter.com/widgets.js" charset="utf-8"></script>
  11. learn-ap-southeast-2-prod-fleet01-xythos.content.blackboardcdn.com learn-ap-southeast-2-prod-fleet01-xythos.content.blackboardcdn.com
    1. Samuel Taylor Coleridge, who’scredited with the first use of the term marginalia, in 1819, coined the term as literarycriticism and to spark public dialogue.6

      6 Coleridge, S. T. (1819). Character of Sir Thomas Brown as a writer.Blackwood’s Magazine 6(32), 197.

    1. Scenius is like genius, only embedded in a scene rather than in genes. Brian Eno suggested the word to convey the extreme creativity that groups, places or “scenes”  can occasionally generate. His actual definition is:  “Scenius stands for the intelligence and the intuition of a whole cultural scene. It is the communal form of the concept of the genius.”
    1. The final thing I will say is, we have the 2016 model in our mind that, if there's a normie Republican, they get crushed by Donald Trump. Why should a Mike DeWine, not that he's going to run, but why — normie Republicans did way better than the performative Republicans.

      https://www.pbs.org/newshour/show/brooks-and-capehart-on-the-midterm-results-and-what-it-means-trumps-role-in-the-gop#transcript

      video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o8Km_Vyhvww

      David Brooks here (coins?) uses the phrase "normie Republican" to describe Republicans who tend to center rather than to the far right, Christian right, or who are Trump Republicans. Some of those people might describe these normie Republicans as Rhinos (Republicans in name only.)

      Typically I've only seen "normie" used by those who identify as ADHD, Aspergers, or otherwise on the (neurodiverse) spectrum to describe average people who don't display those behaviors.


      Judy Woodruff: So, I just want to be clear. We're using the word normie, as in — this is a David Brooks word, right? (LAUGHTER)

      David Brooks: No, this — I did not invent this. I think two generations below me invented that word. (LAUGHTER)

      Brooks admits he learned the word from others, but he's also using it with a different meaning and context than the original "normie" unadorned.

  12. Oct 2022
    1. A polycrisis is not just a situation where you face multiple crises. It is a situation like that mapped in the risk matrix, where the whole is even more dangerous than the sum of the parts.
    1. It also saw a surge in “flipping,” or customers buying an item, then selling it again a few months or weeks later.
    2. Next is “remade,” where rolls of deadstock fabric are used to produce popular Reformation designs or vintage-inspired silhouettes.
    1. A negroni sbagliato (which translates to wrong negroni) replaces the gin with a sparkling wine.
    2. A negroni is traditionally made with one part gin, one part Campari, and one part sweet vermouth.
    1. An azide is a type of molecule that contains three nitrogen atoms bound in a straight line; an alkyne contains a triple bond between carbons.
    2. Bertozzi coined the term bioorthogonal to refer to reactions that occur without interfering with the chemistry of a living cell.
    3. Orthogonal, which in geometry means perpendicular, refers in chemistry to reactions that can proceed independently in the same medium without affecting each other.
  13. Sep 2022
    1. People from Connecticut are called “nutmeggers” because the unofficial nickname for CT is “the nutmeg state.”
    1. “Beezer”, of course, is Joseph-speak for “Bimmer-owning geezers”, those who bought their first new BMWs for less than the current sales tax on a new BMW back when many Americans thought “BMW” meant “British Motor Works”.
    1. An antipersona is a representation of a user group that could misuse a product in ways that negatively impact target users and the business.
  14. Aug 2022
    1. A ‘shadowland’ can be defined as ‘an indeterminate borderland between places or states, typically represented as an abode of ghosts and spirits’; the word captures the haunting quality of these zones.
  15. Jul 2022
    1. In this work, an inanimate spider is repurposed as a ready-to-use actuator requiring only a single facile fabrication step, initiating the area of “necrobotics” in which biotic materials are used as robotic components.
    1. This is opposed by a hydraulic system: a chamber in the center of the spider’s body (known as a prosoma) pushes out fluid to open the leg, with separate valves allowing the animal to control each limb independently.
    1. Google, for instance, refers to its directly employed workers as “Googlers,” and its contractors as “TVCs” (temporary, vendor or contractor).
    1. The chosen point ofdeparture for exploring these questions is the concept of xenohospitality;a term I borrow from Helen Hester – one of the authors of theXenofeminist Manifesto – who defines it as openness to the alien, adefinition I link closely to ‘comradeliness’.
    2. Concurrently,the jokey portmanteau ‘momrade’, i.e. mom + comrade, has circulated persistentlyin the twenty-first century on online forums maintained by communities ofmothers and/or leftists.
  16. Dec 2021
    1. The local tyrannosaur in the Prince Creek Formation was not a familiar species seen elsewhere, but a unique and smaller predator—roughly the size of a polar bear— that Fiorillo and colleagues dubbed Nanuqsaurus.
  17. Aug 2021
  18. Jul 2021
    1. Downsizing and shrinkflation mean the same thing Dworsky is a former Massachusetts assistant attorney general and longtime consumer advocate. He has spent decades tracking instances of companies shrinking products on his website Mouseprint. He refers to it by its original name, downsizing, but economist Pippa Malmgren rechristened it "shrinkflation" about a decade ago, and the term stuck. Downsizing and shrinkflation both refer to the same thing: companies reducing the size or quantity of their products while charging the same price or even more.
  19. Jun 2021
    1. Reentering the workplace felt at once familiar and foreign, imparting a sense of day-job vu. My colleague and I crept past empty cubicles and offices, feeling a bit like scavengers or archaeologists touring a post-apocalyptic civilization that was largely unchanged except for the hand-sanitizer stations and politely worded safety signs posted everywhere.
    1. About 50% of patients with Parkinson disease (PD) experience the sensation that someone is nearby when no one is present. Minor hallucinations including these so-called presence hallucinations often appear early in the disease course, manifesting before motor symptoms in as many as a third of patients. What’s more, PD hallucinations are associated with psychosis, cognitive decline, and death, making them a potential marker for poor clinical outcomes. Yet because many patients are reluctant to report these hallucinations and physicians may not ask about them, they often go undiagnosed. Now, a team of researchers in Europe has developed a technique to induce presence hallucinations among patients with PD in a controlled setting.
    1. A librarian in Bologna, Italy, is invitedby a colleague in Michiganto tour her library. She is not planning any immediate travel. She plans instead to visit while sitting at her desk in her office. She downloads software on her computer and awakens a telepresence robot (TR) in Kalamazoo, MI, which becomes her eyes, ears, andlegs, allowing her to drive around the librarytaking in the sights and services and conversing with her colleague, library staff, and patrons she encounters along the way. Telepresence robottechnology offers people the opportunity to visit someone across a building or across the world without having to leave their chair.
  20. May 2021
    1. The term dark pattern originated with design practitioners, but has attracted growing interest from HCI researchers in recent years.In 2010, the user experience designer Harry Brignull coined the expression“dark patterns”and began curating them on darkpatterns.org website [2]. As the term gained traction in the public domain, Gray et al. derived five umbrella strategies from a corpus of practitioner-identified dark patterns [7] (see Figure 4). Further research has identified patterns that prompt impulsive buying [13] and crawled a sample of∼11,000 shopping sites finding that such patterns are in common use [12]. Dark patterns have also been implicated in designs that maximize attention capture and lead to compulsive smartphone use [18]

      Kai Lukoff, Alexis Hiniker, Colin M. Gray, Arunesh Mathur & Shruthi Chivukula, What Can CHI Do About Dark Patterns? (workshop proposal), https://darkpatternsindesign.com/proposal/

    1. Imagine buying flowers for a loved one. After selecting a bouquet, at checkout you discover that the site has sneaked a paid greeting card into your shopping cart. This is an example of a dark pattern, an interface designed to manipulate a user into behavior that goes against their best interests.
  21. Apr 2021
    1. The book introduces Zemiology as a discipline that lies beyond the 'toxic language' of conventional criminology and makes the study of social harm a concern of all scholar-activists. Zemiolgy alerts scholar-activists to the fact that lots of harms around the world are legally imposed. The authors conclude that the pursuit of corporate profits at the expense of human needs is the main driver of social harms. They call for the abolition of capitalism as part of efforts towards harm-reduction. Biko Agozino, Professor of Sociology and Africana Studies, Virginia Tech This book is timely and provides an easily accessible, theoretical and empirical introduction to zemiology, the discipline that seeks to unearth harmful structures, policies, decisions and practice to generate changes to confront them. After a pedagogical introduction covering the arguments in favour of zemiology as a discipline of its own, the book unpacks theoretical and empirical demonstrations that clearly underline the field’s justification. As the authors state; zemiology requires a rethink about the lens through which we view the world in which we live. This is an important book for students and others who want to look beyond criminology to understand, analyse and act against harms. Ragnhild Sollund, Professor at the University of Oslo

      Aha: "the discipline that seeks to unearth harmful structures, policies, decisions and practice to generate changes to confront them."

    2. This book outlines key developments in understanding social harm by setting out its historical foundations and the discussions which have proliferated since. It examines various attempts to conceptualise social harm and highlights key sites of contestation in its relationship to criminology to argue that these act as the basis for an activist zemiology, one directed towards social change for social justice. The past two decades have seen a proliferation of debate related to social harm in and around criminology. From climate catastrophe and a focus on environmental harms, unprecedented deaths generating focus on border harms and the coronavirus pandemic revealing the horror of mass and arguably avoidable deaths across the globe, critical studies in social harm appear ever more pressing. Drawing on a range of international case studies of cultural, emotional, physical and economic harms, From Social Harm to Zemiology locates the study of social harm in an accessible fashion. In doing so it sets out how a zemiological lens can moves us beyond many of the problematic legacies of criminology. This book rejects criminologies which have disproportionately served to regulate intersectional groups, and which have arguably inflicted as much or more harm by bolstering the very ideologies of control in offering minor reforms that inadvertently expand and strengthen states and corporations. It does this by sketching out the contours, objects, methods and ontologies of a disciplinary framework which rejects commonplace assumptions of ‘value freedom’. From Social Harm to Zemiology advocates social change in accordance with groups who are most disenfranchised, and thus often most socially harmed.

      I still don't know what "zemiology" is.

    1. But this wasn’t a typical set of twins, Roberts learned. Her pregnancy was diagnosed as superfetation, a rare condition in which a woman who is already pregnant conceives another baby.Doctors found a second baby during the 12-week ultrasound appointment, and after several scans, they diagnosed the pregnancy as superfetation. In this image, the larger baby is 13 weeks, while the smaller one is 10. (Courtesy of Rebecca Roberts) Roberts’s pregnancy is one of very few superfetation cases recorded in medical literature, her obstetrician, David Walker, said.
  22. Mar 2021
    1. The GIF Ms. Jin sold, created by her childhood friend, an artist named Annie Zhao, is an example of something called a nonfungible token. NFTs are essentially digital collectible items (GIFs, images, memes, games, code, videos, artwork, music, games, even text) that people can buy, sell and trade. Almost any piece of digital content can be made into an NFT and have its public documentation of ownership recorded on the blockchain. Some of the ideas behind NFTs — documentation of ownership and chain of custody, scarcity, trading, valuations and speculation — are as old as markets. The innovation is the decentralization, which in turn means you can take NFTs anywhere. No one platform or middleman controls them.
    1. Many of these laws relate specifically to hunting, says Ciara Farrell, the Club’s library and collections manager. To own a dog used for hunting, people had to have special hunting licenses, issued by the king. “All other dogs must be expeditated or hambled,” she says, “which was a pretty nasty practice whereby dogs had some claws removed or had the pad of one foot damaged.” Simply muzzling them, the book decreed, was not sufficient. Generally, only mastiffs required hambling—though, Manwood acknowledged, “there is more Danger in [greyhounds] than in Mastiffs.”
    1. A radiograph of the pelvis showed a widening of the pubic symphysis of more than 5 cm. Also known as an open-book fracture, this injury typically occurs after high-energy blunt trauma, such as that caused in a motorcycle accident or by a fall from height.
  23. Feb 2021
    1. Deep phenotyping in psychiatric research and practice is a term used to describe the collection and analysis of multiple streams of behavioral and biological data, some of this data collected around the clock, to identify and intervene in critical health events.
  24. journals.librarypublishing.arizona.edu journals.librarypublishing.arizona.edu
    1. Silencing such a prominent activist is, in our view, part of a pattern of global violent repression againstdefenders in ecological distribution conflicts (henceforth EDCs) (Scheidelet al., 2020). EDCs refer to disputesarising from the unequal distribution of environmental benefits and costs of projects such as extractiveindustries, transport facilities, or waste dumping (Martinez-Alier and O'Connor, 1996). The origin of suchconflicts is often unequal ecological exchange (UEE) (Hornborg, 1998).
    1. Harker’s team at the Philadelphia Fed has developed a new online tool, the Occupational Mobility Explorer, to help workers without bachelor’s degrees (whose jobs are most vulnerable to automation) identify “opportunity occupations”: new jobs they could do with only modest training or upskilling that pay significantly more than their old job. People around the country can use the tool to find opportunity occupations in their area. Across 33 metro areas, Harker found that about half of jobs can upskill into a similar job with an average annual salary increase of $15,000. “This is a tool not just for employees looking to upskill, but also for public officials looking at developing programs, community colleges, job training programs to really focus in on: Where are the jobs of the future? Where are the jobs that are growing that can move people into the middle class?” Harker said.
  25. Jan 2021
    1. We all cyberloaf – and the science says that it can make us more productive at work. But when does a useful break become plain old slacking off?WWhen Stephanie Andel can feel her eyes glaze over scrolling through academic papers, institutional emails or student marking, she’ll open a new tab in her web browser and explore. “I take a few minutes every hour or two to surf the web, look at news or scan my Facebook feed to catch up with friends,” Andel, assistant professor of psychology at Indiana University Purdue University of Indianapolis, admits. She’s not alone. Research shows that workers drift from their contracted tasks to personal email, social networks and the far corners of the internet for anything between a few hours a week to a few hours a day. Six out of 10 people admit they can’t get through the workday without checking their social media, according to online learning firm Udemy, while two-thirds of us say Facebook is the biggest time-sink. This phenomenon – known as cyberloafing – is an issue that costs businesses $85bn a year through lost time, according to researchers at the University of Nevada. Cyberloafing is often presented as a negative. “Some of the early research into it was framing it as procrastination,” explains Dr Fuschia Sirois of the University of Sheffield’s Department of Psychology. “People were cyberloafing to escape.” Yet more recent research suggests that a degree of cyberloafing may be beneficial to employees; that small breaks help them refocus between tasks and even deal with workplace stress. Briefly stepping back – also known as “psychological detachment” – helps them muster energy to continue through the workday.
  26. www.pbs.org www.pbs.org
    1. CECE MOORE (Genetic Genealogist): We inherit our DNA from both of our parents: 50 percent from mom, 50 percent from dad. And they inherited it from their parents; and their parents, of course, inherited it from their parents.NARRATOR: Our parents each contribute about 50 percent to our DNA. And the same is true for them and their parents. So, the amount of DNA we inherit from any ancestor drops by half with each preceding generation.We also share DNA with anyone who shares a common ancestor with us: siblings, half-siblings, first cousins, second cousins and so on. The way that the D.T.C.s determine those relationships is by comparing people’s DNA. The amount that is shared is measured in a unit called centimorgans.CECE MOORE: The more centimorgans two people share, the closer they are related. And the fewer centimorgans they share, the more distantly related they are.NARRATOR: But with the D.T.C.s, a relationship to someone can’t always be determined just by counting centimorgans, because the numbers fall within ranges. You might share the same number with a cousin and a great-uncle, for example.ELLEN GREYTAK (Parabon NanoLabs): Just because you have an amount of shared DNA doesn’t mean you actually know, for sure, what that person’s relationship is. It’s just a probability, a spectrum of possible relationships.
  27. Dec 2020
    1. Bhang is the cheapest, most prevalent, and lowest-quality marijuana; it consists of crushed leaves, seeds, and/or flowers, and produces the least potent high. On the other end of the spectrum, Charas is the highest-quality and most expensive marijuana in India. It is sold as a highly potent hashish produced from plants grown in the most desirable cannabis-producing farmlands of the Hindu Kush and Himalaya mountain ranges between 4,000 to 7,000 feet. It remains one of the most revered marijuana products in the world today. Somewhere in between Bhang and Charas is Ganga. A mid-grade crop in both price and potency, Ganga is cultivated from well-cared-for female plants, and consists of a mixture of resin and cannabis flower.
    1. This might seem self-evident when you take a second to think about it, but then why would you be thinking about this at all unless you work in the relatively booming beard care industry or you’re a pogonophile—a lover of beards and the bearded.
    1. Taniya Bethke, who coordinates recruitment and retention efforts for the South Dakota Game, Fish and Parks Department, said she has experience with the cultural challenges.  “There’s this dichotomy between the hippies with tie-dye T-shirts and these stereotypical rednecks wearing doe urine and camouflage,” she said. “I didn’t fit into either one of those communities.” Bethke, who took up hunting as an adult, said it wasn’t until she found a group of “hipnecks” — rural young adults who shared a commitment to sustainable food — that she felt comfortable trying it. 
    1. Teddy came from Turks and Caicos, as did his sister, Scout. My buddy Bonnie and I were there in 2005 and had read about a dog whisperer named Jane Parker-Rauw, who since the late 1990s has been guiding tourists through the rescue process of street puppies known as potcakes. Dogs that had originally arrived by ship as far back as the early 1800s got that name after the pots with dregs of burned peas and rice put out on the stoops for them at week’s end.
    1. One trick is to do a joint “premortem” exercise. Get together in a room, and imagine that you’re six months into the future. The feature has been built and launched and isn’t doing well. What went wrong?
    1. In September, Gilman, who is currently a faculty fellow at the Data and Society research institute, released a report documenting all the various algorithms that poverty lawyers might encounter. Called Poverty Lawgorithms, it’s meant to be a guide for her colleagues in the field. Divided into specific practice areas like consumer law, family law, housing, and public benefits, it explains how to deal with issues raised by algorithms and other data-driven technologies within the scope of existing laws.
    2. Miriam is a survivor of what’s known as “coerced debt,” a form of abuse usually perpetrated by an intimate partner or family member. While economic abuse is a long-standing problem, digital banking has made it easier to open accounts and take out loans in a victim’s name, says Carla Sanchez-Adams, an attorney at Texas RioGrande Legal Aid. In the era of automated credit-scoring algorithms, the repercussions can also be far more devastating.
    1. Destitution among workers can be traced in large part to the subminimum wage for tipped workers, still $2.13 an hour at the Federal level. A legacy of slavery,3 the subminimum wage for tipped workers persists in 43 states, and has subjected a largely female workforce of servers, bartenders, bussers, and others to economic instability and the highest rates of sexual harassment of any industry for decades.4
    1. In what Jayaraman terms "maskual harassment," the phenomenon's underlying power imbalance is no different than sexual harassment, she said, when workers are reliant on the customer's tips. Demanding a service worker to take their mask off, she argued, is asking them to "subject herself to the virus and the possibility of death — for the sexual pleasure of customers, all because she doesn't get paid a minimum wage."
  28. Nov 2020
    1. The fresco for a wall, for example, would be worked out first in a series of smaller sketches before the final design was drawn to full scale on huge sheets of paper (the “cartoon,” from the Italian cartone, meaning “big paper”). Cartoons came in for especially rough handling: to transfer their designs to the plaster, artists might score them with a sharp instrument, or outline the main figures with a series of pinpricks (“pouncing”), and then blow charcoal dust through the holes.
    1. Ellis’s raw racism and Atwater’s life-threatening clapbacks (she once had to be restrained from knifing Ellis) were as much a product of their time as the careful tiptoeing we were doing in our committee.
    1. Now an English professor at the University of South Carolina, Shields is part of an agricultural revolution with a future that lies in the past—one focused on preserving plant landraces, old cultivars that adapted to local conditions over generations.
    2. Many landraces grown before the 1850s are hardy, able to weather both drought and flooding. Some are nutritious and packed with flavors prized by high-end restaurants and specialty retailers. For example, Carolina Gold rice, milled and sold by Anson Mills in Columbia, makes other white rice taste like paste. “Landraces are genetically diverse, so they’re not bottlenecked,” Shields says. “They were bred for taste, not for mass production.”
    1. In cryologist-speak, the flaw lead is an opening that runs between ice attached to the coast (shore-fast ice) and the ice on the sea (drift ice). The flaw leads are unpredictable: during the autumn they can form anywhere in the frozen ocean where wind or currents place stress on the ice, and they often freeze over again. To find them, look up in the sky: a flaw may be indicated by steam rising from the water, or the dark reflection of the water on a cloud. Hunters often head out over the fast ice to the flaw lead in search of the mammals—seals, whales and narwhals—that gather there to breathe. With the same object in mind, polar bears will arrive over the drift ice. The flaw is an aberration, but also a rich resource; its fault line, a meeting point. —Nancy Campbell, The Library of Ice, 2018
    1. Until now, President-elect Joseph R. Biden Jr.’s Covid-19 task force has had to prepare its battle plan without the keys to the government agencies leading the pandemic response.That changes this week, when Mr. Biden can finally dispatch what are known as landing teams to the Department of Health and Human Services, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Food and Drug Administration.
    1. He knew from other viruses that fomite spread—the technical term for passing on a virus via objects—was possible, and at that time the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention had little guidance on SARS-CoV-2.
    1. Oyster eggs, having become larvae, attach themselves to rocks, or to whatever ‘culch’ or artificial surface human beings lay down for them – old roof-tiles were used as a traditional oyster-base in Arcachon.
    1. Those who spread misinformation—false content shared by a person who does not realize it is false or misleading—are driven by sociopsychological factors. People are performing their identities on social platforms to feel connected to others, whether the “others” are a political party, parents who do not vaccinate their children, activists who are concerned about climate change, or those who belong to a certain religion, race or ethnic group. Crucially, disinformation can turn into misinformation when people share disinformation without realizing it is false. Read Our Latest Issue
    1. SEC. 747. ANTIDISRUPTIVE PRACTICES AUTHORITY. Section 4c(a) of the Commodity Exchange Act (7 U.S.C. 6c(a)) (as amended by section 746) is amended by adding at the end the following: ‘‘(5) DISRUPTIVE PRACTICES.—It shall be unlawful for any person to engage in any trading, practice, or conduct on or subject to the rules of a registered entity that— ‘‘(A) violates bids or offers; ‘‘(B) demonstrates intentional or reckless disregard for the orderly execution of transactions during the closing period; or ‘‘(C) is, is of the character of, or is commonly known to the trade as, ‘spoofing’ (bidding or offering with the intent to cancel the bid or offer before execution).
    1. Spoofing is an illegal form of market manipulation in which a trader places a large order to buy or sell a financial asset, such as a stock, bond or futures contract, with no intention of executing. By doing so, the trader—or "the spoofer"—creates an artificial impression of high demand for the asset. Simultaneously, the trader places hundreds or even thousands of smaller orders for the same asset, profiting on the increase in price brought about by the large fake order, which is then cancelled. Spoofing is also known as bluffing, and has been around for decades as traders attempt to take advantage of other market players by artificially inflating—or deflating, as the case may be—the price of an asset. The technique has perhaps become more common, or at least gained more notoriety, in the 2010s because of the advent of speedy, high-volume and computer-driven trading systems. During this time, it also attracted the notice of securities regulators and law enforcement officials.[1] Spoofing is considered manipulative because the trader would not have achieved the price on the actual orders without first obtaining that price by virtue of the large bogus order.
    1. According to the Plaintiffs' allegations, in or around 2003, two of MIVA's top revenue-generating distribution partners (“Saveli” and “Dmitri”)—who together generated almost one-third of MIVA's revenue during 2003, 2004, and 2005, and represented about 36 percent of MIVA's click revenue (id. ¶¶ 40–41)—began using click fraud to generate revenue.   Saveli and Dmitri's click fraud included the use of spyware, browser hijacking software, and other non-human traffic.  (Id. ¶ 43).   According to a former Business Development Manager at MIVA, Saveli and Dmitri were “turn and burn guys” who focused primarily on driving in a lot of traffic, regardless of its quality.
    2. A “fraud on the market” occurs when a material misrepresentation is knowingly disseminated to an informationally efficient market.  Basic, 485 U.S. at 247.   Just as an efficient market translates all available truthful information into the stock price, the market processes the publicly disseminated falsehood and prices it into the stock as well.   See id. at 241–42, 243–44, 246–47.   The market price of the stock will then include an artificial “inflationary” value—the amount that the market mistakenly attributes to the stock based on the fraudulent misinformation.   So long as the falsehood remains uncorrected, it will continue to taint the total mix of available public information, and the market will continue to attribute the artificial inflation to the stock, day after day.   If and when the misinformation is finally corrected by the release of truthful information (often called a “corrective disclosure”), the market will recalibrate the stock price to account for this change in information, eliminating whatever artificial value it had attributed to the price.   That is, the inflation within the stock price will “dissipate.”
    3. “Click fraud” generally refers to the practice of clicking on an Internet advertisement for the sole purpose of forcing the advertiser to pay for the click.  (Id. ¶ 43).   Because advertisers only pay when someone clicks through to their website, artificial clicks can be very costly to advertisers.  (Id.) Click fraud includes the use of illicit practices such as spyware, browser hijacking software, and other “bots” or “non-human traffic.” 3  (Id. ¶¶ 43–44).   Such practices result in lower sales conversion rates for advertisers because the leads are false—they do not come from actual buyers interested in purchasing the advertised products.  (Id. ¶ 26).   Because lower conversion rates lead to lower advertiser bids and thus to decreased revenue, ensuring the quality of its distribution partners and eliminating improper Internet traffic are extremely important for a pay-per-click company such as MIVA.
    1. ON THE OPENING NIGHT OF every Broadway musical, a constant flow of flowers, balloons and gifts swirls past the stage door and into the theater. As the presents begin to spill into the corridors outside the dressing rooms, the oldest and most beloved gift arrives: the Gypsy Robe.The robe is Broadway history made visible. It travels from musical to musical in a tradition stretching back more than 45 years. Every Broadway show with a chorus of dancers and singers, known in the business as gypsies, takes part when its opening night arrives.
  29. Oct 2020
    1. Henrich is a cultural anthropologist but he wants to do it right, with controls, experiments, statistics and factual claims that can be shown to be right or wrong. In 1960 the field of cliometrics was born, history done with large data sets and statistics, and Henrich wants to show just how far this approach can be pushed. Traditional historians and the more informal cultural anthropologists will see themselves being confronted with a methodology few of them use and challenged to defend their impressionistic hypotheses against his lab-based results.
    2. Experts who don’t have the technical tools — historians and anthropologists especially — have an important role to play as well; they should scour the book for any instances of Occam’s broom (with which one sweeps inconvenient facts under the rug). This can be an innocent move, since Henrich himself, in spite of the astonishing breadth of his scholarship, is not expert in all of these areas and may simply be ignorant of important but little-known exceptions to his generalizations. His highly detailed and confident relaying of historical and anthropological facts impresses me, but what do I know? You can’t notice what isn’t mentioned unless you’re an expert.
    1. Once upon a time there was a German psychologist whose name I am forgetting—which will, itself, become relevant in just a moment—who argued that when you don’t name a thing it stays more active in your mind. Specifically, he found that you have better recall for the details of an unsolved task, an unfinished puzzle, an unnamed psychological phenomenon, than a solved or labeled thing. “Loose ends prevail” could have been the name of his law, but it was—I’m checking my notes—the Zeigarnik effect. The man’s name was Zeigarnik and she was a woman not a man and she was Russian, not German. But still. It has stayed with me, this idea with a hard-to-remember name about how unnamed ideas are easier to remember. This rabid little law that suggests that unlabeled things gnaw and tug at you with more vigor, their parts and powers somehow more alive when they are left to roam wild, outside of the confines of our words.
    1. For philanthropists of the past, charity was often a matter of simply giving money away. For the philanthrocapitalists - the new generation of billionaires who are reshaping the way they give - it's like business. Largely trained in the corporate world, these "social investors" are using big-business-style strategies and expecting results and accountability to match. Bill Gates, the world's richest man, is leading the way: he has promised his entire fortune to finding a cure for the diseases that kill millions of children in the poorest countries in the world. In Philanthrocapitalism, Matthew Bishop and Michael Green examine this new movement and its implications. Proceeding from interviews with some of the most powerful people on the planet-including Gates, Bill Clinton, George Soros, Angelina Jolie, and Bono, among others-they show how a web of wealthy, motivated donors has set out to change the world. Their results will have huge implications: In a climate resistant to government spending on social causes, their focused donations may be the greatest force for societal change in our world, and a source of political controversy.
    1. Patients with altered mental function — the medical term is encephalopathy — were also nearly seven times as likely to die as those who did not have that type of problem.“Encephalopathy is a generic term meaning something’s wrong with the brain,” Dr. Koralnik said. The description can include problems with attention and concentration, loss of short-term memory, disorientation, stupor and “profound unresponsiveness” or a coma-like level of consciousness.Refer someone to The Times.They’ll enjoy our special rate of $1 a week.
  30. Sep 2020
    1. TikTok concedes that its ability to nail users' preferences so effectively means that its algorithm can produce "filter bubbles," reinforcing users' existing preferences rather than showing them more varied content, widening their horizons, or offering them opposing viewpoints. The company says that it's studying filter bubbles, including how long they last and how a user encounters them, to get better at breaking them when necessary.Since filter bubbles can reinforce conspiracy theories, hoaxes and other misinformation, TikTok's product and policy teams study which accounts and video information — themes, hashtags, captions, and so on — might be linked to misinformation.
  31. Aug 2020
    1. ‘It’s not supposed to be about him’: Harris scorches Trump in prebuttal of acceptance speech The Democratic vice presidential nominee accused the president of deadly incompetence and “a reckless disregard for the well-being of the American people.”
    1. It’s also still difficult to say how much “fomite” transmission is actually happening—that’s the term for when a bug is left on an object, which is then picked up by others.
    1. Active learning exercises engage students during lectures, but often fail to take account of the individual learning position of each student. The ‘quecture’ is a partially flipped lecture that incorporates students posing their own questions (quecture questions), discussing them during lectures and revisiting them later. These interactive learning events are designed to personalise students’ construction of learning during lectures. Quectures were trialled in direct comparison with both fully flipped and traditional lectures, providing information on student attitudes, experiences and engagement with the learning strategy. Quectures were favoured by participants over the two other lecture formats and were found to be helpful both in increasing learning and in improving study habits, although some students had difficulty adjusting to, or disliked, the new mode of learning. The student-posed questions were also perceived by students to improve enquiry skills and to personalise learning. Although many chose not to engage with the strategy, those who did felt more engaged with, and more responsible for their own learning during quectures than in traditional lectures. Future work will be required to generalise the effectiveness of this strategy as well as to fine tune for optimum benefit. It will also be important to investigate which subpopulations of students preferentially engage or disengage with the strategy, and to unpick any relationship between this engagement and academic performance.
    1. But the real question, the one everyone wants to know, is how do Ouija boards work? Ouija boards are not, scientists say, powered by spirits or even demons. Disappointing but also potentially useful—because they’re powered by us, even when we protest that we’re not doing it, we swear. Ouija boards work on a principle known to those studying the mind for more than 160 years: the ideometer effect. In 1852, physician and physiologist William Benjamin Carpenter published a report for the Royal Institution of Great Britain, examining these automatic muscular movements that take place without the conscious will or volition of the individual (think crying in reaction to a sad film, for example). Almost immediately, other researchers saw applications of the ideometer effect in the popular spiritualist pastimes. In 1853, chemist and physicist Michael Faraday, intrigued by table-turning, conducted a series of experiments that proved to him (though not to most spiritualists) that the table’s motion was due to the ideomotor actions of the participants.

      I think the two occurrences of "ideometer" are a typo for "ideomotor."

    1. in many parts of the world, people don't look like cashews when they bend over. Instead, you see something very different. I first noticed this mysterious bending style in 2014 while covering the Ebola outbreak. We were driving on a back road in the rain forest of Liberia and every now and then, we would pass women working in their gardens. The women had striking silhouettes: They were bent over with their backs nearly straight. But they weren't squatting with a vertical back. Instead, their backs were parallel to the ground. They looked like tables. After returning home, I started seeing this "table" bending in photos all around the world — an older woman planting rice in Madagascar, a Mayan woman bending over at a market in Guatemala and women farming grass in northern India. This bending seemed to be common in many places, except in Western societies. "The anthropologists have noted exactly what you're saying for years," says Stuart McGill, at the University of Waterloo in Ontario, Canada, who has been studying the biomechanics of the spine for more than three decades. "It's called hip hinging," McGill says. "And I've spent my career trying to prove it's a better way of bending than what we do."
    2. when you hip hinge, your spine stays in a neutral position. The bending occurs at the hip joint — which is the king of motion. "Hips are a ball and socket joints," McGill says. "They are designed to have maximum movement lots of muscle force."
    1. The psychological study that coined the word “precrastination” was conducted by a team of psychologists led by David Rosenbaum. The experimenters showed people an alley, along which were distributed two heavy buckets. The experimental subjects were asked to walk down the alley, pick up a bucket and carry it to the far end. The total distance walked is the same either way, so the easiest way to do this task is to pick up the furthest bucket, minimising the distance over which one has to carry the load. However, the majority of people choose the nearest bucket, instinctively believing “soonest started, soonest finished”.
    1. Do you park in the first spot you see, even if it means a longer, grocery-laden walk back from the store later? When unloading the dishwasher, do you quickly shove all the Tupperware into a random cabinet, thereby getting the dishes-doing process over with faster—but also setting yourself up for a mini-avalanche of containers and lids?In a recent study published in Psychological Science, Pennsylvania State psychologists coined a new term for this phenomenon: Precrastination, or "the tendency to complete, or at least begin, tasks as soon as possible, even at the expense of extra physical effort."
  32. Jul 2020
    1. Beverly Jordan is a partner at a family-medicine clinic in Enterprise, Alabama. Enterprise is situated in “wiregrass country”—a largely rural region, encompassing southeastern Alabama and parts of Georgia and Florida, named for the ubiquitous vegetation that takes root in its sandy soil.
    2. Labor economists have long studied a phenomenon called hysteresis: in economics, it refers to a situation in which high unemployment caused by a particular event develops an inertia of its own, remaining elevated even after the initial cause has abated. Nobody is quite sure what causes hysteresis. Do workers’ skills erode? Or do firms find that they can get along with fewer workers? In any case, now that the pandemic has caused extended mass unemployment, hysteresis could play a major role in our society—and our health care.
    1. 12See Goff, supra note 1. Note that the term “adultification” is sometimes used to refer to a distinct phenomenon in which children who are assigned adult responsibilities behave in ways that are more adult-like than their peers. For purposes of this report, adultification refers to adults’ generalized perception of Black girls as more adult, without reference to their individual behaviors.
    2. Adultification Can Take Two Essential Forms: 1.A process of socialization, in which chil dren function at a more mature devel opmental stage because of situational context and necessity, especially in low-resource community environments;23 and 2.A social or cultural stereotype that is based on how adults perceive children “in the absence of knowledge of chil dren’s behavior and verbalizations.24 This latter form of adultification, which is based in part on race,25 is the subject of this report. Scholars ha
    3. Research has shown that Black boys, in particular, are often perceived as less innocent and more adult than their white male peers and, as a result, they are more likely to be assigned greater culpability for their actions, which increases their risk of contact with the juvenile justice system.11 This report refers to this phenomenon, which effectively reduces or removes the consideration of childhood as a mediating factor in Black youths’ behavior, as “adultification”.
    4. This report represents a key step in addressing the disparate treatment of Black girls in public systems. We challenge researchers to develop new studies to investigate the degree and prevalence of the adultification of Black girls—a term used in this report to refer to the perception of Black girls as less innocent and more adult-like than white girls of the same age—as well as its possible causal connection with negative outcomes across a diverse range of public systems, including education, juvenile justice, and child welfare.
  33. Jun 2020
    1. By Gage’s estimate, between 20 and 30 percent of Washington’s 16,700 inmates are mentally ill. When I asked why, Gage, who spent two decades at Western State Hospital before switching to the DOC, went broad. “It used to be called deinstitutionalization,” said Gage. “Now it’s called trans-institutionalization. We took everyone out of the state hospitals, and they pretty much, the same population, ended up in prisons and jails.” The jailing of the mentally ill cannot honestly be called an accidental byproduct of the nation’s fractured mental-health system. The disinvestment in mental health care has gone on too long — generations now — to be considered anything but deliberate neglect. In 1955, before deinstitutionalization, there was one psychiatric bed for every 300 U.S. residents. A half-century later, that ratio is now 1 in 3,000. That has led to another telling ratio: For every one person in a public or private psychiatric bed in Washington, there are 3.1 people with serious mental illness in the state’s jails and prisons, according to the Treatment Advocacy Center. Nationally, the ratio is 3.2 to 1.
    1. After Castile’s death, I wrote a piece for MIT Technology Review about “sousveillance,” the idea posited by the inventor Steve Mann, the “father of wearable computing,” that connected cameras controlled by citizens could be used to hold power accountable. Even though bystander video of Eric Garner being choked to death by New York police officer Daniel Pantaleo in 2014 had led not to Pantaleo’s indictment but to the arrest of Ramsey Orta, the man who filmed the murder, I offered my hope that “the ubiquity of cell-phone cameras combined with video streaming services like Periscope, YouTube, and Facebook Live has set the stage for citizens to hold the police responsible for excessive use of force.” I was wrong.
  34. May 2020
    1. Heteromation is a new logic of value creation based on digitechnology. The authors divide the economic history of computerisation in three eras: the automation that intensified after the Second World War aimed to replace the machines with people. In addition to this, from the 1970 onwards, the idea of increasing human intelligence, “symbiosis of a human and computer”, was developed. The focus of technological increase shifted from organisations to individuals and people’s daily work and life, and later through the Internet to large crowds. Heteromation is a concept that people are involved in the value creation activities, but they themselves benefit from creating monetary value only little or not at all. Heteramation is always associated with the creation of a value for an outsider who is mostly invisible. It is not the same as crowdsourcing. Crowdsourcing can be made for internal benefit of a community and it does not change into a monetary value.
    1. t least twice a year, Dr Parmanand Sharma embarks on a multi-hour, potentially treacherous commute to work—by car, foot, and zip line. To reach his version of the office, he takes the Manali-Leh Highway; an expanse of road that winds through the Indian Himalayas, ascending from 6,000 feet to 17,000 feet. At that height, Sharma’s closing in on the Himalayan Cryosphere or “the Third Pole,” an epithet for the largest mass of ice outside the polar region. It’s this frozen terrain that Sharma is here for; specifically, its glaciers.
    1. There are some words out there that are brilliantly evocative and at the same time impossible to fully translate. Yiddish has the word shlimazl, which basically means a perpetually unlucky person. German has the word Backpfeifengesicht, which roughly means a face that is badly in need of a fist. And then there’s the Japanese word tsundoku, which perfectly describes the state of my apartment. It means buying books and letting them pile up unread. The word dates back to the very beginning of modern Japan, the Meiji era (1868-1912) and has its origins in a pun. Tsundoku, which literally means reading pile, is written in Japanese as 積ん読. Tsunde oku means to let something pile up and is written 積んでおく. Some wag around the turn of the century swapped out that oku (おく) in tsunde oku for doku (読) – meaning to read. Then since tsunde doku is hard to say, the word got mushed together to form tsundoku
  35. Apr 2020
    1. For anyone who grows anxious at the sound of a sneeze or a cough these days, Lydia Bourouiba’s research offers little comfort. Bourouiba, a fluid dynamics scientist at MIT, has spent the last few years using high-speed cameras and light to reveal how expulsions from the human body can spread pathogens, such as the novel coronavirus. Slowed to 2,000 frames per second, video and images from her lab show that a fine mist of mucus and saliva can burst from a person’s mouth at nearly a hundred miles an hour and travel as far as 27 feet. When the sternutation is over, a turbulent cloud of droplet-containing gas can remain suspended for several minutes, depending on the size of the droplet.
    1. Some women also experience hypernatremia, a dehydration condition in which breast milk may be lacking to the point that malnutrition and dehydration are experienced by the infant, potentially leading to seizures, hemorrhages, and death.2
    1. This article reviews the recent literature in economics on small-scale entrepreneurship ("microentrepreneurship") in low-income countries. Major themes in the literature include the determinants and consequences of joining the formal sector; the impacts of access to credit and other financial services; the impacts of business training; barriers to hiring; and the distinction between self-employment by necessity and self-employment as a calling. The article devotes special attention to unique issues that arise with female entrepreneurship.
    1. Swuggling is juggling while swimming and can be a fun addition to any swimming session. It is also one of the disciplines in a juggling triathlon (joggling, swuggling and unijuggling) To start swuggling, first you need to be able to juggle while lying down on your back. Second, you need to be able to swim on your back using only your legs for propulsion, as your arms and hands are occupied with juggling, Third, you need some juggling balls that can handle getting wet. Regular bean bags and other balls that are filled with something are generally not waterproof and therefore not recommended, nor are balls made from leather as they will get soaked.