24 Matching Annotations
  1. Dec 2015
    1. common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities

      Malaysia, for the LMDCs, stressed the need to “recognize that the principles of equity and CBDR must be preserved in all their facets and forms.” He urged parties to look at the best available social science to assess modern realities and stressed that civil society must have access to negotiations.

    2. [Article 3bis] (REDD-plus)http://cop21.okfnlabs.org/agreement/#article-3bis-redd-plus

      Calling for a REDD+ mechanism to be reflected in the agreement, Panama, for the Coalition for Rainforest Nations, recalled that heads of state sent a “strong” political signal on the role of forests and biodiversity in their speeches.

    3. Option II: No reference to loss and damage (no Article 5).]

      TUVALU urged reinsertion of language on loss and damage that preserves the issue as an independent article.

    4. Recognizing that Parties should take action to address climate change in accordance with [[relevant][evolving economic and emission] trends, which will continue to evolve post-2020] [and the principles and provisions of the Convention],

      On purpose (Article 2), VENEZUELA supported “stabilization” of GHG emissions and, with SAUDI ARABIA and PAKISTAN, opposed the inclusion of “decarbonization” and “carbon neutrality.”

    5. [and the Central American Isthmus]

      At the end of a preambular paragraph on special needs, EL SALVADOR requested adding “and the Central American isthmus.”

    6. First communication option for agreement5 Option 167: Each Party’s first [NDMC*][INDC] is that listed in [Annex [x] to the Agreement][the registry][the website]. Option 2: Each Party [shall][should] communicate its first [NDMC*][INDC] no later than upon [ratification or acceptance of] [joining] this Agreement. Option 3: No provision on first communication in agreement and/or decision

      On mitigation (Article 3), the EU, supported by Colombia, for AILAC, Maldives, for AOSIS, and the US called for clarifying the date for the submission of contributions.

    7. socially and environmentally sound technologies.

      MEXICO asked that “socially and environmentally sound technology” be reinserted.

    8. Option 1: [[Developed country Parties and other developed country Parties included in Annex II to the Convention][Developed country Parties should take the lead and][Developed country Parties[, Parties with economies in transition] [and Parties in a position to do so]] [All Parties in a position to do so] [shall][should][other] provide [support][[new and additional] financial resources] to assist developing country Parties [including Parties whose special circumstances recognized by [Article 4.8 of the Convention][COP decisions]] with respect to both mitigation and adaptation [as well as addressing loss and damage] [and others in a position to do so should complement such efforts].] Option 2: [Developed country Parties and other developed Parties included in Annex II to the Convention shall provide new and additional, adequate, predictable, accessible, sustained and scaled-up financial resources to developing countries to enhance actions with respect to both mitigation and adaptation to contribute to the achievement of the [objective][purpose] of this Agreement, based on the principles and in accordance with the provisions of the Convention.] Option 3: [Parties in a position to do so, including developed country Parties, should provide support to assist developing country Parties in need of support with respect to both mitigation and adaptation.]

      On finance, the EU, NEW ZEALAND and the US stated developed countries should meet their obligations, and that others in a position to do so should contribute. AILAC envisioned CBDR and respective capabilities (CBDRRC) and developed country parties and countries “willing to do so” providing support. The LMDCs underlined that finance should be from developed to developing countries.

    9. Flexibility LDCs [and SIDS][and African states] may communicate their [NDMC*][INDC] at their discretion, including information on strategies, plans and actions for low GHG development, reflecting their special circumstances.

      On mitigation, the EU, Colombia, for AILAC, the US and others said that the INDCs imply self-differentiation. The EU stated all countries should seek economy-wide targets but there should not be shared timelines. The US added that developing countries should be eligible for support in implementing their contributions, and that LDCs and others should have flexibility to submit at their discretion without expectation. JAPAN stated that only vulnerable countries should have “partly conditional” INDCs.

    10. [Taking account also of the [different and additional] specific needs and special [situations] [circumstances ] of [least developed country (LDC) Parties in accordance with Article 4, paragraph 9 of the Convention and specific circumstances of] small island developing States (SIDS) [and least developed country (LDC) Parties],] [Africa] [and the Central American Isthmus],

      In the afternoon, the contact group discussed differentiation with all parties agreeing that the new agreement needs to reflect differentiation. Several parties observed the need to recognize the special circumstances of small island developing states (SIDS) and LDCs, with SAUDI ARABIA noting that this is already in the Convention.

    11. [Taking account also of the [different and additional] specific needs and special [situations] [circumstances ] of [least developed country (LDC) Parties in accordance with Article 4, paragraph 9 of the Convention and specific circumstances of] small island developing States (SIDS) [and least developed country (LDC) Parties],] [Africa] [and the Central American Isthmus],

      In the afternoon, the contact group discussed differentiation with all parties agreeing that the new agreement needs to reflect differentiation. Several parties observed the need to recognize the special circumstances of small island developing states (SIDS) and LDCs, with SAUDI ARABIA noting that this is already in the Convention.

    12. [Taking account also of the [different and additional] specific needs and special [situations] [circumstances ] of [least developed country (LDC) Parties in accordance with Article 4, paragraph 9 of the Convention and specific circumstances of] small island developing States (SIDS) [and least developed country (LDC) Parties],] [Africa] [and the Central American Isthmus],

      In the afternoon, the contact group discussed differentiation with all parties agreeing that the new agreement needs to reflect differentiation. Several parties observed the need to recognize the special circumstances of small island developing states (SIDS) and LDCs, with SAUDI ARABIA noting that this is already in the Convention.

    13. [Taking account also of the [different and additional] specific needs and special [situations] [circumstances ] of [least developed country (LDC) Parties in accordance with Article 4, paragraph 9 of the Convention and specific circumstances of] small island developing States (SIDS) [and least developed country (LDC) Parties],] [Africa] [and the Central American Isthmus],

      In the afternoon, the contact group discussed differentiation with all parties agreeing that the new agreement needs to reflect differentiation. Several parties observed the need to recognize the special circumstances of small island developing states (SIDS) and LDCs, with SAUDI ARABIA noting that this is already in the Convention.

    14. Hold the increase in the global average temperature [below 1.5 °C] [or] [well] [below 2 °C] above preindustrial levels by ensuring deep cuts in global greenhouse gas [net] emissions;

      On the request to the IPCC to provide a special report on the impact of a temperature increase of 1.5°C, SAUDI ARABIA and others questioned its added value beyond the IPCC assessment reports. TUVALU noted that newer information may be available that was not considered during the last assessment report cycle. INDIA and CHINA underscored the need for information on how to achieve temperature goals. Several parties requested, and ADP Co-Chair Daniel Reifsnyder agreed, to consult with the IPCC.

    15. A [mechanism][committee] [with differentiation between developed and developing country Parties][applicable to all Parties] to promote [[and address] compliance with] and facilitate implementation [of the provisions of this Agreement], which shall be expert-based, [facilitative] in nature and shall act in a manner that is transparent, non-punitive, non-adversarial [for developing country Parties][for all Parties], is hereby established. [It shall pay particular attention to the respective national capabilities and circumstances of Parties.]

      On a facilitative dialogue, several parties proposed a wider scope, beyond mitigation. The EU expressed flexibility on this, suggesting referring to the purpose of the agreement.

      CHINA and SAUDI ARABIA expressed concern that a facilitative dialogue could represent an ex ante review and opposed this. The EU and the US said a dialogue would inform the next round of INDCs.

    16. Hold the increase in the global average temperature [below 1.5 °C] [or] [well] [below 2 °C] above preindustrial levels by ensuring deep cuts in global greenhouse gas [net] emissions;

      SAINT LUCIA, opposed by the ARAB GROUP who suggested deleting reference to “degrees” altogether, called for including a request for consideration of consistency with 1.5°C scenarios. Parties decided that those interested would work on a new proposal.

      SAINT LUCIA, supported by a number of parties, and opposed by the ARAB GROUP, introduced a new paragraph urging the update to the synthesis report to take into account 1.5°C scenarios.

    17. recognizing the [important] role of [subnational and local authorities as well as [non state actors and the private sector]] [a multiplicity of] [different] actors,

      ARAB GROUP proposed deleting two paragraphs, on requesting all actors to scale up and demonstrate efforts, cautioning against passing the burden to actors outside the Convention.

    18. This Agreement shall enter into force on the thirtieth day after the date on which at least [X] [50][55][100] [ the ¾] Parties to the Convention [including all Annex I Parties] [and] [or] [on which Parties to the Convention accounting for [55][60][70][X] per cent of total [net] global greenhouse gas emissions in [[date][1990][2000][2010][2012]]

      On implementation and compliance (Article 11) and final clauses, Co-Facilitator Sarah Baashan (Saudi Arabia) said CMA (Article 12) was now clean, but disagreements remained on a compliance committee/mechanism in Article 11 and the type of threshold to use for determining entry into force (Article 18).

    19. The purpose of the system for transparency of support is to: Provide a clear understanding of the support provided and received [as relevant] by individual Parties [as well as needs of developing country Parties] [and assist Parties in identifying gaps in support provided and received], without placing an undue burden on SIDS and LDCs; Provide[, to the extent possible,] a full overview of aggregate support provided and [mobilized] [in the light of {refer to the objective of the stocktake under Article 10}][under Article 10];

      On the synthesis report of the aggregate effect of the INDCs, parties decided to take note of the document. After intensive discussions on the various elements of the paragraph, including the gap between the aggregate effect of the INDCs and emissions consistent with 2°C or 1.5°C, Co-Chair Reifsnyder proposed: mentioning the gap resulting from the aggregate effect of INDCs communicated by 1 October 2015; inserting figures to concretize the gap; and including language from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change on lowest-cost emission pathways. He noted a revised text would be proposed by the ADP Co-Chairs and the Secretariat.

    20. Option 1: [The [NDMC*][INDC] communicated by Parties shall be [listed][published] [in an online registry maintained by the secretariat][ in Annex [X] to this Agreement][on the UNFCCC website].]

      Parties added brackets around a paragraph related to requesting the Secretariat to publish INDCs on its website.

    21. Article 18 (entry into force)http://cop21.okfnlabs.org/agreement/#article-18-entry-into-force This Agreement shall enter into force on the thirtieth day after the date on which at least [X] [50][55][100] [ the ¾] Parties to the Convention [including all Annex I Parties] [and] [or] [on which Parties to the Convention accounting for [55][60][70][X] per cent of total [net] global greenhouse gas emissions in [[date][1990][2000][2010][2012]] have deposited their instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession [whichever occurs first, coming into effect not earlier than 1 January 2020]][.][, with such Parties to the Convention accounting for X per cent of total [net] global greenhouse gas emissions [in [date] [1990][2000][2010][2012]] [but not earlier than 1 January 2020].]

      On paragraphs related to the adoption of the agreement, parties converged on paragraph 5 on parties provisionally applying the provisions of the agreement pending entry into force.

      On a body to prepare for entry into force, parties agreed that the ADP Co-Chairs and Secretariat would streamline the three options into one, representing the various proposals for the body raised by parties, including: using the ADP, changing its mandate and name, but importing all its previously agreed operational arrangements; using the SBI and/or the SBSTA; or creating a new body.

    22. In pursuit of the objective of the Convention, [and being guided by its principles [and provisions], including the principle of equity and common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, [in the light of different national circumstances],]

      TUVALU proposed adding language stating that the new agreement was being adopted in the context of Convention Article 17 (protocols). SAUDI ARABIA, the EU and the US opposed. Co-Chair Djoghlaf suggested discussing the issue during lunchtime.

    23. Option 1: A technology framework is hereby established to pursue that vision, including to enhance the development and transfer of socially and environmentally sound technologies. Option 2: A technology framework is hereby established to achieve that vision, with a view to enhancing the development and transfer of, and access to, socially and environmentally sound technologies by [addressing [mutually agreed] barriers and] guiding the work of the Technology Mechanism and further to facilitate the understanding of [the intended nationally determined contributions of Parties pertaining to] technology provision under the Agreement.

      Co-Facilitator Tosi Mpanu-Mpanu (Democratic Republic of the Congo), reporting back from technology development and transfer (Article 7), noted that the African Group presented a revised option for the technology framework that was well-received and informed that views remained divergent on the global goal.

    24. [Article 3ter] (mechanism to support sustainable development)

      COP 20/CMP 10 President Manuel Pulgar-Vidal, Minister of Environment, Peru, explained that, with the Paris agreement, along with the adoption of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Sustainable Development Goals in September 2015, “we are framing the new paradigm of development.” He called on delegates to show solidarity and work efficiently in a time-bound manner to find textual solutions.