1,303 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. according to Husserl, Galileo was the one who performed the trick. Who suddenly was hiding the origin of knowledge.
      • for: quote, quote - Galileo, quote - hiding the origin of knowledge, physical theory - hiding origin of knowledge

      • quote

        • According to Husserl, Galileo was the one who performed the trick. Who suddenly was hiding the origin of knowledge.
      • author: Michel Bitbol
    1. religious ideas contend that a non-physical Consciousness called God was in a good mood at one point so he and it usually is a he created 01:27:18 physicality the material world around us thank you so in those viewpoints Frameworks you're not allowed to ask who or what created God because the answer will be well he 01:27:35 just is and always was so have faith my child and stop asking questions like that [Music] religion or Mythos of materialism philosophy you are not allowed to ask 01:27:46 what created physical energy if you do the answer will be the big bang just happened it was this energy in a point that just was and always will be so have faith my child and don't ask questions 01:28:00 that can't be answered
      • for: adjacency: adjacency - monotheistic religions and maerialism
      • adjacency between
        • monotheistic religion
        • materialist / physicalist scientific theories
      • adjacency statement:
        • Good observation of an adjacency, although not all religions hold those views, and even in those religions, those are those views are held by less critical thinkers.
          • In the more contemplative branches of major world religions, there is a lot of deep, critical thinking that is not so naive.
  2. Sep 2023
    1. Technology is—the mortal enemy of art.technology. . . .We—are your first fighting and punitive force.We are also your last slave-workers.We are not dreamers from art who build in the imagination:

      This seems to speak to the idea that it will take work to rebuild in the wake of the Revolution. It will take work, constructing, and technology. This is also one of many places where art is denounced.

      • for: nonduality, non-duality, duality, dualism, hard problem of consciousness, explanatory gap, relativistic theory of consciousness, human INTERbeing, human INTERbeCOMing, Deep Humanity, DH
      • title: A Relativistic Theory of Consciousness
      • author: Nir Lahav, Zahariah A. Neemeh
      • date: May 12, 2022

      • abstract

        • In recent decades, the scientific study of consciousness has significantly increased our understanding of this elusive phenomenon.
        • Yet, despite critical development in our understanding of the functional side of consciousness, we still lack a fundamental theory regarding its phenomenal aspect.
        • There is an “explanatory gap” between
          • our scientific knowledge of functional consciousness and
          • its “subjective,” phenomenal aspects,
        • referred to as the “hard problem” of consciousness.
        • The phenomenal aspect of consciousness is the first-person answer to “what it’s like” question, and
          • it has thus far proved recalcitrant to direct scientific investigation.
        • Naturalistic dualists argue that it is composed of a primitive, private, non-reductive element of reality that is independent from the functional and physical aspects of consciousness.
        • Illusionists, on the other hand, argue that it is merely a cognitive illusion, and that all that exists are ultimately physical, non-phenomenal properties.
        • We contend that both the dualist and illusionist positions are flawed because they tacitly assume consciousness to be an absolute property that doesn’t depend on the observer.
        • We develop a conceptual and a mathematical argument for a relativistic theory of consciousness in which
          • a system either has or doesn’t have phenomenal consciousness with respect to some observer.
        • Phenomenal consciousness is neither private nor delusional, just relativistic.
          • In the frame of reference of the cognitive system, it will be observable (first-person perspective) and
          • in other frame of reference it will not (third-person perspective).
        • These two cognitive frames of reference are both correct,
          • just as in the case of
            • an observer that claims to be at rest
            • while another will claim that the observer has constant velocity.
        • Given that consciousness is a relativistic phenomenon, neither observer position can be privileged,
          • as they both describe the same underlying reality.
        • Based on relativistic phenomena in physics
          • we developed a mathematical formalization for consciousness which bridges the explanatory gap and dissolves the hard problem.
        • Given that the first-person cognitive frame of reference also offers legitimate observations on consciousness,
          • we conclude by arguing that philosophers can usefully contribute to the science of consciousness by collaborating with neuroscientists to explore the neural basis of phenomenal structures.
      • comment

        • This is a promising approach to solving the hard problem of consciosness
    1. Phenomenal consciousness is only seemingly private because in order to measure it one needs to be in the appropriate cognitive frame of reference. It is not a simple transformation to change from a third-person cognitive frame of reference to the first-person frame, but in principle it can be done, and hence phenomenal consciousness isn’t private anymore.
      • for: relativistic theory of consciousness, question, question - shifting cognitive frames
      • question
        • How is this transformation done?
    1. Recent work has revealed several new and significant aspects of the dynamics of theory change. First, statistical information, information about the probabilistic contingencies between events, plays a particularly important role in theory-formation both in science and in childhood. In the last fifteen years we’ve discovered the power of early statistical learning.

      The data of the past is congruent with the current psychological trends that face the education system of today. Developmentalists have charted how children construct and revise intuitive theories. In turn, a variety of theories have developed because of the greater use of statistical information that supports probabilistic contingencies that help to better inform us of causal models and their distinctive cognitive functions. These studies investigate the physical, psychological, and social domains. In the case of intuitive psychology, or "theory of mind," developmentalism has traced a progression from an early understanding of emotion and action to an understanding of intentions and simple aspects of perception, to an understanding of knowledge vs. ignorance, and finally to a representational and then an interpretive theory of mind.

      The mechanisms by which life evolved—from chemical beginnings to cognizing human beings—are central to understanding the psychological basis of learning. We are the product of an evolutionary process and it is the mechanisms inherent in this process that offer the most probable explanations to how we think and learn.

      Bada, & Olusegun, S. (2015). Constructivism Learning Theory : A Paradigm for Teaching and Learning.

      • for: doppleganger, conflict resolution, deep humanity, common denominators, CHD, Douglas Rushkoff, Naomi Klein, Into the Mirror World, conspiracy theory, conspiracy theories, conspiracy culture, nonduality, self-other, human interbeing, polycrisis, othering, storytelling, myth-making, social media amplifier -summary
        • This conversation was insightful on so many dimensions salient to the polycrisis humanity is moving through.
        • It makes me think of the old cliches:
          • "The more things change, the more they remain the same"
          • "What's old is new" ' "History repeats"
        • the conversation explores Naomi's latest book (as of this podcast), Into the Mirror World, in which Naomi adopts a different style of writing to explicate, articulate and give voice to
          • implicit and tacit discomforting ideas and feelings she experienced during covid and earlier, and
          • became a focal point through a personal comparative analysis with another female author and thought leader, Naomi Wolf,
            • a feminist writer who ended up being rejected by mainstream media and turned to right wing media.
        • The conversation explores the process of:
          • othering,
          • coopting and
          • abandoning
        • of ideas important for personal and social wellbeing.
        • and speaks to the need to identify what is going on and to reclaim those ideas for the sake of humanity
        • In this context, the doppleganger is the people who are mirror-like imiages of ourselves, but on the other side of polarized issues.
        • Charismatic leaders who are bad actors often are good at identifying the suffering of the masses, and coopt the ideas of good actors to serve their own ends of self-enrichment.
        • There are real world conspiracies that have caused significant societal harm, and still do,
        • however, when there ithere are phenomena which we have no direct sense experience of, the mixture of
          • a sense of helplessness,
          • anger emerging from injustice
        • a charismatic leader proposing a concrete, possible but explanatory theory
        • is a powerful story whose mythology can be reified by many people believing it
        • Another cliche springs to mind
          • A lie told a hundred times becomes a truth
          • hence the amplifying role of social media
        • When we think about where this phenomena manifests, we find it everywhere:
  3. Aug 2023
    1. Some may not realize it yet, but the shift in technology represented by ChatGPT is just another small evolution in the chain of predictive text with the realms of information theory and corpus linguistics.

      Claude Shannon's work along with Warren Weaver's introduction in The Mathematical Theory of Communication (1948), shows some of the predictive structure of written communication. This is potentially better underlined for the non-mathematician in John R. Pierce's book An Introduction to Information Theory: Symbols, Signals and Noise (1961) in which discusses how one can do a basic analysis of written English to discover that "e" is the most prolific letter or to predict which letters are more likely to come after other letters. The mathematical structures have interesting consequences like the fact that crossword puzzles are only possible because of the repetitive nature of the English language or that one can use the editor's notation "TK" (usually meaning facts or date To Come) in writing their papers to make it easy to find missing information prior to publication because the statistical existence of the letter combination T followed by K is exceptionally rare and the only appearances of it in long documents are almost assuredly areas which need to be double checked for data or accuracy.

      Cell phone manufacturers took advantage of the lower levels of this mathematical predictability to create T9 predictive text in early mobile phone technology. This functionality is still used in current cell phones to help speed up our texting abilities. The difference between then and now is that almost everyone takes the predictive magic for granted.

      As anyone with "fat fingers" can attest, your phone doesn't always type out exactly what you mean which can result in autocorrect mistakes (see: DYAC (Damn You AutoCorrect)) of varying levels of frustration or hilarity. This means that when texting, one needs to carefully double check their work before sending their text or social media posts or risk sending their messages to Grand Master Flash instead of Grandma.

      The evolution in technology effected by larger amounts of storage, faster processing speeds, and more text to study means that we've gone beyond the level of predicting a single word or two ahead of what you intend to text, but now we're predicting whole sentences and even paragraphs which make sense within a context. ChatGPT means that one can generate whole sections of text which will likely make some sense.

      Sadly, as we know from our T9 experience, this massive jump in predictability doesn't mean that ChatGPT or other predictive artificial intelligence tools are "magically" correct! In fact, quite often they're wrong or will predict nonsense, a phenomenon known as AI hallucination. Just as with T9, we need to take even more time and effort to not only spell check the outputs from the machine, but now we may need to check for the appropriateness of style as well as factual substance!

      The bigger near-term problem is one of human understanding and human communication. While the machine may appear to magically communicate (often on our behalf if we're publishing it's words under our names), is it relaying actual meaning? Is the other person reading these words understanding what was meant to have been communicated? Do the words create knowledge? Insight?

      We need to recall that Claude Shannon specifically carved semantics and meaning out of the picture in the second paragraph of his seminal paper:

      Frequently the messages have meaning; that is they refer to or are correlated according to some system with certain physical or conceptual entities. These semantic aspects of communication are irrelevant to the engineering problem.

      So far ChatGPT seems to be accomplishing magic by solving a small part of an engineering problem by being able to explore the adjacent possible. It is far from solving the human semantic problem much less the un-adjacent possibilities (potentially representing wisdom or insight), and we need to take care to be aware of that portion of the unsolved problem. Generative AIs are also just choosing weighted probabilities and spitting out something which is prone to seem possible, but they're not optimizing for which of many potential probabilities is the "best" or the "correct" one. For that, we still need our humanity and faculties for decision making.

      Shannon, Claude E. A Mathematical Theory of Communication. Bell System Technical Journal, 1948.

      Shannon, Claude E., and Warren Weaver. The Mathematical Theory of Communication. University of Illinois Press, 1949.

      Pierce, John Robinson. An Introduction to Information Theory: Symbols, Signals and Noise. Second, Revised. Dover Books on Mathematics. 1961. Reprint, Mineola, N.Y: Dover Publications, Inc., 1980. https://www.amazon.com/Introduction-Information-Theory-Symbols-Mathematics/dp/0486240614.

      Shannon, Claude Elwood. “The Bandwagon.” IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 2, no. 1 (March 1956): 3. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIT.1956.1056774.

      We may also need to explore The Bandwagon, an early effect which Shannon noticed and commented upon. Everyone seems to be piling on the AI bandwagon right now...

    1. In finance, the greater fool theory suggests that one can sometimes make money through the purchase of overvalued assets — items with a purchase price drastically exceeding the intrinsic value — if those assets can later be resold at an even higher price.
    1. Aguinis, H. and Matthew A. Cronin. (2022). "It's the Theory, Stupid." Organizational Psychology Review Online First. https://doi.org/10.1177/20413866221080629

    2. the number one and most important reason why research is meaningful and makes a useful and valuable contribution is theory.
    3. (1) Why is theory so critical and for whom? (2) What does a good theory look like? (3) What does it mean to have too much or too many theories? (4) When don’t we need a theory? (5) How does falsification work with theory? and (6) Is good theory compatible with current publication pressures?

      This is six question to understand the state of art of a theory

    4. It's the theory, stupid.
    1. published article can be cited as below:

      Sacha Golob (2019) A New Theory of Stupidity, International Journal of Philosophical Studies, 27:4, 562-580, DOI: 10.1080/09672559.2019.1632372

    1. While the proximate mechanisms of these anthropogenic changes are well studied (e.g., climate change, biodiversity loss, population growth), the evolutionary causality of these anthropogenic changes have been largely ignored.
      • for: climate change - evolutionary causes, cultural evolution - unsustainability, unsustainability
      • definition: Anthroecological theory (AET)
        • This theory proposes that the ultimate cause of anthropogenic environmental change is multi-level selection for niche construction and ecosystem engineering
    2. Anthroecological theory (AET) hypothesizes that human social and cultural evolution is the ultimate cause of the ecological crises currently damaging earth systems
      • for: AET, Anthroecological theory, anthropocene - causes, ecological crisis - roots, overshoot
      • paraphrase
        • Anthroecological theory (AET) hypothesizes that
          • human social and cultural evolution is the ultimate cause of the ecological crises currently damaging earth systems
      • for: gene culture coevolution, carrying capacity, unsustainability, overshoot, cultural evolution, progress trap

      • Title: The genetic and cultural evolution of unsustainability

      • Author: Brian F. Snyder

      • Abstract

      • Summary
      • Paraphrase
        • Anthropogenic changes are accelerating and threaten the future of life on earth.
        • While the proximate mechanisms of these anthropogenic changes are well studied
          • climate change,
          • biodiversity loss,
          • population growth
        • the evolutionary causality of these anthropogenic changes have been largely ignored.
        • Anthroecological theory (AET) proposes that the ultimate cause of anthropogenic environmental change is
          • multi-level selection for niche construction and ecosystem engineering.
        • Here, we integrate this theory with
          • Lotka’s Maximum Power Principle
        • and propose a model linking
          • energy extraction from the environment with
          • genetic, technological and cultural evolution
        • to increase human ecosystem carrying capacity.
        • Carrying capacity is partially determined by energetic factors such as
          • the net energy a population can acquire from its environment and
          • the efficiency of conversion from energy input to offspring output.
        • These factors are under Darwinian genetic selection
        • in all species,
        • but in humans, they are also determined by
          • technology and
          • culture.
        • If there is genetic or non-genetic heritable variation in
          • the ability of an individual or social group
        • to increase its carrying capacity,
        • then we hypothesize that - selection or cultural evolution will act - to increase carrying capacity.
        • Furthermore, if this evolution of carrying capacity occurs - faster than the biotic components of the ecological system can respond via their own evolution,
          • then we hypothesize that unsustainable ecological changes will result.
    1. "in his youth he was full of vim and vigor"

      Do calcified words eventually cease to have any definition over time? That is they have a stand alone definition, then a definition within their calcified phrase, then they cease to have any stand alone definition at all though they continue existence only in those calcified phrases.

    1. In the ensuing decades, mathematicians began working with this new thing, the category, and this new idea, equivalence. In so doing they created a revolutionary new approach to mathematics, category theory, that many see as supplanting set theory. Imagine if writers had spent 150 years representing the world only through basic description: This is a red ball. That is a 60-foot tree. This is a dog. Then one day someone discovers metaphor. Suddenly, our ability to find new ways to represent the world explodes, as does our knowledge of writing as a discipline.

      I love the idea here of analogizing the abstract nature of category theory in math with the abstract nature of metaphor in writing!

      Good job Dale Keiger!

    2. "If mathematics is the science of analogy, the study of patterns, then category theory is the study of patterns of mathematical thought."

      original source?

  4. Jul 2023
    1. There are two ways of establishing a chord–scale relationship for ii 7 –V 7 or ii≤57–V 7progressions: either select a mode that works for V7 or select a mode that works for ii7or (ii≤57). As shown in Figure 18.4, mm. 2–4 feature a descending sequence of incompleteII–Vs connecting the tonic on I with the predominant on IV. Each II–V progressionestablishes a chord–scale relationship with the corresponding dominant 7th. Notice that,in m. 2, the use of Mixolydian ≤13 fits the underlying context much better than the diatonicMixolydian mode. The tonic note F4 functions as the ≤13th of Mixolydian ≤13 and isretained as a common tone in mm. 1–2. The second A section (mm. 9–16) demonstratesa different approach to chord–scale theory. The selection of modes for the II–V pro-gression in Figure 18.4 is based on the quality of the predominant chord. Thus, inm. 10, Emin7(≤5)–A7 uses E Locrian, while in m. 11, Dmin7–G7 establishes a chord–scalerelationship with D Dorian, etc

      The bridge of “Confirmation” (mm. 17–24) features two four-bar phrases with ii7 –V7 tonicizations of the IV and ≤VI key areas. The chord–scale relationship for the bridge in Figure 18.4 includes a different selection of modes: Dorian, Mixolydian, and Ionian for Cmin7–F7–B≤Maj7, and Dorian, Altered, and Lydian for E≤min7–A≤7–D≤Maj7. Tonal and contextual considerations are particularly evident with the choice of Altered mode in m. 22, which accommodates notes from the tonic key and prepares the arrival of FMaj7 in m. 25. The last A section (mm. 25–32) features a much bolder selection of modes. The choices of A Altered in m. 26 and F Locrian in m. 28 are particularly poignant. The former injects chromatic notes into the structure of dominant 7th chord. The choice of F Locrian over Cmin7–F7 in m. 28 might seem out of place because neither chord (at least not in the present form) establishes a convincing relationship with this mode. But, the F Locrian mode forms a chord–scale relationship with F7(≤9≥9)sus, which is an effective harmonic substitution for Cmin7–F7. While the selection of modes in Figure 18.4 is overcrowded with different options, an improvisation may focus on only a few modes. In fact, each A section contains a selection of modes that could be implemented in the course of an entire solo. In establishing a successful chord–scale relationship for the tune, be mindful of three important con- siderations: (1) modal hierarchy, (2) chromatic treatment, and (3) voice leading. Chromatic modes, for instance, contain notes that might need preparation. This preparation usually takes place anywhere from one beat to one measure before the chromatic notes occur. The succession of modes in mm. 5–6—B≤ Mixolydian and D Mixolydian ≤13—illustrates such a case. The latter mode contains the chromatic ≤13th that was introduced as ≤7th of B≤7 in m. 5. “CONFIRMATION” 239

    1. For any action, habit, and belief you have, ask yourself: "Does this help toward my goals and future self or not?", if the answer is no, it is a distraction and part of the 80% you need to let go in order to reach 10X

      Your future self and 10X (or 100X) vision and goals serve as a massive filter for action and belief.

      Note: You should not 10X everything! Just 3 priorities.

    2. What is the game you want to play? What is the game you could play? What is a game you could go all in on and succeed at and be really good at?

      This defines your pathways and strategies within your 20%

      The path can change and adjust over time.

    3. To achieve goals, raise the floor, FOCUS on removing bottlenecks. Also create constraints by Schwerpunkt (primary objective), contrary to common wisdom, constraint actually gives freedom, it prevents analysis paralysis.

  5. Jun 2023
    1. An Alternate Chord–Scale Relationship for the A Section
    2. The A Section: A Two-Scale Approach
    3. A Single-Scale ApproachThe chord structure of the A sections of rhythm changes can be reduced to the fundamentalframework shown in Figure 19.5.While mm. 1–4 of any A section feature a tonic prolongation, mm. 5–8 are morecomplicated even at the background level. For instance, the predominant in mm. 6, 14,and 30 can take the form of major 7th or dominant 7th chords. Also, the tonally closed256 INTERMEDIATEFIGURE 19.5 Fundamental Harmonic Frameworks
    4. FIGURE 19.6 A Basic Chord–Scale Relationship for the A Section
    5. any melodic line can be represented by a chord and/or harmonicprogression and, conversely, any chord or harmonic progression can be horizontalizedwith a melodic line
    6. Chapter 18 provides an analysis of Charlie Parker’s “Confirmation” as a representativecomposition from the Bebop Era. It offers a transcription of the solo by the pianist HankJone
    7. The progression shown in Figure 9.9 exemplifies the structure of a minor blues.4The chord structure of the minor blues is characterized by the presence of traditionaltonal progressions. For instance, the tonicization of iv in m. 4 uses a secondary dominant7th, V7/iv, and the motion to V 7 in m. 10 is prepared by the ≤VI7 chord. This particularpreparation of the dominant 7th, ≤VI7–V7, is one of the harmonic trademarks of the minorblues.
    8. Figure 9.8 establishes a couple of chord–scale relationships for the basic blues progressionin the key of B≤. Figure 9.8a uses major and minor blues scales and Figure 9.8b combinesblues scales and modes
    9. Chapter 9 discusses the most important form in jazz, the blues, examines the structureof the blues scale, and provides chord–scale relationships for the basic and minor bluesprogressions
    10. The intermediary category contains three modes: Dorian, Locrian, and Locrian Ω2
    11. Chapter 8 establishes a relationship between the vertical and horizontal dimensions injazz. The diatonic and chromatic modes are revisited, and chord–scale relationships withfour-, five-part chords, and the II–V–I progressions are established.
    12. Jazz Theory: From Basic to Advanced Study


      Jazz Theory: From Basic to Advanced Study Terefenko, D. 2014

    1. Diminished Scales and Harmony
    2. Like the diminished chord, the diminished scale is symmetrical, an eight-note (octotonic)collection of alternating whole and half steps, or half and whole steps.21 As Stefan Koskastates, “The octotonic scale is a rich source of melodic and harmonic material. It containsall of the intervals, from minor 2nd up to major 7th. All of the tertian triads except for theaugmented triad can be extracted from this scale, as can four of the five common 7th-chord types (the major-7 th cannot). 22Diminished scales and patterns derived from them are now part of modern jazzharmonic vocabulary and are used primarily to complement altered dominant chords. Forexample, a half-whole diminished scale over a G7 chord will include most of thecommon extensions and alterations:  9, 11, and 13
    3. Another common hybrid scale, thediminished-whole tone, is usually implied by the “alt” chord symbol. This scale includesa 9, both major and minor thirds (also referred to as a 9), and a 5. It starts out like ahalf-whole diminished scale and ends like a whole-tone scale. A diminished-whole tonescale in C would be C, D, E, E, G, A, B
    4. Diminished Scales and Harmony
    1. An article recommended to me by Dalton V. that he thought I'd enjoy and appreciate. Looks like AlignmentForum is one of those "online Rationalist communities" (like LessWrong, SlateStarCodex, etc.).

      The blog post "The Waluigi Effect" by Cleo Nardo touches on a variety of interesting topics:

      • the Waluigi effect
      • Simulator Theory
      • Derrida's "there is no outside text"
      • RLHF (Reinforcement Learning from Human Feedback) and potential limits
    1. Apollo represents harmony, progress, clarity, logic and the principle of individuation, whereas Dionysus represents disorder, intoxication, emotion, ecstasy and unity (hence the omission of the principle of individuation). Nietzsche used these two forces because, for him, the world of mind and order on one side, and passion and chaos on the other, formed principles that were fundamental to the Greek culture:[3][4] the Apollonian a dreaming state, full of illusions; and Dionysian a state of intoxication, representing the liberations of instinct and dissolution of boundaries. In this mould, a man appears as the satyr

      Apollo as representing order, clarity, a dream-state of life, an illusion.

      Dionysus, on the other hand, represent chaos, and the dissolution of this dream.

    1. it still strikes me as something people believe in the abstract, rather than know from hard experience. I've always found that if you look behind/under widely held beliefs, you can find useful gems.
    2. Python essentially doesn't have private methods, let alone protected ones, and it doesn't turn out to be that big a deal in practice.
    1. Unlike many developed countries, the United States lacks a national curriculum or teacher-training standards. Local policies change constantly, as governors, school boards, mayors and superintendents flow in and out of jobs.

      Many developed countries have national curricula and specific teacher-training standards, but the United States does not. Instead decisions on curricular and standards are created and enforced at the state and local levels, often by politically elected figures including governors, mayors, superintendents, and school boards.

      This leaves early education in the United States open to a much greater sway of political influence. This can be seen in examples of Texas attempting to legislate the display the ten commandments in school classrooms in 2023, reading science being neglected in the adoption of Culkins' Units of Study curriculum, and other footballs like the supposed suppression of critical race theory in right leaning states.

  6. May 2023
    1. Hyper-zettelkastenStudents stick all of their zettels on the walls with sticky tack or tape (be sure students initial or mark their zettels before doing this).Then, students walk around the room and search for connections and create original ideas using those connections.Students physically attach those zettels with string (like a conspiracy theorist would) and stick a zettel on the string explaining the connection.
    1. unity of science

      process:explaining higher-level scientific phenomena science in theories through the entities and theories from the more fundamental science.

      This lower the level the more material and less constructed the science. (Which makes physics actually one level, according to Bechter and Hamilton (2007))

      also: theory of reduction

    1. However, it's difficult to rely on a case-sensitive email address in the real world because many systems (typically ones that have to handle data merging) don't preserve case. Notably systems that use email addresses for user IDs, or any system that has to collate data from multiple sources (CRMs, email broadcast systems, etc) will either normalise case or treat them case-insensitively.
    2. However, for all practical purposes in the modern age, I believe you can consider email addresses to be case insensitive.
    1. a SHOULD is always trumped in RFCs by a MUST. The fact that hosts SHOULD do something means that they might not and I just wanted reassurance that, in reality, the SHOULD is a bit more widely adopted than its definition implies.
    1. So yes, the part before the "@" could be case-sensitive, since it is entirely under the control of the host system. In practice though, no widely used mail systems distinguish different addresses based on case.
    1. They are efficiency and effectiveness. For memory systems, an effective system is one that gets the right answer every time no matter how long it takes you. And the efficient system is one that uses the least amount of resources like time, associations, dependent systems, etc. but it may not be that good at providing the correct answers.

      Efficiency and effectiveness measures for specific mnemonic systems may vary from person to person, so one should consider them with respect to their own practices. There may not be a single "right" or "correct" practice universally, but there could be one for everyone individually based on their own choices or preferences.

    1. Related to this note:

      Haris Neophytou wants to apply a "primality sieve" (namely the sieve of Eratosthenes) to this list. I think it's so he can construct the primes that divide the order of the monster group \(M\)

    1. Trying to follow an argument given here: https://youtu.be/mFZs7uGwNBo?t=3413

      The sequence A002267 is claimed by Haris Neophytou to be the 1st 15 "super singular prime numbers" (ie, the primes that divides the order of the Monster Group). The order is the number of elements in the group.

      Note that the last 3 elements [47, 59, 71] multiply to give the number of dimensions in which the Monster group exists: 196,883.

      Neophytou believes A002267 gives a different way of looking at the monster group \(M\).

      Around 1:02:45, Neophytou says he'll start from A002822...

      (a list of numbers, \(m\text{,}\) such that \(6m - 1\) and \(6m + 1\) are twin primes)

      ... and construct "the minimal order of the monster" (what?)

    1. human beings need to learn how to die and that in refusing to do so we have become so dislocated so isolated from ourselves from our environment we are causing our own death and the death of 00:02:38 the very many species we share this planet with
      • This is a very broad and sweeping statement.
        • While I agree with it,
          • what does "learning how to die" exactly mean?
          • unless we know in details, we won't have an actionable strategy
    2. Sheldon Solomon on the connection between the denial of death and the Anthropocene

    1. Entropy is not a property of the string you got, but of the strings you could have obtained instead. In other words, it qualifies the process by which the string was generated.
    1. offers a way to discover the contingent histories of objects — an issue ignored by most theories of complexity, which tend to focus on the way things are but not how they got to be that way.
      • in other words
        • we could make a claim that we could extrapolate (intrapolate?) evolution to apply to abiotic, physical phenomena.
    2. it seeks that explanation not, in the usual manner of physics, in timeless physical laws, but in a process that imbues objects with histories and memories of what came before them.
      • In Other Words
        • it factors in time and history a key variables in explaining how biota emerges from abiota
    3. Assembly theory

  7. Apr 2023
    1. [Zettel feedback] Functor (Yeah, just that)

      reply to ctietze at https://forum.zettelkasten.de/discussion/2560/zettel-feedback-functor-yeah-just-that#latest

      Kudos on tackling the subject area, especially on your own. I know from experience it's not as straightforward as it could/should be. I'll refrain from monkeying with the perspective/framing you're coming from with overly dense specifics. As an abstract mathematician I'd break this up into smaller pieces, but for your programming perspective, I can appreciate why you don't.

      If you want to delve more deeply into the category theory space but without a graduate level understanding of multiple various areas of abstract mathematics, I'd recommend the following two books which come at the mathematics from a mathematician's viewpoint, but are reasonably easy/intuitive enough for a generalist or a non-mathematician coming at things from a programming perspective (particularly compared to most of the rest of what's on the market):

      • Ash, Robert B. A Primer of Abstract Mathematics. 1st ed. Classroom Resource Materials. Washington, D.C.: The Mathematical Association of America, 1998.
        • primarily chapter 1, but the rest of the book is a great primer/bridge to higher abstract math in general)
      • Spivak, David I. Category Theory for the Sciences. MIT Press, 2014.

      You'll have to dig around a bit more for them (his website, Twitter threads, etc.), but John Carlos Baez is an excellent expositor of some basic pieces of category theory.

      For an interesting framing from a completely non-technical perspective/conceptualization, a friend of mine wrote this short article on category theorist Emily Riehl which may help those approaching the area for the first time: https://hub.jhu.edu/magazine/2021/winter/emily-riehl-category-theory/?ref=dalekeiger.net

      One of the things which makes Category Theory difficult for many is that to have multiple, practical/workable (homework or in-book) examples to toy with requires having a reasonably strong grasp of 3-4 or more other areas of mathematics at the graduate level. When reading category theory books, you need to develop the ability to (for example) focus on the algebra examples you might understand while skipping over the analysis, topology, or Lie groups examples you don't (yet) have the experience to plow through. Giving yourself explicit permission to skip the examples you have no clue about will help you get much further much faster.

      I haven't maintained it since, but here's a site where I aggregated some category theory resources back in 2015 for some related work I was doing at the time: https://cat.boffosocko.com/course-resources/ I was aiming for basic/beginner resources, but there are likely to be some highly technical ones interspersed as well.

    1. Only small tidbits of math remain unresolved for Rubik’s Cube. While God’s number is 20, it’s unknown exactly how many of the 43,252,003,274,489,856,000 combinations require a whole 20 moves to be solved.

      We've got solutions for the number of configurations there are to solve a Rubic's cube with from 1 move up to 15, but we don't know how many cube configurations there are that can be solved with 16-20 moves.

      • Example: the number of positions that require exactly one move solve them is 18, which is counted by multiplying the six faces and each of the three ways they can be twisted.
    1. In Vice, Maggie Puniewska points to the moral foundations theory, according to which liberals and conservatives prioritize different ethics: the former compassion, fairness and liberty, the latter purity, loyalty and obedience to authority.
    1. Here we have extended this model to a slightly different category, a category where morphisms are represented by embellished functions, and their composition does more than just pass the output of one function to the input of another. We have one more degree of freedom to play with: the composition itself. It turns out that this is exactly the degree of freedom which makes it possible to give simple denotational semantics to programs that in imperative languages are traditionally implemented using side effects.
    2. For our limited purposes, a Kleisli category has, as objects, the types of the underlying programming language. Morphisms from type A to type B are functions that go from A to a type derived from B using the particular embellishment. Each Kleisli category defines its own way of composing such morphisms, as well as the identity morphisms with respect to that composition.
    1. Similarly, you must give up the assumption that there are privileged places, notes of special and knowledge-ensuring quality. Each note is just an element that gets its value from being a part of a network of references and cross-references in the system. A note that is not connected to this network will get lost in the Zettelkasten, and will be forgotten by the Zettelkasten.

      This section is almost exactly the same as Umberto Eco's description of a slip box practice:

      No piece of information is superior to any other. Power lies in having them all on file and then finding the connections. There are always connections; you have only to want to find them. -- Umberto Eco. Foucault's Pendulum

      See: https://hypothes.is/a/jqug2tNlEeyg2JfEczmepw

      Interestingly, these structures map reasonably well onto Paul Baran's work from 1964: Paul Baran's graphs for Centralized, Decentralized, and Distributed systems

      The subject heading based filing system looks and functions a lot like a centralized system where the center (on a per topic basis) is the subject heading or topical category and the notes related to that section are filed within it. Luhmann's zettelkasten has the feel of a mixture of the decentralized and distributed graphs, but each sub-portion has its own topology. The index is decentralized in nature, while the bibliographical section/notes are all somewhat centralized in form.

      Cross reference:<br /> Baran, Paul. “On Distributed Communications: I. Introduction to Distributed Communications Networks.” Research Memoranda. Santa Monica, California: RAND Corporation, August 1964. https://doi.org/10.7249/RM3420.

    1. There is no real difference if you think about the boundaries between reading and notetaking. Moving the eyes over text: Sounds like reading. Highlighting key words while reading: Still sounds like reading. Jotting down keywords in the margins: Some writing, but still could count as reading. Writing tasks in the marings (e.g. "Should compare that to Buddhism"): Don't know. Reformulating key sections in your own words: Sounds like writing. But could be just the externalisation of what could be internal. Does make a difference if you stop and think about what you read or do it in written form?

      Perhaps there is a model for reading and note taking/writing with respect to both learning and creating new knowledge that follows an inverse mapping in a way similar to that seen in Galois theory?

      Explore this a bit to see what falls out.

  8. Mar 2023
    1. Or, did you ever see a dog with a marrowbone in his mouth,—the beast of all other, says Plato, lib. 2, de Republica, the most philosophical? If you have seen him, you might have remarked with what devotion and circumspectness he wards and watcheth it: with what care he keeps it: how fervently he holds it: how prudently he gobbets it: with what affection he breaks it: and with what diligence he sucks it. To what end all this? What moveth him to take all these pains? What are the hopes of his labour? What doth he expect to reap thereby? Nothing but a little marrow

      The description of this scene is insinuating on the importance of the little things which I believe is what the author was trying to convey when asking such questions to seeing a dog with a bone. He even refers to Plato at one point who was known as a philosophical speaker who was wise in such ideas. "Plato says that true and reliable knowledge rests only with those who can comprehend the true reality behind the world of everyday experience." (Macintosh) Platos theory of forms suggested that there is a different reality to everything for each person. That would insinuate that for a dog, that bone is big thing worth his time, while as humans, we see the dog with his bone and think "why bother?".

    1. Table of contents

      • Introduction: Through the Ludic Glass
      • Why Algorithmic Images Now?
      • Computed Representations / Represented Computations
      • Technical Images
      • Operational Images
      • Watching through the Ludic-Glass
      • Layers of Spectated Meaning
      • Towards Aesthetics of Spectated Play


    1. Die schiere Menge sprengt die Möglichkeiten der Buchpublikation, die komplexe, vieldimensionale Struktur einer vernetzten Informationsbasis ist im Druck nicht nachzubilden, und schließlich fügt sich die Dynamik eines stetig wachsenden und auch stetig zu korrigierenden Materials nicht in den starren Rhythmus der Buchproduktion, in der jede erweiterte und korrigierte Neuauflage mit unübersehbarem Aufwand verbunden ist. Eine Buchpublikation könnte stets nur die Momentaufnahme einer solchen Datenbank, reduziert auf eine bestimmte Perspektive, bieten. Auch das kann hin und wieder sehr nützlich sein, aber dadurch wird das Problem der Publikation des Gesamtmaterials nicht gelöst.

      Google translation:

      The sheer quantity exceeds the possibilities of book publication, the complex, multidimensional structure of a networked information base cannot be reproduced in print, and finally the dynamic of a constantly growing and constantly correcting material does not fit into the rigid rhythm of book production, in which each expanded and corrected new edition is associated with an incalculable amount of effort. A book publication could only offer a snapshot of such a database, reduced to a specific perspective. This too can be very useful from time to time, but it does not solve the problem of publishing the entire material.

      While the writing criticism of "dumping out one's zettelkasten" into a paper, journal article, chapter, book, etc. has been reasonably frequent in the 20th century, often as a means of attempting to create a linear book-bound context in a local neighborhood of ideas, are there other more complex networks of ideas which we're not communicating because they don't neatly fit into linear narrative forms? Is it possible that there is a non-linear form(s) based on network theory in which more complex ideas ought to better be embedded for understanding?

      Some of Niklas Luhmann's writing may show some of this complexity and local or even regional circularity, but perhaps it's a necessary means of communication to get these ideas across as they can't be placed into linear forms.

      One can analogize this to Lie groups and algebras in which our reading and thinking experiences are limited only to local regions which appear on smaller scales to be Euclidean, when, in fact, looking at larger portions of the region become dramatically non-Euclidean. How are we to appropriately relate these more complex ideas?

      What are the second and third order effects of this phenomenon?

      An example of this sort of non-linear examination can be seen in attempting to translate the complexity inherent in the Wb (Wörterbuch der ägyptischen Sprache) into a simple, linear dictionary of the Egyptian language. While the simplicity can be handy on one level, the complexity of transforming the entirety of the complexity of the network of potential meanings is tremendously difficult.

    2. In looking at the uses of and similarities between Wb and TLL, I can't help but think that these two zettelkasten represented the state of the art for Large Language Models and some of the ideas behind ChatGPT

    1. Watts, Charles J. The Cost of Production. Muskegon, MI: The Shaw-Walker Company, 1902. http://archive.org/details/costproduction01wattgoog.

      Short book on managing manufacturing costs. Not too much of an advertisement for Shaw-Walker manufactured goods (files, file management, filing cabinets, etc.). Only 64 pages are the primary content and the balance (about half) are advertisements.

      Given the publication date of 1902, this would have preceded the publication of System Magazine which began in 1903. This may have then been a prototype version of an early business magazine, but with a single author, no real editorial, and only one article.

      Presumably it may also have served the marketing interests of Shaw-Walker as a marketing piece as well.

      Tangentially, I'm a bit intrigued by the "Mr. Morse" mentioned on page 109 who is being touted as an in-house consultant for Shaw-Walker.... Is this the same Frank Morse who broke off to form the Browne-Morse Co.? (very likely)

      see: see also: https://hypothes.is/a/Sp8s4sprEe24jitvkjkxzA for a snippet on Frank Morse.

    1. 9/8b2 "Multiple storage" als Notwendigkeit derSpeicherung von komplexen (komplex auszu-wertenden) Informationen.

      9/8b2 "Multiple storage" as a necessity of<br /> storage of complex (complex<br /> evaluating) information.

      Fascinating to see the English phrase "multiple storage" pop up in Luhmann's ZKII section on Zettelkasten.

      This note is undated, though being in ZKII likely occurred more than a decade after he'd started his practice. One must wonder where he pulled the source for the English phrase rather than using a German one? Does the idea appear in Heyde? It certainly would have been an emerging question within systems theory and potentially computer science ideas which Luhmann would have had access to.

    1. // - This article provides an intersectional study of: - climate change, - collective action research - terror management theory / mortality salience - it explains the beneficial impacts of non-rational relational ontology and recommends the use of ritual practices based on this as a way to promote pro-environmental behavior


    2. There is reason to think that the effects of mortality salience are different in relational ontology. Contemporary Heathens are a particular sort of hybrid in living in modern society and emerging out of individualized ontologies, but forming incipient gift economies and expressing what I term a “gift ethic,” with an appreciation for what we receive from others, and desire to give in turn, sustaining social ecological systems as distributed networks of adaptive relations.
      • key observation
      • key insight
    3. Talking about climate change makes us aware of the fact that we are going to die, and social psychological research in the area known as “terror management theory” finds that this mortality salience prompts psychologically defensive strategies that are significantly counterproductive to environmentalism. However, rituals of giving thanks and the felt experience of gratitude they engender through tacit learning may be effective in generating pro-environmental behaviour.

      // in other words - mortality salience alone is counter-productive - it triggers psychological defense strategies. - it must be accompanied by expressions of gratitude to be effective and transformative

    4. Abstract

      // abstract - summary - Rationalist approaches to environmental problems such as climate change - apply an information deficit model, - assuming that if people understand what needs to be done they will act rationally. - However, applying a knowledge deficit hypothesis often fails to recognize unconscious motivations revealed by: - social psychology, - cognitive science, - behavioral economics.

      • Applying ecosystems science, data collection, economic incentives, and public education are necessary for solving problems such as climate change, but they are not sufficient.
      • Climate change discourse makes us aware of our mortality
      • This prompts consumerism as a social psychological defensive strategy,
      • which is counterproductive to pro-environmental behavior.
      • Studies in terror management theory, applied to the study of ritual and ecological conscience formation,
      • suggest that ritual expressions of giving thanks can have significant social psychological effects in relation to overconsumption driving climate change.
      • Primary data gathering informing this work included participant observation and interviews with contemporary Heathens in Canada from 2018–2019.
    1. But 150 alone doesn’t tell the whole story. Other numbers are nested within the social brain hypothesis too. According to the theory, the tightest circle has just five people – loved ones. That’s followed by successive layers of 15 (good friends), 50 (friends), 150 (meaningful contacts), 500 (acquaintances) and 1500 (people you can recognise). People migrate in and out of these layers, but the idea is that space has to be carved out for any new entrants.
      • Paraphrase
      • 150 alone doesn’t tell the whole story.
      • Other range numbers are nested within the social brain hypothesis.
      • curiously, Dunbar recognized they were all multiples of 5.

        • the tightest circle has just 5 people (loved ones).
        • 15 (good friends),
        • 50 (friends),
        • 150 (meaningful contacts),
        • 500 (acquaintances) and
        • 1500 (people you can recognise).
      • People migrate in and out of these layers,

      • but that space has to be carved out for any new entrants.
    1. A Zettelkasten is a system of notes that fit the criteria of being a system. Being alive vs. being a machine is a good metaphor to understand the difference. A Zettelkasten is alive, a conventional note taking system is a machine.

      I'm not the only one to think of zettelkasten as "living"...

  9. Feb 2023
    1. fz is less about the tree (though that is important) and more about the UX.

      I do like the framing of folgezettel as a benefit with respect to user experience.

      There is a lot of mention of the idea of trees within the note taking and zettelkasten space, but we really ought to be looking more closely at other living systems models like rhizomes and things which have a network-like structure.

    1. There is just one little nit for mathematicians to pick: morphisms don’t have to form a set. In the world of categories there are things larger than sets. A category in which morphisms between any two objects form a set is called locally small.
    2. It’s worth emphasizing that Haskell lets you express equality of functions, as in: mappend = (++) Conceptually, this is different than expressing the equality of values produced by functions, as in: mappend s1 s2 = (++) s1 s2 The former translates into equality of morphisms in the category Hask (or Set, if we ignore bottoms, which is the name for never-ending calculations). Such equations are not only more succinct, but can often be generalized to other categories. The latter is called extensional equality, and states the fact that for any two input strings, the outputs of mappend and (++) are the same. Since the values of arguments are sometimes called points (as in: the value of f at point x), this is called point-wise equality. Function equality without specifying the arguments is described as point-free. (Incidentally, point-free equations often involve composition of functions, which is symbolized by a point, so this might be a little confusing to the beginner.)
    3. Is composition associative? Check!

      Associativity for <= seems a bit weird to me; generally you want the value inside of () to be comparable outside; but (1 <= 2) <= 3 would result in True <= 3. So I think the best way to think of associativity here is that it just does not apply, and the () can be dropped.

    4. Let’s characterize these ordered sets as categories. A preorder is a category where there is at most one morphism going from any object a to any object b. Another name for such a category is “thin.” A preorder is a thin category.