570 Matching Annotations
  1. Jul 2021
    1. 2021-07-12

    2. Swire-Thompson, B., Miklaucic, N., Wihbey, J., Lazer, D., & DeGutis, J. (2021). Backfire effects after correcting misinformation are strongly associated with reliability. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/e3pvx

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/e3pvx
    4. The backfire effect is when a correction increases belief in the very misconception it is attempting to correct, and it is often used as a reason not to correct misinformation. The current study aimed to test whether correcting misinformation increases belief more than a no-correction control. Furthermore, we aimed to examine whether item-level differences in backfire rates were associated with test-retest reliability or theoretically meaningful factors. These factors included worldview-related attributes, namely perceived importance and strength of pre-correction belief, and familiarity-related attributes, namely perceived novelty and the illusory truth effect. In two nearly identical experiments, we conducted a longitudinal pre/post design with N = 388 and 532 participants. Participants rated 21 misinformation items and were assigned to a correction condition or test-retest control. We found that no items backfired more in the correction condition compared to test-retest control or initial belief ratings. Item backfire rates were strongly negatively correlated with item reliability (⍴ = -.61 / -.73) and did not correlate with worldview-related attributes. Familiarity-related attributes were significantly correlated with backfire rate, though they did not consistently account for unique variance beyond reliability. While there have been previous papers highlighting the non-replicable nature of backfire effects, the current findings provide a potential mechanism for this poor replicability. It is crucial for future research into backfire effects to use reliable measures, report the reliability of their measures, and take reliability into account in analyses. Furthermore, fact-checkers and communicators should not avoid giving corrective information due to backfire concerns.
    5. Backfire effects after correcting misinformation are strongly associated with reliability
  2. Jun 2021
    1. 2021-06-04

    2. Hotez, P. J., & Ko, A. I. (2021, June 4). Opinion | Why Are So Many Children in Brazil Dying From Covid-19? The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2021/06/04/opinion/Brazil-covid-children.html

    3. In the modern history of catastrophic infectious diseases in Brazil, children often suffer the most in terms of deaths and disability. When dengue epidemics emerged in Brazil in 2007 and 2008, children accounted for more than half of the fatalities. When pregnant women became infected with the Zika virus during an epidemic that began in 2015, more than 1,600 newborn Brazilian infants were born with devastating microcephaly birth defects, far more than in any other nation. Respiratory viruses continue to disproportionately affect Brazil’s children, while hookworms and other intestinal parasites stunt childhood growth and development, especially in poor rural areas.
    4. Why Are So Many Children in Brazil Dying From Covid-19?
    1. 2021-06-04

    2. Karlinsky, A., & Kobak, D. (2021). The World Mortality Dataset: Tracking excess mortality across countries during the COVID-19 pandemic. MedRxiv, 2021.01.27.21250604. https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.01.27.21250604

    3. Comparing the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic between countries or across time is difficult because the reported numbers of cases and deaths can be strongly affected by testing capacity and reporting policy. Excess mortality, defined as the increase in all-cause mortality relative to the expected mortality, is widely considered as a more objective indicator of the COVID-19 death toll. However, there has been no global, frequently-updated repository of the all-cause mortality data across countries. To fill this gap, we have collected weekly, monthly, or quarterly all-cause mortality data from 94 countries and territories, openly available as the regularly-updated World Mortality Dataset. We used this dataset to compute the excess mortality in each country during the COVID-19 pandemic. We found that in several worst-affected countries (Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia, Mexico) the excess mortality was above 50% of the expected annual mortality. At the same time, in several other countries (Australia, New Zealand) mortality during the pandemic was below the usual level, presumably due to social distancing measures decreasing the non-COVID infectious mortality. Furthermore, we found that while many countries have been reporting the COVID-19 deaths very accurately, some countries have been substantially underreporting their COVID-19 deaths (e.g. Nicaragua, Russia, Uzbekistan), sometimes by two orders of magnitude (Tajikistan). Our results highlight the importance of open and rapid all-cause mortality reporting for pandemic monitoring.
    4. 10.1101/2021.01.27.21250604
    5. The World Mortality Dataset: Tracking excess mortality across countries during the COVID-19 pandemic
    1. 2021-06-08

    2. Meijer, L. L., Hasenack, B., Kamps, J., Mahon, A., Titone, G., Dijkerman, H. C., & Keizer, A. (2021). Out of touch: Touch deprivation and affective touch perception during the COVID-19 pandemic. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/peq7m

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/peq7m
    4. Interpersonal touch and affective touch play a crucial role in social interactions and have a positive influence on mental health. The social distancing regulations related to the COVID-19 pandemic have reduced the ability to engage in interpersonal touch. This could cause touch deprivation, and it might alter the way in which affective touch is perceived. To investigate this, we conducted an online survey with 2348 participants, which contained questions regarding the COVID-19 regulations, touch deprivation and the perceived pleasantness of affective and non-affective touch. Results showed that participants reported feelings of touch deprivation. This significantly increased with the duration and severity of the COVID-19 regulations. Participants who experienced more touch deprivation rated videos of affective and non-affective touch as more pleasant. Current results provide insight in the impact of sudden and prolonged COVID-19 regulations and show that increasing the duration and severity of these regulations is associated with a higher desire for touch, which leads to increased perceived pleasantness of touch.
    5. Out of touch: Touch deprivation and affective touch perception during the COVID-19 pandemic
    1. 2021-06-08

    2. Bahrampour, T. (n.d.). For those who lost loved ones to covid, there is no return to normal. Washington Post. Retrieved June 9, 2021, from https://www.washingtonpost.com/local/social-issues/covid-widows-reopening/2021/06/07/7a55f9e6-c3bc-11eb-8c18-fd53a628b992_story.html

    3. Last month, when the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said vaccinated people could resume gathering indoors unmasked, many saw it as the most hopeful sign so far of the nation’s reopening.But Pamela Addison felt blindsided. She got on a Zoom call with other women whose husbands had died of covid-19. To many, it felt too soon to stop wearing masks. And the CDC announcement felt like a punch in the stomach.Support our journalism. Subscribe today.arrow-right“I think it makes our grief deeper,” said Addison, 37, a teacher in Waldwick, N.J. Her 44-year-old husband Martin, a speech pathologist at a hospital, died of the coronavirus in April 2020, leaving behind two children, who are now 3 and 1. “As people move forward who haven’t been impacted, I kind of feel like they forget and don’t care about the people whose lives were. You kind of don’t feel cared about.”
    4. For those who lost loved ones to covid, there is no return to normal
    1. 2021-06-09

    2. Pritchard, E., Matthews, P. C., Stoesser, N., Eyre, D. W., Gethings, O., Vihta, K.-D., Jones, J., House, T., VanSteenHouse, H., Bell, I., Bell, J. I., Newton, J. N., Farrar, J., Diamond, I., Rourke, E., Studley, R., Crook, D., Peto, T. E. A., Walker, A. S., & Pouwels, K. B. (2021). Impact of vaccination on new SARS-CoV-2 infections in the United Kingdom. Nature Medicine, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-021-01410-w

    3. 10.1038/s41591-021-01410-w
    4. The effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccination in preventing new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections in the general community is still unclear. Here, we used the Office for National Statistics COVID-19 Infection Survey—a large community-based survey of individuals living in randomly selected private households across the United Kingdom—to assess the effectiveness of the BNT162b2 (Pfizer–BioNTech) and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (Oxford–AstraZeneca; ChAdOx1) vaccines against any new SARS-CoV-2 PCR-positive tests, split according to self-reported symptoms, cycle threshold value (<30 versus ≥30; as a surrogate for viral load) and gene positivity pattern (compatible with B.1.1.7 or not). Using 1,945,071 real-time PCR results from nose and throat swabs taken from 383,812 participants between 1 December 2020 and 8 May 2021, we found that vaccination with the ChAdOx1 or BNT162b2 vaccines already reduced SARS-CoV-2 infections ≥21 d after the first dose (61% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 54–68%) versus 66% (95% CI = 60–71%), respectively), with greater reductions observed after a second dose (79% (95% CI = 65–88%) versus 80% (95% CI = 73–85%), respectively). The largest reductions were observed for symptomatic infections and/or infections with a higher viral burden. Overall, COVID-19 vaccination reduced the number of new SARS-CoV-2 infections, with the largest benefit received after two vaccinations and against symptomatic and high viral burden infections, and with no evidence of a difference between the BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 vaccines. Download PDF
    5. Impact of vaccination on new SARS-CoV-2 infections in the United Kingdom
  3. May 2021
    1. Op-Ed: How Not to Message the Public on COVID Vaccines — A "cringe-inducing" public service announcement with doctors and nurses
    1. 2021-05-18

    2. Sgaier, S. K. (2021, May 18). Opinion | Meet the Four Kinds of People Holding Us Back From Full Vaccination. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2021/05/18/opinion/covid-19-vaccine-hesitancy.html

    3. Getting everyone vaccinated in the United States has become much harder now that demand for the Covid-19 vaccine is flagging. America’s vaccination strategy needs to change to address this, and it starts with understanding the specific reasons people have not been vaccinated yet. The conventional approach to understanding whether someone will get vaccinated is asking people how likely they are to get the vaccine and then building a demographic profile based on their answers: Black, white, Latinx, Republican, Democrat. But this process isn’t enough: Just knowing that Republicans are less likely to get vaccinated doesn’t tell us how to get them vaccinated. It’s more important to understand why people are still holding out, where those people live and how to reach them.
    4. Meet the Four Kinds of People Holding Us Back From Full Vaccination
    1. 2021-05-19

    2. Israelow, B., Mao, T., Klein, J., Song, E., Menasche, B., Omer, S. B., & Iwasaki, A. (2021). Adaptive immune determinants of viral clearance and protection in mouse models of SARS-CoV-2. BioRxiv, 2021.05.19.444825. https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.05.19.444825

    3. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused more than 160 million infections and more than 3 million deaths worldwide. While effective vaccines are currently being deployed, the adaptive immune determinants which promote viral clearance and confer protection remain poorly defined. Using mouse models of SARS-CoV-2, we demonstrate that both humoral and cellular adaptive immunity contributes to viral clearance in the setting of primary infection. Furthermore, we find that either convalescent mice, or mice that receive mRNA vaccination are protected from both homologous infection and infection with a variant of concern, B.1.351. Additionally, we find this protection to be largely mediated by antibody response and not cellular immunity. These results highlight the in vivo protective capacity of antibodies generated to both vaccine and natural infection.
    4. 10.1101/2021.05.19.444825
    5. Adaptive immune determinants of viral clearance and protection in mouse models of SARS-CoV-2
    1. 2021-05-12

    2. Imada, H., & Mifune, N. (2021). Pathogen Threat and In-Group Cooperation. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/kebyd

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/kebyd
    4. Disease-causing parasites and pathogens play a pivotal role in intergroup behavior. Previous studies have suggested that the selection pressure posed by pathogen threat has resulted in in-group assortative sociality, including xenophobia and in-group favoritism. While the current literature has collated numerous studies on the former, strikingly, there has not been much research on the relationship between pathogen threat and in-group cooperation. Drawing upon prior studies on the function of the behavioral immune system (BIS), we argued that the BIS might facilitate cooperation with in-group members as a reactive behavioral immune response to pathogen threat. More specifically, we held that individuals might utilize cooperative behavior to ensure that they can receive social support when they have contracted an infectious disease. We reviewed existing findings pertaining to the potential role of the BIS in in-group cooperation and discussed directions for future studies.
    5. Pathogen Threat and In-Group Cooperation
    1. 2021-05-11

    2. Zhao, W. J., Coady, A., & Bhatia, S. (2021). Computational mechanisms for context-based behavioral interventions: A large-scale analysis. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/8cyad

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/8cyad
    4. Choice context influences decision processes, and is one of the primary determinants of what people choose. This insight has been used by academics and practitioners to study decision biases and design behavioral interventions to influence and improve choices. In this paper we analyze the effects of context-based behavioral interventions on the computational mechanisms underlying decision making. We collect data from two very large laboratory studies involving nineteen prominent behavioral interventions, and model the influence of each intervention using a leading computational model of choice in psychology and neuroscience. This allows us to parametrize the biases induced by each intervention, interpret these biases in terms of underlying decision mechanisms and their properties, quantify similarities between interventions, and predict how different interventions alter key choice outcomes. In doing so, we offer researchers and practitioners a theoretically principled approach to understanding and manipulating choice context in decision making.
    5. Computational mechanisms for context-based behavioral interventions: A large-scale analysis
    1. 2021-05-05

    2. Dempsey, H., & Parkin, B. (2021, May 5). India’s Covid surge rocks global shipping industry. https://www.ft.com/content/cf40d764-6ab6-4638-bea6-594cc3cd5d53

    3. India’s huge wave of Covid-19 infections has hit the international shipping industry, which relies on the country for seafarers, as crews come down with the disease and ports deny entry to vessels.Ports including Singapore and Fujairah in the United Arab Emirates have barred ships from changing crew members who have recently travelled from India, notices from maritime authorities show. Zhoushan in China has banned the entry of ships or crew that have visited India or Bangladesh in the past three months, according to Wilhelmsen Ship Management, a crew provider.Industry executives also said that crews coming from India were testing positive for Covid-19 on ships, despite quarantining and testing negative before boarding.
    4. India’s Covid surge rocks global shipping industry
    1. 2021-05-01

    2. Robertson, E., Reeve, K. S., Niedzwiedz, C. L., Moore, J., Blake, M., Green, M., Katikireddi, S. V., & Benzeval, M. J. (2021). Predictors of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in the UK household longitudinal study. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 94, 41–50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2021.03.008

    3. 10.1016/j.bbi.2021.03.008
    4. Vaccine hesitancy could undermine efforts to control COVID-19. We investigated the prevalence of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in the UK and identified vaccine hesitant subgroups. The ‘Understanding Society’ COVID-19 survey asked participants (n = 12,035) their likelihood of vaccine uptake and reason for hesitancy. Cross-sectional analysis assessed vaccine hesitancy prevalence and logistic regression calculated odds ratios. Overall vaccine hesitancy was low (18% unlikely/very unlikely). Vaccine hesitancy was higher in women (21.0% vs 14.7%), younger age groups (26.5% in 16–24 year olds vs 4.5% in 75 + ) and those with lower education levels (18.6% no qualifications vs 13.2% degree qualified). Vaccine hesitancy was high in Black (71.8%) and Pakistani/Bangladeshi (42.3%) ethnic groups. Odds ratios for vaccine hesitancy were 13.42 (95% CI:6.86, 26.24) in Black and 2.54 (95% CI:1.19, 5.44) in Pakistani/Bangladeshi groups (compared to White British/Irish) and 3.54 (95% CI:2.06, 6.09) for people with no qualifications versus degree. Urgent action to address hesitancy is needed for some but not all ethnic minority groups.
    5. Predictors of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in the UK household longitudinal study
    1. 2021-03-05

    2. Covid-19: Vaccinated NHS staff numbers vary across England. (2021, March 5). BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/health-56291564

    3. There is huge variation in the percentage of frontline NHS healthcare staff who have been vaccinated against Covid in England.More than 98% in the North East and South West have had a first dose - but only 79% in London, leaving around 35,000 staff unvaccinated there.Ministers are considering whether to make the jab mandatory for NHS staff.Health and social care workers across the UK were one of the first groups to be offered a vaccine. In England, NHS data suggests 93% of eligible frontline staff have been vaccinated - equivalent to one million doses. But, nearly three months after the vaccination programme began, up to 80,000 frontline staff have still not taken up the offer.
    4. Covid-19: Vaccinated NHS staff numbers vary across England
    1. 2021-05-10

    2. Huang, L., & Cao, B. (2021). Post-acute conditions of patients with COVID-19 not requiring hospital admission. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(21)00225-5

    3. 10.1016/S1473-3099(21)00225-5
    4. As of early April, 2021, more than 2·8 million individuals have died globally from COVID-19. However, tens of millions of patients have survived COVID-19 and returned to everyday life. Increasing evidence has shown that a considerable proportion of patients did not recover fully and had lasting sequelae, described by various terms without consensus, including long COVID, post-COVID condition or syndrome, postacute (or late) sequelae of COVID-19, and post-acute COVID syndrome.1Lerner AM Robinson DA Yang L et al.Toward understanding COVID-19 recovery: National Institutes of Health workshop on postacute COVID-19.Ann Intern Med. 2021; (published online March 30.)https://doi.org/10.7326/M21-1043Crossref PubMed Google Scholar,  2Nalbandian A Sehgal K Gupta A et al.Post-acute COVID-19 syndrome.Nat Med. 2021; 27: 601-615Crossref PubMed Scopus (1) Google Scholar Studies have mainly focused on patients with COVID-19 after hospital admission.3Huang C Huang L Wang Y et al.6-month consequences of COVID-19 in patients discharged from hospital: a cohort study.Lancet. 2021; 397: 220-232Summary Full Text Full Text PDF PubMed Scopus (51) Google Scholar,  4Morin L Savale L Pham T et al.Four-month clinical status of a cohort of patients after hospitalization for COVID-19.JAMA. 2021; (published online March 17.)https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2021.3331PubMed Google Scholar One study with a small sample size and without a control group of people without COVID-19 described the long-term outcomes of patients with COVID-19 who did not require hospital admission.5Stavem K Ghanima W Olsen MK Gilboe HM Einvik G Persistent symptoms 1·5–6 months after COVID-19 in non-hospitalised subjects: a population-based cohort study.Thorax. 2020; 76: 405-407Crossref Scopus (8) Google Scholar
    5. Post-acute conditions of patients with COVID-19 not requiring hospital admission
    1. 2021-05-10

    2. Vaughan, A. (2021, May 10). Indian coronavirus variant in the UK seems to be more transmissible. New Scientist. https://www.newscientist.com/article/2277153-indian-coronavirus-variant-in-the-uk-seems-to-be-more-transmissible/

    3. A form of the coronavirus variant first identified in India, which is now spreading in the UK, appears to be passed on at least as easily as the “Kent variant” that now dominates UK infections. The variant, called B.1.617.2, was designated a “variant of concern” on 7 May by health authorities in England. B.1.617.2 is one of three sub-lineages of B.1.617, the variant that has become common in India and which some have considered, but not proven, to be one potential factor behind the crisis India has been facing. On 10 May, the World Health Organization designated B.1.617 as a variant of concern. Advertisement googletag.cmd.push(function() { googletag.display('mpu-mid-article'); }); googletag.cmd.push(function() { googletag.display('video-mid-article'); }); Public Health England (PHE) has moderate confidence that the B.1.617.2 variant is on a par for transmissibility with B.1.1.7, which originated in the UK, said Sharon Peacock at the University of Cambridge at a press briefing today. The view is based on the variant’s mutations and its ability to circulate in the UK alongside the Kent variant. However, there is still much we don’t know about the Indian variants.
    4. Indian coronavirus variant in the UK seems to be more transmissible
    1. 2021-05-11

    2. WIlliams, S. N., & Dienes, K. (2021). Public attitudes to COVID-19 vaccines: A qualitative study. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/h87s3

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/h87s3
    4. OBJECTIVE: To explore public attitudes to COVID-19 vaccines in the UK, focused on intentions and decisions around taking vaccines, views on ‘vaccine passports’, and experiences and perspectives on post-vaccination behaviour. DESIGN: Qualitative study consisting of 6 online focus groups conducted between 15th March – 22nd April 2021. SETTING: Online video conferencing PARTICIPANTS: 29 adult UK-based participants RESULTS: Three main groups regarding participants’ decision or intention to receive a COVID-19 vaccine were identified: (1) Accepters, (2) Delayers and (3) Refusers. Two reasons for vaccine delay were identified: delay due to a perceived need more information and delay until vaccine was “required” in the future. Three main facilitators (Vaccination as a social norm; Vaccination as a necessity; Trust in science) and six barriers (Preference for “natural immunity”; Concerns over possible side effects; Distrust in government; Perceived lack of information; Conspiracy theories; “Covid echo chambers”) to vaccine uptake were identified. For some delayers, 'vaccine passports' were perceived to be a reason why they would get vaccinated in the future. However, vaccine passports were controversial, and were framed in four main ways: as “a necessary evil”; as “Orwellian”; as a “human rights problem”; and as a source of confidence”. Participants generally felt that receiving a vaccine was not changing the extent to which people were adhering to COVID-19 measures. CONCLUSIONS: Overall positive sentiment around vaccines is high. However, there remains a number of potential barriers which might be leading to vaccine delay in some. ‘Vaccine delay’ might be a more useful and precise construct than vaccine hesitancy in explaining why some may initially ignore or be uncertain about vaccination invitations. Vaccine passports may increase or ‘nudge’ uptake in some delayers but may be unpopular in others. Earlier concerns that vaccination might reduce adherence to social distancing measures are not borne out in our data, with most people reporting adherence and caution.
    5. Public attitudes to COVID-19 vaccines: A qualitative study
    1. 2021-04-30

    2. Moutinho, S., WadmanApr. 30, M., 2021, & Pm, 5:40. (2021, April 30). Is Russia’s COVID-19 vaccine safe? Brazil’s veto of Sputnik V sparks lawsuit threat and confusion. Science | AAAS. https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2021/04/russias-covid-19-vaccine-safe-brazils-veto-sputnik-v-sparks-lawsuit-threat-and

    3. A confusing and unusually nasty fight broke out this week over the safety of a Russian COVID-19 vaccine known as Sputnik V after a Brazilian health agency declined on Monday to authorize its import because of quality and safety concerns. The stakes escalated yesterday when the Twitter account officially associated with the vaccine said “Sputnik V is undertaking a legal defamation proceeding” against Brazil’s regulators. In an online press conference several hours later, the Brazilian Health Regulatory Agency (Anvisa) defended its decision, maintaining that documentation from some of the Russian facilities making Sputnik V shows that one of its two doses contains adenoviruses capable of replication, a potential danger to vaccine recipients. The vaccine uses two different adenoviruses, which cause the common cold, to deliver the gene for the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVD-19. Both are supposed to be stripped of a key gene that allows them to replicate.
    4. Is Russia’s COVID-19 vaccine safe? Brazil’s veto of Sputnik V sparks lawsuit threat and confusion
    1. 2021-04-26

    2. Why Black And Latino People Still Lag On COVID Vaccines—And How To Fix It. (n.d.). NPR.Org. Retrieved May 6, 2021, from https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2021/04/26/989962041/why-black-and-latino-people-still-lag-on-covid-vaccines-and-how-to-fix-it

    3. There are a lot of ways Dr. Kent Bream would describe the lines of people waiting, sometimes for hours, for COVID-19 vaccines at his community health clinic in West Philadelphia. Eager. Impatient. Frustrated, even. But "hesitant" doesn't come to mind. As soon as the city started sending him doses, he says, demand was never an issue. In fact, Bream's clinic — which is located in a predominantly Black neighborhood — had more vaccines than it had staff to administer them. "I said, send me vaccine and I will show you that there is not the level of vaccine hesitancy you think there is," recalls the medical director of Sayre Health Center. Despite the high demand, the latest data show that 23% of vaccines are going to Black residents. Compare that to Philadelphia's total population, which is more than 40% Black. Vaccination rates for Black and Latino people in the city are still half what they are for whites.
    4. Why Black And Latino People Still Lag On COVID Vaccines — And How To Fix It
    1. 2020-07-13

    2. Rothmund, T., Farkhari, F., Azevedo, F., & Ziemer, C.-T. (2020). Scientific Trust, Risk Assessment, and Conspiracy Beliefs about COVID-19—Four Patterns of Consensus and Disagreement between Scientific Experts and the German Public. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/4nzuy

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/4nzuy
    4. We investigated laypersons’ agreement with technical claims about the spread of the Sars-CoV-2 virus and with claims about the risk from COVID-19 in the general public in Germany (N = 1,575) and compared these with the evaluations of scientific experts (N = 128). Using Latent Class Analysis, we distinguished four segments in the general public. Two groups (mainstream and cautious, 73%) are generally consistent with scientific experts in their evaluations. Two groups (doubters and deniers, 27%) differ distinctively from expert evaluations and tend to believe in conspiracies about COVID-19. Deniers (8%) are characterized by low risk assessments, anti-elitist sentiments and low compliance with containment measures. Doubters (19%) are characterized by general uncertainty in the distinction between true and false claims and by low scientific literacy in terms of cognitive ability and style. Our research indicates that conspiracy beliefs about COVID-19 cannot be linked to a single and distinct motivational structure.
    5. Scientific Trust, Risk Assessment, and Conspiracy Beliefs about COVID-19 - Four Patterns of Consensus and Disagreement between Scientific Experts and the German Public
    1. 2021-05-06

    2. Rohrer, J. M., Schmukle, S., & McElreath, R. (2021). The Only Thing That Can Stop Bad Causal Inference Is Good Causal Inference. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/mz5jx

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/mz5jx
    4. In psychology, causal inference—both the transport from lab estimates to the real world and estimation on the basis of observational data—is often pursued in a casual manner. Underlying assumptions remain unarticulated; potential pitfalls are compiled in post-hoc lists of flaws. The field should move on to coherent frameworks of causal inference and generalizability that have been developed elsewhere.
    5. The Only Thing That Can Stop Bad Causal Inference Is Good Causal Inference
  4. Apr 2021
    1. 2021-04-21

    2. ReconfigBehSci. (2021, April 21). RT @covidoneyearago: One year ago today: A paper in Clinical Infectious Diseases identifies a 16.3% rate of in-household COVID-19 infection… [Tweet]. @SciBeh. https://twitter.com/SciBeh/status/1384784541873737729

    3. One year ago today: A paper in Clinical Infectious Diseases identifies a 16.3% rate of in-household COVID-19 infection, with a 21% rate in adults and 4% in children. Among cases where the first household member to be infected self-quarantined at home, the rate was 0%.
    1. 2021-04-21

    2. Teodorescu, K., Plonsky, O., Ayal, S., & Barkan, R. (2021). Enforcement policies: Frequency of inspection is more important than the severity of punishment. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/pbvzr

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/pbvzr
    4. External enforcement policies aimed to reduce violations differ on two key components: the probability of inspection and the severity of punishments. Different lines of research offer competing predictions regarding the relative importance of each component. In three incentive compatible studies, students and Prolific crowdsourcing participants (Ntotal=430) repeatedly faced temptations to commit violations under two enforcement policies. Controlling for expected value, the results indicated that a policy combining High probability of Inspection with Low Severity of fine (HILS) was more effective than a policy combining Low probability of Inspection with High Severity of fine (LIHS). Consistent with the prediction of Decisions from Experience research, this finding held even when the severity of the fine was stated in advance to boost deterrence. In addition, the advantage of HILS over LIHS was greater as participants’ baseline rate of violation (without enforcement) was higher, implying that HILS is more effective among frequent offenders.
    5. Enforcement policies: Frequency of inspection is more important than the severity of punishment
    1. 2021-04-20

    2. Cardno, S. J., & Sahraie, A. (2021). The expanding backlog of mental health patients: Time for a major rethink in COVID-19 policy. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/st5b2

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/st5b2
    4. ● Prior to the pandemic there was a 4-5% annual rise in the number of mental health related GP referrals in Scotland. ● There was a 27% drop in referrals in 2020, affecting 43,522 patients. ● Previous pandemic related research shows that restrictions imposed to curb infections led to higher incidence of mental health problems and therefore it is likely that the true figure of those in need of referral far exceeds this figure. ● If the mental health services are restored to their pre-pandemic levels, the tens of thousands of patients who have not been referred yet, will face years on waiting lists before specialist help can be provided. ● There is an urgent need to re-evaluate COVID imposed restrictions on the operations of NHS services to address the challenges.
    5. The expanding backlog of mental health patients: Time for a major rethink in COVID-19 policy