1,786 Matching Annotations
  1. Nov 2021
    1. 2021-11-26

    2. SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern and variants under investigation. (2021). 45.

    3. This report has been published to share the detailed variant surveillance analyses which contribute to the variant risk assessments and designation of new variants of concern (VOC) and variants under investigation (VUI). This specialist technical briefing contains early data and analysis on emerging variants and findings have a high level of uncertainty. A separate report is published covering surveillance data on all other VOCs and VUIs. In summary: 1. There are 4 current VOCs and 9 VUIs (Table 1). The new Variant UnderInvestigation is VUI-21NOV-01, B.1.1.529.2. Delta remains the predominant variant accounting for approximately 99.8% ofsequenced cases in England from 10 October to the 22 of November 2021.3. The Delta sublineage (VUI-21OCT-01) AY.4.2 continues to increase as a proportion of cases in the UK. It accounts for 15.2% of Delta cases in the most recent complete week of sequencing (11 November 2021 to 7 November 2021). In more recent weeks, sequencing data is incomplete, however AY.4.2 accounts for 17.8% of Delta cases in the week 8 November 2021 to 14 November 2021 and 20.3% in the week 15 November 2021 to 21 November 2021.4. The logistic growth rate for (VUI-21OCT-01) AY.4.2 is estimated to be 15% per week compared to other circulating variants. Growth rate is context dependent and cannot be interpreted as a change in biological transmissibility.5. Secondary attack rates amongst contacts of cases with (VUI-21OCT-01) AY.4.2 remain higher than those observed for other Delta cases for all categories (Table 6).6. An updated analysis using more recent data confirms that there is no evidence that VUI-21OCT-01 (AY 4.2) causes more severe disease than other Delta variants.7. Genomes from a new variant B.1.1.529 have been uploaded to GISAID by South Africa, Botswana and Hong Kong. It has a large number of mutations which are likely to be biologically significant, and which may change the behaviour of the virus with regards to immune escape, transmissibility, and susceptibility to some treatments. There are currently no detected cases in the UK. This variant was designated VUI-21NOV-01 on 25 November 2021 and is currently undergoing further rapid assessment.All risk assessments are published separately online, except for Gamma, which was published within Technical Briefing 7 and Alpha within Technical Briefing 9. As Delta is the dominant variant in the UK, epidemiological data in the weekly surveillance report is also relevant.
    4. SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern and variants under investigation in England
    1. 2021-10-12

    2. Johnson, T., Moultrie, T., Gonsalves, G., & Hassan, F. (2021, October 12). An inconvenient truth: The real reason why Africa is not getting vaccinated. Bhekisisa. https://bhekisisa.org/opinion/2021-10-12-an-inconvenient-truth-the-real-reason-why-africa-is-not-getting-vaccinated/

    3. Only 2.5% of the world’s COVID vaccines have gone to African countries. As a result of vaccine hoarding by rich countries, more than 100-million COVID doses could go to waste this year. Rather than focusing on the high levels of vaccine equity, pharmaceutical companies are trying to shift the blame onto vaccine hesitancy on the continent.
    4. An inconvenient truth: The real reason why Africa is not getting vaccinated
    1. 2021-11-26

    2. Laurent, C. de S., Murphy, G., Hegarty, K., & Greene, C. (2021). Measuring the effects of misinformation exposure on behavioural intentions. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/2xngy

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/2xngy
    4. Misinformation has been a pressing issue since the beginning of COVID-19 pandemic, threatening our ability to effectively act on the crisis. More recently, the availability of vaccines in developed countries has not always translated into high vaccination rates, with online misinformation often presented as the culprit. Yet little is known about the actual effects of fake news on behavioural intentions. Does exposure to misinformation about COVID-19 vaccines indeed affects people’s intentions to receive such a vaccine? This paper attempts to answer this question through three preregistered experiments (N=3463). In Study 1, participants (n=1269) were exposed to fabricated pro- or anti-vaccine information or to neutral true information, and then asked about their intentions to get vaccinated, alongside a few other behavioural intentions. In Study 2, participants (n=1863) were exposed to true pro- and anti-vaccine information, while Study 3 (n=1548) compared the effects of single and multiple exposures to novel misinformation about COVID-19 vaccines. The results showed that exposure to false information on the vaccines did not affect the participants’ intentions to get vaccinated, even when multiple exposures led them to believe that the headlines were more accurate than in the single exposure conditions. An exploratory meta-analysis of studies 1 and 3 (n=2683) showed that exposure to false information about COVID-19 vaccines, regardless of whether it was in favour of or against vaccines, increased vaccination intentions. We conclude by cautioning researchers against equating exposure to misinformation or perceived accuracy of false news with actual behaviours.
    5. Measuring the effects of misinformation exposure on behavioural intentions
    1. 2021-11-20

    2. Mertens, G., Lodder, P., Smeets, T., & Duijndam, S. (2021). Fear of COVID-19 predicts vaccination willingness 14 months later. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/rt7u4

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/rt7u4
    4. Vaccines are an important tool for governments and health agencies to contain and curb the Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic. However, despite their effectiveness and safeness, a substantial portion of the population worldwide is hesitant to get vaccinated. In the current study, we examined whether fear of COVID-19 predicts vaccination willingness. In a longitudinal study (N = 938), fear for COVID-19 was assessed in April 2020 and vaccination willingness was measured in June 2021. Approximately 11% of our sample indicated that they were not willing to get vaccinated. Results of a logistic regression showed that increased fear of COVID-19 predicts vaccination willingness 14 months later, even when controlling for several anxious personality traits, infection control perceptions, risks for loved ones, self-rated health, previous infection, media use, and demographic variables. These results show that fear of COVID-19 is a relevant construct to consider for predicting and possibly influencing vaccination willingness. Nonetheless, sensitivity and specificity of fear of COVID-19 to predict vaccination willingness were quite low and only became slightly better when fear of COVID-19 was measured concurrently. This indicates that other potential factors, such as perceived risks of the vaccines, probably also play a role in explaining vaccination willingness.
    5. Fear of COVID-19 predicts vaccination willingness 14 months later
    1. 2021-11-19

    2. Forbes, P., Pronizius, E., Feneberg, A. C., Nater, U., Piperno, G., Silani, G., Stijovic, A., & Lamm, C. (2021). The benefits and limits of social interactions during COVID-19 lockdown. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/ae6t9

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/ae6t9
    4. BACKGROUND: Social interactions are vital for our wellbeing, particularly during times of stress. PURPOSE: We investigated the real-time effect of social interactions on changes in stress and mood using an ecological momentary assessment approach in 732 participants during COVID-19 lockdown in spring 2020 and in a subsample of these participants (n= 281) during a further lockdown in winter 2020. METHODS: Participants reported their stress and mood in a smartphone app five times per day for seven days and indicated the nature and frequency of their recent social interactions. RESULTS: Overall, social interactions and their frequency were associated with enhanced momentary mood. In person interactions, but not those that were not in person (e.g., via audio, video, or text), were linked to lower stress, especially if they were with closer others. Individuals scoring high on trait loneliness benefited least from social interactions in terms of their momentary mood, whereas those scoring high on trait depressive symptoms benefited the most. Our key findings replicated across both lockdowns. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the benefits and limits of social interactions for improving momentary mood and stress during psychologically demanding periods and highlight how clinically relevant individual differences can modulate these effects.
    5. The benefits and limits of social interactions during COVID-19 lockdown
    1. 2021-11-18

    2. Gebre, M. S., Rauch, S., Roth, N., Yu, J., Chandrashekar, A., Mercado, N. B., He, X., Liu, J., McMahan, K., Martinot, A., Martinez, D. R., Giffin, T., Hope, D., Patel, S., Sellers, D., Sanborn, O., Barrett, J., Liu, X., Cole, A. C., … Barouch, D. H. (2021). Optimization of Non-Coding Regions for a Non-Modified mRNA COVID-19 Vaccine. Nature, 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-04231-6

    3. 10.1038/s41586-021-04231-6
    4. The CVnCoV (CureVac) mRNA vaccine for SARS-CoV-2 has recently been evaluated in a phase 2b/3 efficacy trial in humans1. CV2CoV is a second-generation mRNA vaccine with non-modified nucleosides but optimized non-coding regions and enhanced antigen expression. Here we report a head-to-head study of the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of CVnCoV and CV2CoV in nonhuman primates. We immunized 18 cynomolgus macaques with two doses of 12 ug of lipid nanoparticle formulated CVnCoV, CV2CoV, or sham (N=6/group). CV2CoV induced substantially higher binding and neutralizing antibodies, memory B cell responses, and T cell responses as compared with CVnCoV. CV2CoV also induced more potent neutralizing antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 variants, including the delta variant. Moreover, CV2CoV proved comparably immunogenic to the BNT162b2 (Pfizer) vaccine in macaques. While CVnCoV provided partial protection against SARS-CoV-2 challenge, CV2CoV afforded more robust protection with markedly lower viral loads in the upper and lower respiratory tract. Binding and neutralizing antibody titers correlated with protective efficacy. These data demonstrate that optimization of non-coding regions can greatly improve the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a non-modified mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in nonhuman primates.
    5. Optimization of Non-Coding Regions for a Non-Modified mRNA COVID-19 Vaccine
    1. 2021-11-18

    2. Manning, W., & Dush, C. K. (2021). COVID-19 Stress and Sexual Identities. SocArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31235/osf.io/69gjs

    3. 10.31235/osf.io/69gjs
    4. The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted lives and resulted in high levels of stress. While the evidence at the societal level is clear, there have been no population-based studies of pandemic-based stress focusing on individuals who identify as sexual minorities. Drawing on representative data collected during the pandemic, National Couples’ Health and Time Use Study, we find that partnered (cohabiting or married) individuals who identified as sexual minorities experienced higher levels of stress than individuals who identified as heterosexual. However, variation exists observed among sexual minority adults. Although economic resources, discrimination, social and community support and health conditions are tied to reported stress levels they do not explain differentials according to sexual identity. These results provide evidence that sexual minority adults faced greater stress during the pandemic and the importance of recognizing that sexual minorities are not a monolithic group with varying stress responses to the pandemic.
    5. COVID-19 Stress and Sexual Identities
    1. 2021-10-28

    2. Rattner, N. (2021, October 28). Some 5% of unvaccinated adults quit their jobs over Covid vaccine mandates, survey shows. CNBC. https://www.cnbc.com/2021/10/28/covid-vaccine-some-5percent-of-unvaccinated-adults-have-quit-their-jobs-over-a-mandate-survey-shows.html

    3. Five percent of unvaccinated adults said they have left a job due to a vaccine mandate, according to a survey released Thursday by the Kaiser Family Foundation. One-quarter of workers surveyed by KFF in October said their employer has required them to get vaccinated, up from 9% in June and 19% last month.A nationwide vaccination or testing mandate covering businesses with 100 or more employees announced by President Joe Biden last month has yet to be officially implemented by the Labor Department.
    4. Some 5% of unvaccinated adults quit their jobs over Covid vaccine mandates, survey shows
    1. 2021-11-16

    2. Benjy Renton. (2021, November 16). New data update: Drawing from 23 states reporting data, 5.3% of kids ages 5-11 in these states have received their first dose. Vermont leads these states so far in vaccination rates for this age group—17%. The CDC will begin to report data for this group late this week. Https://t.co/LMJXl6lo6Z [Tweet]. @bhrenton. https://twitter.com/bhrenton/status/1460638150322180098

    3. New data update: Drawing from 23 states reporting data, 5.3% of kids ages 5-11 in these states have received their first dose. Vermont leads these states so far in vaccination rates for this age group — 17%. The CDC will begin to report data for this group late this week.
    1. 2021-11-16

    2. Sett, S., Ribeiro, C. dos S., Prat, C., Haringhuizen, G., Avšič, T., Batten, C., Beato, M. S., Bourhy, H., Caro, A. D., Charrel, R., Coutard, B., Drexler, J. F., Drosten, C., Fooks, A. R., Klempa, B., Koopmans, M., Klimkait, T., Günther, S., Manuguerra, J.-C., … Scholz, A. H. (2021). Access and benefit-sharing by the European Virus Archive in response to COVID-19. The Lancet Microbe, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/S2666-5247(21)00211-1

    3. 10.1016/S2666-5247(21)00211-1
    4. Biobanking infrastructures, which are crucial for responding early to new viral outbreaks, share pathogen genetic resources in an affordable, safe, and impartial manner and can provide expertise to address access and benefit-sharing issues. The European Virus Archive has had a crucial role in the global response to the COVID-19 pandemic by distributing EU-subsidised (free of charge) viral resources to users worldwide, providing non-monetary benefit sharing, implementing access and benefit-sharing compliance, and raising access and benefit-sharing awareness among members and users. All currently available SARS-CoV-2 material in the European Virus Archive catalogue, including variants of concern, are not access and benefit-sharing cases per se, but multilateral benefit-sharing has nevertheless occurred. We propose and discuss how a multilateral system enabling access and benefit-sharing from pathogen genetic resources, based on the European Virus Archive operational model, could help bridge the discrepancies between the current bilateral legal framework for pathogen genetic resources and actual pandemic response practices.
    5. Access and benefit-sharing by the European Virus Archive in response to COVID-19
    1. 2021-11-16

    2. Bristol University makes masks compulsory for staff and students indoors. (2021, November 16). ITV News. https://www.itv.com/news/westcountry/2021-11-16/bristol-university-makes-masks-compulsory-for-staff-and-students-indoors

    3. Bosses at the University of Bristol have announced that stuff and students must wear face masks inside all buildings on campus, as coronavirus case numbers in the city rise again. Everyone will have to wear a covering indoors from now on, unless they are medically exempt. According to bosses, the decision was made because of increasing infection rates in Bristol and "extreme pressure" on the NHS.
    4. Bristol University makes indoor mask-wearing compulsory for staff and students
    1. 2021-11-16

    2. Ozernov-Palchik, O., Olson, H., Arechiga, X., Kentala, H., Solorio-Fielder1, J. L., Wang, K. L., Torres, Y. C., Gardino, N. D., Dieffenbach, J. R., & Gabrieli, J. (2021). Implementing Remote Developmental Research: A Case Study of an RCT Language Intervention During COVID-19. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/k9632

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/k9632
    4. Intervention studies with developmental samples are difficult to implement, in particular when targeting demographically diverse communities. Online studies have the potential to examine the efficacy of highly scalable interventions aimed at enhancing development, and to address some of the barriers faced by underrepresented communities for participating in developmental research. During the COVID-19 pandemic, we executed a fully remote randomized controlled trial (RCT) language intervention with third and fourth-grade students (N = 255; age range 8.19-10.72 years, mean = 9.41, SD = 0.52) from diverse backgrounds across the United States. Using this as a case study, we discuss both challenges and solutions to conducting an intensive online intervention through the various phases of the study, including recruitment, data collection, and fidelity of intervention implementation. We provide comprehensive suggestions and takeaways and conclude by summarizing some important tradeoffs for researchers interested in carrying out such studies.
    5. Implementing Remote Developmental Research: A Case Study of an RCT Language Intervention During COVID-19
    1. 2021-11-15

    2. Racine, N., Madigan, S., Cardinal, S., Hartwick, C., Leslie, M., Motz, M., & Pepler, D. (2021). Community-Based Research: Perspectives of Psychology Researchers and Community Partners. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/cxrmt

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/cxrmt
    4. There is now a growing understanding that translational research must be co-created in collaboration with community partners and that solutions to real-world social problems require stepping outside the academic silo. Fewer than half of psychology programs in Canada, however, offer courses in community-based research or evaluation, leaving a gap in skill development amongst the next generation of scholars. In an effort to partially fill this learning gap, the current paper provides insights into lessons learned from the perspectives of researchers and community partners alike, who have been mutually engaging in community-based research over the last 25 years. Ultimately this paper seeks to provide a roadmap for conducting community-based research and illustrates why it should be a central component to research seeking to answer critical questions in psychological science. First, we provide a conceptual foundation of community-based research. Next, using three specific community-based research projects as examples, we share the challenges and benefits of conducting research in the community context. Finally, we highlight future directions for increasing the uptake of community-based research in Canada.
    5. Community-Based Research: Perspectives of Psychology Researchers and Community Partners
    1. 2021-11-15

    2. Swire-Thompson, B., Cook, J., Butler, L., Sanderson, J., Lewandowsky, S., & Ecker, U. (2021). Correction Format has a Limited Role when Debunking Misinformation. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/gwxe4

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/gwxe4
    4. Given that being misinformed can have negative ramifications, finding optimal corrective techniques has become a key focus of research. In recent years, several divergent correction formats have been proposed as superior corrective methods based on distinct theoretical frameworks. However, these correction formats have not been compared in controlled settings, so the suggested superiority of each format remains speculative. Across four experiments, the current paper investigated how altering the format of corrections influences peoples’ subsequent reliance on misinformation. We examined whether myth-first, fact-first, fact-only, or myth-only correction formats were most effective, using a range of different materials and participant pools. Experiments 1 and 2 focused on climate change misconceptions; participants were Qualtrics online panel members and students taking part in a massive open online course, respectively. Experiments 3 and 4 used misconceptions from a diverse set of topics, with Amazon Mechanical Turk crowdworkers and university student participants. We found that the impact of a correction on beliefs and inferential reasoning was largely independent of the specific format used. The clearest evidence for any potential relative superiority emerged in Experiment 4, which found that with a delayed retention interval, the myth-first format was more effective at myth correction than the fact-first format. However, in general it appeared that as long as the key ingredients of a correction were presented, format did not appear to make a considerable difference. This suggests that simply providing corrective information, regardless of format, is far more important than how the correction is presented.
    5. Correction Format has a Limited Role when Debunking Misinformation
    1. 2021-11-15

    2. Andrews, N., Stowe, J., Kirsebom, F., Gower, C., Ramsay, M., & Lopez Bernal, J. (2021). Effectiveness of BNT162b2 (Comirnaty, Pfizer-BioNTech) COVID-19 booster vaccine against covid-19 related symptoms in England: Test negative case-control study [Preprint]. Epidemiology. https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.11.15.21266341

    3. 2 Abstract Background In September 2021, the UK Government introduced a booster programme targeting individuals over 50 and those in a clinical risk group. Individuals were offered either a full dose of the BNT162b2 (Comirnaty, Pfizer-BioNTech) vaccine or a half dose of the mRNA-1273 (Spikevax, Moderna) vaccine, irrespective of the vaccine received as the primary course. Methods We used a test-negative case-control design to estimate the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of the booster dose BNT162b2 (Comirnaty, Pfizer-BioNTech) in those aged over 50 against symptomatic disease in post booster time intervals compared to individuals at least 140 days post a second dose with no booster dose recorded. In a secondary analysis, we also compared to unvaccinated individuals and to the 2 to 6 day period after a booster dose was received. Analyses were stratified by which primary doses had been received and any mixed primary courses were excluded. Results The relative VE estimate in the 14 days after the BNT162b2 (Comirnaty, Pfizer-BioNTech) booster dose, compared to individuals that received a 2-dose primary course, was 87.4 (95% confidence interval 84.9-89.4) in those individuals who received 2 doses ChAdOx1-S (Vaxzevria, AstraZeneca) as a primary course and 84.4 (95% confidence interval 82.8-85.8) in those individuals who received 2 doses of BNT162b2 (Comirnaty, Pfizer-BioNTech) as a primary course. Using the 2 to 6 day period post the booster dose as the baseline gave similar results. The absolute VE from 14 days after the booster, using the unvaccinated baseline, was 93.1(95% confidence interval 91.7-94.3) in those with ChAdOx1-S (Vaxzevria, AstraZeneca) as their primary course and 94.0 (93.4-94.6) for BNT162b2 (Comirnaty, Pfizer-BioNTech) as their primary course. Conclusions Our study provides real world evidence of significant increased protection from the booster vaccine dose against symptomatic disease in those aged over 50 year of age irrespective of which primary course was received.
    4. Effectiveness of BNT162b2 (Comirnaty, Pfizer-BioNTech) COVID-19 booster vaccine against COVID-19 related symptoms in England: test negative case-control study
    1. 2021-11-03

    2. Coronavirus (COVID-19) Infection Survey, characteristics of people testing positive for COVID-19, UK - Office for National Statistics. (2021, November 3). Coronavirus (COVID-19) Infection Survey, Characteristics of People Testing Positive for COVID-19, UK: 3 November 2021. https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/conditionsanddiseases/bulletins/coronaviruscovid19infectionsurveycharacteristicsofpeopletestingpositiveforcovid19uk/3november2021#glossary

    3. Characteristics of people testing positive for COVID-19 from the Coronavirus (COVID-19) Infection Survey. This survey is being delivered in partnership with University of Oxford, University of Manchester, UK Health Security Agency and Wellcome Trust. This study is jointly led by the ONS and the Department for Health and Social Care (DHSC) working with the University of Oxford and Lighthouse Laboratory to collect and test samples. 
    4. Coronavirus (COVID-19) Infection Survey, characteristics of people testing positive for COVID-19, UK: 3 November 2021
    1. 2021-11-09

    2. Ladyzhets, B. (2021, November 9). The U.S. Is Relying On Other Countries’ Data To Make Its Booster Shot Decisions. FiveThirtyEight. https://fivethirtyeight.com/features/the-u-s-is-relying-on-other-countries-data-to-make-its-booster-shot-decisions/

    3. One Thursday in October, the Food and Drug Administration’s vaccine advisory committee gathered to discuss booster shots for Moderna and Johnson & Johnson’s COVID-19 vaccines. Yet one of the first presentations wasn’t given by Americans — it featured scientists from Israel’s Ministry of Health and Weizmann Institute. And the presentation wasn’t about Moderna or Johnson & Johnson’s vaccines — the Israelis shared their findings from the country’s Pfizer booster shot campaign.
    4. The U.S. Is Relying On Other Countries’ Data To Make Its Booster Shot Decisions
    1. 2021-11-03

    2. Koerth, M. (2021, November 3). The Science You Need To Make Your COVID-19 Decisions. FiveThirtyEight. https://projects.fivethirtyeight.com/covid-19-updates/

    3. If there's one thing we've learned since March 2020, it's that pandemics are all about hard decisions. It's hard to keep track of the information that helps us make those choices — let alone notice or remember when new science and expert recommendations come along. At FiveThirtyEight, we want to help. We’ve read the science and have come up with broad assumptions you can make based on where the evidence is. When the science changes, so will the assumptions: We’ll be updating this page regularly as new research is published.
    4. All The Science You Need To Make Your COVID-19 Decisions
    1. 2021-11-11

    2. Ambrose, T., Campbell, L., Belam, M., & Lock, S. (2021, November 11). Covid live: Brazil reports 12,273 new cases with daily deaths down to 240; Russia’s death toll passes 250,000. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/world/live/2021/nov/10/coronavirus-news-live-france-orders-those-aged-over-65-to-show-proof-of-covid-booster-shot-china-reports-drop-in-cases

    3. Brazil’s total deaths rise to 610,036; Russia reports 1,239 fatalities to take official death toll to 250,454 UK figures slightly higher than previous day Hesitancy, inequity: is US making the same mistakes with kids’ vaccines? German Christmas markets face second year of closures as cases soar ‘Tens of thousands’ of NHS and care home staff could quit over jabs Pet dog contracts coronavirus in first confirmed case in UK At a glance: Covid vaccine mandates around the world
    4. Covid live: Brazil reports 12,273 new cases with daily deaths down to 240; Russia’s death toll passes 250,000
    1. 2021-11-02

    2. Ben Bradshaw. (2021, November 2). More than 50 #COVID19 cases in Parliament. U.K. still highest infection, hospitalisation & death rates in Western Europe. Still virtually no mask discipline among Tory MPs. Dwindling on public transport too. #Covid19UK [Tweet]. @BenPBradshaw. https://twitter.com/BenPBradshaw/status/1455451405205098498

    3. More than 50 #COVID19 cases in Parliament. U.K. still highest infection, hospitalisation & death rates in Western Europe. Still virtually no mask discipline among Tory MPs. Dwindling on public transport too. #Covid19UK
    1. 10.1056/NEJMp2113403
    2. 2021-11-06

    3. Monto, A. S. (2021). The Future of SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination—Lessons from Influenza. New England Journal of Medicine, 0(0), null. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMp2113403

    4. After a period of falling Covid-19 illness rates, the recent spread of the delta variant of SARS-CoV-2 was a major disappointment and necessitated a reexamination of some previous assumptions. This reconsideration may, at least in part, be a correction to overly optimistic views of what highly effective SARS-CoV-2 vaccines could accomplish. Some observers had hoped the vaccines could eliminate transmission of the virus, the ultimate goal of reaching herd immunity.1 A more likely picture of our future with this virus comes into focus if we examine the well-known infection patterns of another respiratory virus, influenza, both in and outside pandemics. That experience can help us reset expectations and modify goals for dealing with SARS-CoV-2 as it further adapts in global spread.
    5. The Future of SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination — Lessons from Influenza