1,786 Matching Annotations
  1. Nov 2021
    1. 2021-10-29

    2. Commissioner. (2021, October 29). FDA Authorizes Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine for Emergency Use in Children 5 through 11 Years of Age. FDA; FDA. https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/fda-authorizes-pfizer-biontech-covid-19-vaccine-emergency-use-children-5-through-11-years-age

    3. Today, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration authorized the emergency use of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine for the prevention of COVID-19 to include children 5 through 11 years of age. The authorization was based on the FDA’s thorough and transparent evaluation of the data that included input from independent advisory committee experts who overwhelmingly voted in favor of making the vaccine available to children in this age group.
    4. FDA Authorizes Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine for Emergency Use in Children 5 through 11 Years of Age
    1. 2021-10-25

    2. Unlutabak, B., & Velioglu, I. (2021). Examining Children’s Questions and Parents’ Responses about Covid-19 Pandemic in Turkey. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/v78c6

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/v78c6
    4. COVID-19 pandemic has had a big impact on both adults' and children's everyday lives. The conversations about biological processes such as virus, illness, health have started to occur more frequently in daily interactions. Although there are many guidelines for parents about how to talk to their children about coronavirus, only a few studies examine what children are actually curious about coronavirus and how they make sense of the changes in their everyday lives. This study addresses this need by examining children's questions and parents' responses about the Covid-19 Pandemic in Turkey. Using an online survey, we asked 183 parents of 3 to 12-year-olds to report their children's questions about coronavirus and their answers to these questions. We analyzed children's questions and parents' responses using several content categories (Menendez et al., 2020). The majority of children's questions were about the nature of the virus (34%), followed by lifestyle changes (20%). Older children were more likely to ask about school/work and less likely to ask about lifestyle changes than younger children. Parents responded to children's questions by providing realistic explanations (48%) and reassurance (20%). Only 18% of children's questions were explanation-seeking "why" and "how" questions. Parents were more likely to provide explanations if children's questions were explanation-seeking. Family activities such as playing games and cooking were the most common coping strategies reported by parents (69.2%). The findings have important implications for children's learning about coronavirus and how adults can support children's understanding and help them develop coping strategies during the Covid-19 pandemic.
    5. Examining Children's Questions and Parents' Responses about Covid-19 Pandemic in Turkey
    1. 2021-10-29

    2. Dixon, B. C., Fischer, R. S. B., Zhao, H., O’Neal, C. S., Clugston, J. R., & Gibbs, S. G. (2021). Contact and SARS-CoV-2 Infections Among College Football Athletes in the Southeastern Conference During the COVID-19 Pandemic. JAMA Network Open, 4(10), e2135566. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.35566

    3. The COVID-19 pandemic created heightened concern over SARS-CoV-2 transmission during athletic competitions and necessitated innovative mitigation solutions for protecting athletes, staff, and attendees.1,2 During sporting events, efforts like contact tracing pose unique challenges; namely, contact between athletes during play may be brief but recurring, while also challenging to track and triage, especially with interstate competitions. When the National Collegiate Athletic Association declared football a high-risk transmission sport, the Southeastern Conference (SEC), an intercollegiate athletic conference of 14 universities in 11 southern US states, responded with protocols aligned with US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidance to monitor, manage, and mitigate SARS-CoV-2 exposure.3,4 In part, traditional contact tracing was augmented using wearable, remote proximity loggers to document interpersonal contacts. In this cohort study, we analyzed SARS-CoV-2 contact exposures and transmission among opposing team players during college football games as the COVID-19 pandemic surged.
    4. 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.35566
    5. Contact and SARS-CoV-2 Infections Among College Football Athletes in the Southeastern Conference During the COVID-19 Pandemic
    1. 2021-10-20

    2. Collier, A. Y., Brown, C. M., Mcmahan, K., Yu, J., Liu, J., Jacob-Dolan, C., Chandrashekar, A., Tierney, D., Ansel, J. L., Rowe, M., Sellers, D., Ahmad, K., Aguayo, R., Anioke, T., Gardner, S., Siamatu, M., Rivera, L. B., Hacker, M. R., Madoff, L. C., & Barouch, D. H. (2021). Immune Responses in Fully Vaccinated Individuals Following Breakthrough Infection with the SARS-CoV-2 Delta Variant in Provincetown, Massachusetts (p. 2021.10.18.21265113). https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.10.18.21265113

    3. Background A cluster of over a thousand infections with the SARS-CoV-2 delta variant was identified in a predominantly fully vaccinated population in Provincetown, Massachusetts in July 2021. Immune responses in breakthrough infections with the SARS-CoV-2 delta variant remain to be defined.Methods Humoral and cellular immune responses were assessed in 35 vaccinated individuals who were tested for SARS-CoV-2 in the Massachusetts Department of Public Health outbreak investigation.Results Vaccinated individuals who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 demonstrated substantially higher antibody responses than vaccinated individuals who tested negative for SARS-CoV-2, including 28-fold higher binding antibody titers and 34-fold higher neutralizing antibody titers against the SARS-CoV-2 delta variant. Vaccinated individuals who tested positive also showed 4.4-fold higher Spike-specific CD8+ T cell responses against the SARS-CoV-2 delta variant than vaccinated individuals who tested negative.Conclusions Fully vaccinated individuals developed robust anamnestic antibody and T cell responses following infection with the SARS-CoV-2 delta variant. These data suggest important immunologic benefits of vaccination in the context of breakthrough infections.
    4. 10.1101/2021.10.18.21265113
    5. Immune Responses in Fully Vaccinated Individuals Following Breakthrough Infection with the SARS-CoV-2 Delta Variant in Provincetown, Massachusetts
    1. 2021-10-29

    2. Grawitch, M. J., & Lavigne, K. (2021). Do Attitudes, Trust, and Acceptance of Pseudoscience and Conspiracy Theories Predict COVID-19 Vaccination Status? PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/tg7xr

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/tg7xr
    4. Vaccine hesitancy among the general population has become a primary concern for contending with the COVID pandemic as policymakers continue to exhaust options to incentivize individuals and vaccination uptake begins stagnating. The current study explores the relative contributions of several potential predictors of vaccine hesitancy. In an online cross-sectional survey study, 917 individuals from the U.S. were assessed on general and COVID-specific vaccine attitudes, COVID conspiracy and pseudoscientific beliefs, trust in various sources of information about COVID, and health and safety concerns surrounding the COVID vaccination. COVID vaccine attitudes, as well as general vaccine attitudes and behaviors, explained a substantial amount of variance, with trust in various information sources being moderately predictive of COVID vaccine attitudes. The data indicated a weak relationship between conspiracy and pseudoscientific beliefs, which disappeared altogether upon controlling for other variables. These findings suggest that efforts to confront vaccine hesitancy should go beyond confronting misinformation and consider initiatives aimed at trust enhancement and attitude change in vaccine-hesitant individuals.
    5. Do Attitudes, Trust, and Acceptance of Pseudoscience and Conspiracy Theories Predict COVID-19 Vaccination Status?
    1. 2021-10-28

    2. Kara-Yakoubian, M., Meyers, E. A., Sharpinskyi, K., Dorfman, A., & Grossmann, I. (2021). Hidden wisdom or pseudo-profound bullshit? The effect of speaker admirability. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/tpnkw

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/tpnkw
    4. How do people reason in response to ambiguous messages shared by admirable individuals? Using behavioral markers and self-report questionnaires, in two experiments (N = 571) we examined the influence of speakers’ admirability on meaning-seeking and wise reasoning in response to pseudo-profound bullshit. In both studies, statements that sounded superficially impressive but lacked intent to communicate meaning generated meaning-seeking, but only when delivered by high admirability speakers (e.g., the Dalai Lama) as compared to low admirability speakers (e.g., Kim Kardashian). The effect of speakers’ admirability on meaning-seeking was unique to pseudo-profound bullshit statements and was absent for mundane (Study 1) and motivational (Study 2) statements. In Study 2, participants also engaged in wiser reasoning for pseudo-profound bullshit (vs. motivational) statements and did more so when speakers were high in admirability. These effects occurred independently of the amount of time spent on statements or the complexity of participants’ reflections. It appears that pseudo-profound bullshit can promote epistemic reflection and certain aspects of wisdom, when associated with an admirable speaker.
    5. Hidden wisdom or pseudo-profound bullshit? The effect of speaker admirability
  2. Oct 2021
    1. 2021-10-18

    2. Caspersen, I. H., Magnus, P., & Trogstad, L. (2021). Excess risk and clusters of symptoms after COVID-19 in a large Norwegian cohort (p. 2021.10.15.21265038). https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.10.15.21265038

    3. Physical, psychological and cognitive symptoms have been reported as post-acute sequelae for COVID-19 patients but are also common in the general, uninfected population. We aimed to calculate the excess risk and identify patterns of 22 symptoms up to 12 months after COVID-19 infection. We followed more than 70,000 participants in an ongoing cohort study, the Norwegian Mother, Father and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Infected and non-infected cohort participants registered presence of 22 different symptoms in March 2021. One year after the initial infection, 13 of 22 symptoms were associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, based on relative risks between infected and uninfected subjects. For instance, 17.4% of SARS-CoV-2 infected cohort participants reported fatigue that persist 12 months after infection, compared to new occurrence of fatigue that had lasted less than 12 months in 3.8% of non-infected subjects (excess risk 13.6%). The adjusted relative risk for fatigue was 4.8 (95 % CI 3.5 to 6.7). Two main underlying factors explained 50% of the variance in the 13 symptoms. Brain fog, poor memory, dizziness, heart palpitations, and fatigue had high loadings on the first factor, while shortness-of breath and cough had high loadings on the second factor. Lack of taste and smell showed low to moderate correlation to other symptoms. Anxiety, depression and mood swings were not strongly related to COVID-19. Our results suggest that there are clusters of symptoms after COVID-19 due to different mechanisms and question whether it is meaningful to describe long COVID as one syndrome.
    4. 10.1101/2021.10.15.21265038
    5. Excess risk and clusters of symptoms after COVID-19 in a large Norwegian cohort
    1. 2021-10-21

    2. Pozzetto, B., Legros, V., Djebali, S., Barateau, V., Guibert, N., Villard, M., Peyrot, L., Allatif, O., Fassier, J.-B., Massardier-Pilonchéry, A., Brengel-Pesce, K., Yaugel-Novoa, M., Denolly, S., Boson, B., Bourlet, T., Bal, A., Valette, M., Andrieu, T., Lina, B., … Trouillet-Assant, S. (2021). Immunogenicity and efficacy of heterologous ChadOx1/BNT162b2 vaccination. Nature, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-04120-y

    3. 10.1038/s41586-021-04120-y
    4. Following severe adverse reactions to the AstraZeneca ChAdOx1-S-nCoV-19 vaccine1,2, European health authorities have recommended that patients under the age of 55 who received one dose of ChAdOx1-S-nCoV-19 vaccine receive a second dose of Pfizer BNT162b2 vaccine as a booster. However, the effectiveness and the immunogenicity of this vaccination regimen have not been formally tested. Here, we show that the heterologous ChAdOx1-S-nCoV-19/BNT162b2 combination confers better protection against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection than the homologous BNT162b2/BNT162b2 combination in a real-world observational study of healthcare workers (n=13121). To understand the underlying mechanism, we conducted a longitudinal survey of the anti-spike immunity conferred by each vaccine combination. Both combinations induced strong anti-spike antibody (Ab) responses but sera from heterologous vaccinated individuals displayed a stronger neutralizing activity, regardless of the SARS-CoV-2 variant. This enhanced neutralizing potential was correlated with increased frequencies of switched and activated memory B cells recognizing the SARS-CoV-2 Receptor Binding Domain (RBD). The ChAdOx1-S-nCoV-19 vaccine induced a weaker IgG response but a stronger T cell response than the BNT162b2 vaccine after the priming dose, which could explain the complementarity of both vaccines when used in combination. The heterologous vaccination regimen could therefore be particularly suitable for immune compromised individuals.
    5. Immunogenicity and efficacy of heterologous ChadOx1/BNT162b2 vaccination
    1. 2021-10-09

    2. Klein, B., Generous, N., Chinazzi, M., Bhadricha, Z., Gunashekar, R., Kori, P., Li, B., McCabe, S., Green, J., Lazer, D., Marsicano, C. R., Scarpino, S. V., & Vespignani, A. (2021). Higher education responses to COVID-19 in the United States: Evidence for the impacts of university policy (p. 2021.10.07.21264419). https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.10.07.21264419

    3. With a dataset of testing and case counts from over 1,400 institutions of higher education (IHEs) in the United States, we analyze the number of infections and deaths from SARS-CoV-2 in the counties surrounding these IHEs during the Fall 2020 semester (August to December, 2020). We used a matching procedure designed to create groups of counties that are aligned along age, race, income, population, and urban/rural categories—socio-demographic variables that have been shown to be correlated with COVID-19 outcomes. We find that counties with IHEs that remained primarily online experienced fewer cases and deaths during the Fall 2020 semester; whereas before and after the semester, these two groups had almost identical COVID-19 incidence. Additionally, we see fewer deaths in counties with IHEs that reported conducting any on-campus testing compared to those that reported none. We complement the statistical analysis with a case study of IHEs in Massachusetts—a rich data state in our dataset—which further highlights the importance of IHE-affiliated testing for the broader community. The results in this work suggest that campus testing can itself be thought of as a mitigation policy and that allocating additional resources to IHEs to support efforts to regularly test students and staff would be beneficial to mitigating the spread of COVID-19 in the general population.
    4. 10.1101/2021.10.07.21264419
    5. Higher education responses to COVID-19 in the United States: Evidence for the impacts of university policy
    1. 2021-10-15

    2. Paul Mainwood. (2021, October 15). It’d be nice if boosters could speed up a little more. Earliest data (1st October) showed a backlog of 3.1m doses (eligible minus given). Now it’s 4.1m. Https://t.co/wObKOVZGTc [Tweet]. @PaulMainwood. https://twitter.com/PaulMainwood/status/1448986113662726147

    3. It'd be nice if boosters could speed up a little more. Earliest data (1st October) showed a backlog of 3.1m doses (eligible minus given). Now it's 4.1m.
    1. 2021-10-15

    2. Aeschlimann, J. R. (2021, October 15). Ivermectin Treats Many Infections in Humans – Just Not COVID-19. The Wire Science. https://science.thewire.in/health/ivermectin-treats-many-infections-in-humans-just-not-covid-19/

    3. Ivermectin was first identified in the 1970s during a veterinary drug screening project at Merck Pharmaceuticals. It was approved in 1981 for commercial use in veterinary medicine for parasitic infections in livestock and domestic pets with the brand name Mectizan. In the years since it was approved to treat river blindness, ivermectin was also shown to be highly effective against other parasitic infections.
    4. Ivermectin Treats Many Infections in Humans – Just Not COVID-19
    1. 2021-10-14

    2. Vöhringer, H. S., Sanderson, T., Sinnott, M., De Maio, N., Nguyen, T., Goater, R., Schwach, F., Harrison, I., Hellewell, J., Ariani, C. V., Gonçalves, S., Jackson, D. K., Johnston, I., Jung, A. W., Saint, C., Sillitoe, J., Suciu, M., Goldman, N., Panovska-Griffiths, J., … Gerstung, M. (2021). Genomic reconstruction of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in England. Nature, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-04069-y

    3. 10.1038/s41586-021-04069-y
    4. The evolution of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic continuously produces new variants, which warrant timely epidemiological characterisation. Here we use the dense genomic surveillance generated by the COVID-19 Genomics UK Consortium to reconstruct the dynamics of 71 different lineages in each of 315 English local authorities between September 2020 and June 2021. This analysis reveals a series of sub-epidemics that peaked in the early autumn of 2020, followed by a jump in transmissibility of the B.1.1.7/Alpha lineage. Alpha grew when other lineages declined during the second national lockdown and regionally tiered restrictions between November and December 2020. A third more stringent national lockdown suppressed Alpha and eliminated nearly all other lineages in early 2021. However, a series of variants (mostly containing the spike E484K mutation) defied these trends and persisted at moderately increasing proportions. Accounting for sustained introductions, however, indicates that their transmissibility is unlikely to have exceeded that of Alpha. Finally, B.1.617.2/Delta was repeatedly introduced to England and grew rapidly in the early summer of 2021, constituting approximately 98% of sampled SARS-CoV-2 genomes on 26 June. Download PDF
    5. Genomic reconstruction of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in England
    1. 2021-10-14

    2. Mulot, M., Segalas, C., Leyrat, C., & Besançon, L. (2021). Vaccination rates and COVID-19 cases: A commentary of “Increases in COVID-19 are unrelated to levels of vaccination across 68 countries and 2947 counties in the United States.” OSF Preprints. https://doi.org/10.31219/osf.io/72abp

    3. 10.31219/osf.io/72abp
    4. The manuscript from Subramanian and Kumar shows a lack of vaccine efficacy on Covid Incidence. However, this paper suffers major pitfalls : inadequate outcome, lack of confounding factors, inadequate time period (7 days), inclusion/exclusion criteria not respected, causal inference from inappropriate data, and erroneous interpretation of the data. We comment on these issues in detail and show that Subramanian and Kumar’s paper is flawed and misleading.
    5. Vaccination rates and COVID-19 cases: a commentary of “Increases in COVID-19 are unrelated to levels of vaccination across 68 countries and 2947 counties in the United States.”
    1. 2021-10-13

    2. Shawna Thomas. (2021, October 13). When asked on @CBSMornings about the company’s vaccine mandate for staff, the CEO of @united airlines also said, “Out of our 67,000 U.S. employees, there are 232 who haven’t been vaccinated. They are going through the termination process.” [Tweet]. @Shawna. https://twitter.com/Shawna/status/1448261664650973186

    3. When asked on @CBSMornings about the company's vaccine mandate for staff, the CEO of @united airlines also said, "Out of our 67,000 U.S. employees, there are 232 who haven't been vaccinated. They are going through the termination process."
    1. 2021-10-13

    2. ReconfigBehSci. (2021, October 13). RT @PaulMainwood: Wales is first with their vaccine stock data this week, with a solid 1.6m new doses made available to the UK roll-out pro… [Tweet]. @SciBeh. https://twitter.com/SciBeh/status/1448311825557118977

    3. Wales is first with their vaccine stock data this week, with a solid 1.6m new doses made available to the UK roll-out programmes. Again, the comically slow progress of the teen and 50+ roll-out is not down to supply.
    1. 2021-10-11

    2. Patel, K., Chapman, R., Gill, R., & Richards, J. (2021). Ensuring an equitable recovery for the NHS. BMJ, 375, n2456. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.n2456

    3. Health leaders must seize this historic opportunity to level upThe effect of the pandemic on non-covid related healthcare is only now starting to be felt by patients and healthcare systems. At least 4.5 million people are estimated to be waiting for elective care in the UK,1 and the backlog may rise to 13 million2 and take over a decade to clear. The backlog arose after a sharp fall in patient demand at the height of the first wave of the pandemic in the spring and summer of 2020 (driven by the instruction to stay at home to protect the NHS and a fear of coming to hospital) coupled with reduced capacity as resources were rightly allocated to meet the needs of people with covid-19.
    4. 10.1136/bmj.n2456
    5. Ensuring an equitable recovery for the NHS
    1. 2021-10-12

    2. Kulldorff, M. (2021, October 12). Covid, lockdown and the retreat of scientific debate | The Spectator. https://www.spectator.co.uk/article/covid-lockdown-and-the-retreat-of-scientific-debate

    3. Science is about rational disagreement, the questioning and testing of orthodoxy and the constant search for truth. With something like lockdown – an untested policy that affects millions – rigorous debate and the basics of verification/falsification are more important than ever. Academics backing lockdown (or any major theory) ought to welcome challenges, knowing – as scientists do – that robust challenge is the way to identify error, improve policy and save lives.
    4. Covid, lockdown and the retreat of scientific debate
    1. Bar-On, Y. M., Goldberg, Y., Mandel, M., Bodenheimer, O., Freedman, L., Alroy-Preis, S., Ash, N., Huppert, A., & Milo, R. (2021). Protection Across Age Groups of BNT162b2 Vaccine Booster against Covid-19 (p. 2021.10.07.21264626). https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.10.07.21264626

    2. 2021-10-07

    3. BACKGROUND Following administration to persons 60+ years of age, the booster vaccination campaign in Israel was gradually expanded to younger age groups who received a second dose >5 months earlier. We study the booster effect on COVID-19 outcomes.METHODS We extracted data for the period July 30, 2021 to October 6, 2021 from the Israeli Ministry of Health database regarding 4,621,836 persons. We compared confirmed Covid-19 infections, severe illness, and death of those who received a booster ≥12 days earlier (booster group) with a nonbooster group. In a secondary analysis, we compared the rates 3-7 days with ≥12 days after receiving the booster dose. We used Poisson regressions to estimate rate ratios after adjusting for possible confounding factors.RESULTS Confirmed infection rates were ≈10-fold lower in the booster versus nonbooster group (ranging 8.8-17.6 across five age groups) and 4.8-11.2 fold lower in the secondary analysis. Severe illness rates in the primary and secondary analysis were 18.7-fold (95% CI, 15.7-22.4) and 6.5-fold (95% CI, 5.1-8.3) lower for ages 60+, and 22.0-fold (95% CI, 10.3-47.0) and 3.2-fold (95% CI, 1.1-9.6) lower for ages 40-60. For ages 60+, COVID-19 associated death rates were 14.7-fold (95% CI, 9.4-23.1) lower in the primary analysis and 4.8-fold (95% CI, 2.8-8.2) lower in the secondary analysis.CONCLUSIONS Across all age groups, rates of confirmed infection and severe illness were substantially lower among those who received a booster dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine.
    4. 10.1101/2021.10.07.21264626
    5. Protection Across Age Groups of BNT162b2 Vaccine Booster against Covid-19