1,786 Matching Annotations
  1. Sep 2021
    1. Alper, S., Douglas, K., & Capraro, V. (2021). Conspiracy Beliefs and Generosity across 52 Countries during the COVID-19 Pandemic. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/fdyxr

    2. 10.31234/osf.io/fdyxr
    3. Previous research has demonstrated that higher levels of belief in conspiracy theories are related to higher levels of distrust toward others, greater antisocial tendencies, and more self-centeredness. These findings suggest that conspiracy believers may also be less likely to be generous. However, very little research has thus far investigated this possibility. In the current study, we examined the association between COVID-19 conspiracy beliefs and generosity across a sample of 45,073 participants from 52 countries. We found that participants with higher COVID-19 conspiracy beliefs were less likely to donate to national and international charities, and that this negative association was stronger for donations to national charities. Exploratory analyses revealed that the discrepancy between national and international charity donations was more salient in countries with high levels of corruption, suggesting that conspiracy believers might be more suspicious of ingroups, rather than outgroups, in more corrupt countries.
    4. Conspiracy Beliefs and Generosity across 52 Countries during the COVID-19 Pandemic
    1. 2021-09-06

    2. Lee, J. W., Su, Y., Baloni, P., Chen, D., Pavlovitch-Bedzyk, A. J., Yuan, D., Duvvuri, V. R., Ng, R. H., Choi, J., Xie, J., Zhang, R., Murray, K., Kornilov, S., Smith, B., Magis, A. T., Hoon, D. S. B., Hadlock, J. J., Goldman, J. D., Price, N. D., … Heath, J. R. (2021). Integrated analysis of plasma and single immune cells uncovers metabolic changes in individuals with COVID-19. Nature Biotechnology, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41587-021-01020-4

    3. 10.1038/s41587-021-01020-4
    4. A better understanding of the metabolic alterations in immune cells during severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection may elucidate the wide diversity of clinical symptoms experienced by individuals with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Here, we report the metabolic changes associated with the peripheral immune response of 198 individuals with COVID-19 through an integrated analysis of plasma metabolite and protein levels as well as single-cell multiomics analyses from serial blood draws collected during the first week after clinical diagnosis. We document the emergence of rare but metabolically dominant T cell subpopulations and find that increasing disease severity correlates with a bifurcation of monocytes into two metabolically distinct subsets. This integrated analysis reveals a robust interplay between plasma metabolites and cell-type-specific metabolic reprogramming networks that is associated with disease severity and could predict survival.
    5. Integrated analysis of plasma and single immune cells uncovers metabolic changes in individuals with COVID-19
    1. 2021-09-03

    2. de Figueiredo, A. (2021, September 3). Vaccine passports don’t make sense for our health or society, self-isolation is more effective. Inews.Co.Uk. https://inews.co.uk/opinion/vaccine-passports-covid-dont-make-sense-for-our-health-or-society-encouraging-self-isolation-is-more-effective-1179458

    3. I worry vaccine passports will lead to less trust in other routine immunisations
    4. Vaccine passports don’t make sense for our health or society – encouraging self-isolation is more effective
    1. 2021-09-13

    2. Krause, P. R., Fleming, T. R., Peto, R., Longini, I. M., Figueroa, J. P., Sterne, J. A. C., Cravioto, A., Rees, H., Higgins, J. P. T., Boutron, I., Pan, H., Gruber, M. F., Arora, N., Kazi, F., Gaspar, R., Swaminathan, S., Ryan, M. J., & Henao-Restrepo, A.-M. (2021). Considerations in boosting COVID-19 vaccine immune responses. The Lancet, 4. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(21)02046-8

    3. 10.1016/S0140-6736(21)02046-8
    4. A new wave of COVID-19 cases caused by the highly transmissible delta variant is exacerbating the worldwide public health crisis, and has led to consideration of the potential need for, and optimal timing of, booster doses for vaccinated populations.1 Although the idea of further reducing the number of COVID-19 cases by enhancing immunity in vaccinated people is appealing, any decision to do so should be evidence-based and consider the benefits and risks for individuals and society. COVID-19 vaccines continue to be effective against severe disease, including that caused by the delta variant. Most of the observational studies on which this conclusion is based are, however, preliminary and difficult to interpret precisely due to potential confounding and selective reporting. Careful and public scrutiny of the evolving data will be needed to assure that decisions about boosting are informed by reliable science more than by politics. Even if boosting were eventually shown to decrease the medium-term risk of serious disease, current vaccine supplies could save more lives if used in previously unvaccinated populations than if used as boosters in vaccinated populations.
    5. Considerations in boosting COVID-19 vaccine immune responses
    1. 2021-09-13

    2. American Academy of Pediatrics urges FDA to approve COVID vaccines for children under 12. (2021, September 13). PBS NewsHour. https://www.pbs.org/newshour/show/american-academy-of-pediatrics-urges-fda-to-approve-covid-vaccines-for-children-under-12

    3. As the U.S. continues inoculating adults and adolescents, questions remain about vaccinating the 48 million kids under the age of 12. With the delta variant raging, almost five times as many children are being hospitalized for COVID-19. The American Academy of Pediatrics has called on the FDA to pick up the pace. William Brangham discusses with Dr. Lee Beers, president of the academy.
    4. American Academy of Pediatrics urges FDA to approve COVID vaccines for children under 12
    1. 2021-07-12

    2. Herman, B. (2021, July 12). Most unvaccinated people have low incomes. Axios. https://www.axios.com/covid-vaccines-low-income-poor-workers-58698275-0451-4158-a967-37189dbf673c.html

    3. More than half of unvaccinated Americans live in households that make less than $50,000 annually, according to the latest Census Bureau data.Why it matters: Making it easier for the working poor to get the COVID-19 vaccine, without dinging their already-low incomes, could help boost the country's vaccination rates.The big picture: Vaccination has been politicized, but juggling work schedules and child care could be bigger factors than politics.
    4. Most unvaccinated people have low incomes
    1. 2021-08-24

    2. DemTech | COVID-19 Misinformation Newsletter 24 August 2021. (2021, August 24). https://demtech.oii.ox.ac.uk/covid-19-misinformation-newsletter-24-august-2021/#continue

    3. Covid misinformation top performing Facebook post and advertisers spending billions on misinformation websites The COVID-19 Misinformation Newsletter is prepared by the staff of the Programme on Democracy and Technology (DemTech) at Oxford University. We summarise the latest independent research and high-quality news reporting on the production and consumption of computational propaganda and campaigns to manipulate public understanding of the health crisis. The newsletter is edited by Dr Aliaksandr Herasimenka. It is two-minute read.
    4. COVID-19 Misinformation Newsletter 24 August 2021
    1. 2021-09-02

    2. Israelow, B., Mao, T., Klein, J., Song, E., Menasche, B., Omer, S. B., & Iwasaki, A. (2021). Adaptive immune determinants of viral clearance and protection in mouse models of SARS-CoV-2. Science Immunology. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciimmunol.abl4509

    3. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused more than 160 million infections and more than 3 million deaths worldwide. While effective vaccines are currently being deployed, the adaptive immune determinants that promote viral clearance and confer protection remain poorly defined. Using mouse models of SARS-CoV-2, we demonstrate that both humoral and cellular adaptive immunity contribute to viral clearance in the setting of primary infection. Furthermore, we find that either convalescent mice or mice that receive mRNA vaccination are protected from both homologous infection and infection with a variant of concern, B.1.351. Additionally, we find this protection largely mediated by antibody response and not cellular immunity. These results highlight the in vivo protective capacity of antibodies generated to both vaccine and natural infection.
    4. 10.1126/sciimmunol.abl4509 PREVIOUS ARTICLEA reservoir of stem-like CD8+ T cells in the tumor-draining lymph node preserves the ongoing anti-tumor immune responsePreviousNEXT ARTICLECross-reactive antibodies against human coronaviruses and the animal coronavirome suggest diagnostics for future zoonotic spilloversNext Data is empty
    5. Adaptive immune determinants of viral clearance and protection in mouse models of SARS-CoV-2
  2. Aug 2021
    1. 2021-08-26

    2. Jach, Ł., Lamża, Ł., & Wardawy, P. (2021). Psychological correlates of attitudes towards COVID-19 vaccines among Polish respondents – a snapshot study before the start of the massive vaccination campaign. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/czvda

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/czvda
    4. Background: COVID-19 vaccines are being recognized as a way to stop the ongoing pandemic. However, for this method to be effective, it requires a high level of people’s willingness to be vaccinated. In this context, measuring the psychological aspects of attitudes towards vaccination against COVID-19 when the vaccine was developed but not yet distributed was of interest. Method: In a study conducted on a sample of 468 Polish participants, we measured attitudes towards the COVID-19 vaccine in the context of such variables as fear of COVID, the general tendency to conspiracy ideation and conspiracy beliefs about COVID-19, knowledge about vaccines, attitudes towards science, previous protective behaviors during a pandemic, perceived infectability and germ avoidance. We also tested the association of attitudes towards the COVID-19 vaccine with participants’ experiences of the COVID-19 pandemic, gender, age, and level of education. Results: The analyses revealed correlations between attitudes towards the vaccine with most of the variables studied. A regression model with predictors such as fear of COVID, attitudes towards science, and conspiracy beliefs related to COVID-19 explained 46% of the variance of the attitudes towards the COVID-19 vaccine. Male participants were more positive about the COVID-19 vaccine than female participants. Attitudes towards the COVID-19 vaccine were not related to personal experiences of the pandemic, the age, and the level of education of participants. Conclusion: The obtained results show the importance of psychological aspects concerning attitudes towards vaccination, which can be considered in designing preventive public interventions.
    5. Psychological correlates of attitudes towards COVID-19 vaccines among Polish respondents – a snapshot study before the start of the massive vaccination campaign
    1. How to report misinformation. (n.d.). Retrieved August 27, 2021, from https://www.who.int/campaigns/connecting-the-world-to-combat-coronavirus/how-to-report-misinformation-online

    2. As the world responds to the  COVID-19 pandemic, we face the challenge of an overabundance of information related to the virus. Some of this information may be false and potentially harmful. Inaccurate information spreads widely and at speed, making it more difficult for the public to identify verified facts and advice  from trusted sources, such as  their local health authority or WHO. However, everyone can help to stop the spread. If you see content online that you believe to be false or misleading, you can report it to the hosting social media platform. 
    3. How to report misinformation online
    1. 2021-08-26

    2. Sadoff, J., Gars, M. L., Cardenas, V., Shukarev, G., Vaissiere, N., Heerwegh, D., Truyers, C., Groot, A. M. de, Scheper, G., Hendriks, J., Ruiz-Guinazu, J., Struyf, F., Hoof, J. V., Douoguih, M., & Schuitemaker, H. (2021). Durability of antibody responses elicited by a single dose of Ad26.COV2.S and substantial increase following late boosting (p. 2021.08.25.21262569). https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.08.25.21262569

    3. 10.1101/2021.08.25.21262569
    4. Background: We evaluated the durability of SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels elicited by the single dose Janssen COVID-19 vaccine, Ad26.COV2.S, and the impact on antibody responses of boosting with Ad26.COV2.S after 6 months in clinical trial participants. Methods: Spike-binding antibody and SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody levels elicited by a single-dose Ad26.COV2.S (5x1010 viral particles [vp]) primary regimen and booster doses (5x1010 vp and 1.25x1010 vp) were assessed by ELISA and wild-type VNA in sera from participants in a Phase 1/2a clinical trial (Cohort 1a, 18–55 years old, N=25; Cohort 2a, 18–55 years old boosted at 6 months, N=17; Cohort 3, ≥65 years old, N=22) and a Phase 2 clinical trial (18–55 and ≥65-year old participants boosted at 6 months, total N=73). Neutralizing antibody levels were determined approximately 8 months after the primary vaccination in participants aged 18–55 years and approximately 9 months in participants aged ≥65 years. Binding antibody levels were evaluated 6 months after primary vaccination and 7- and 28-days after booster doses in both age groups. Results: A single dose of Ad26.COV2.S elicited neutralizing antibodies that remained largely stable for approximately 8–9 months and binding antibodies that remained stable for at least 6 months irrespective of age group. A 5x1010 vp booster dose at 6 months post prime vaccination in 18–55-year-old adults elicited a steep and robust 9-fold increase at Day 7 post boost compared to Day 29 levels following the initial immunization. A lower booster dose of 1.25x1010 vp at 6 months in adults 18–55 and ≥65 years of age also elicited a rapid and high increase of 6–7.7 fold at Day 28 post boost compared to Day 29 levels following the initial immunization, with similar magnitude of post-boost responses in both age groups. Conclusions: A single dose of Ad26.COV2.S, which demonstrated protection in a Phase 3 efficacy trial, elicited durable neutralizing and binding antibodies for at least 8 and 6 months, respectively, in adults >18 years of age at levels similar to Day 29 responses. A 5x1010 vp or 1.25x1010 vp booster dose at 6 months elicited rapid and robust increases in spike binding antibody levels. The anamnestic responses after booster immunization imply robust immune memory elicited by single-dose Ad26.COV2.S.
    5. Durability of antibody responses elicited by a single dose of Ad26.COV2.S and substantial increase following late boosting
    1. 2021-08-10

    2. Gilbert, P. B., Montefiori, D. C., McDermott, A., Fong, Y., Benkeser, D. C., Deng, W., Zhou, H., Houchens, C. R., Martins, K., Jayashankar, L., Castellino, F., Flach, B., Lin, B. C., O’Connell, S., McDanal, C., Eaton, A., Sarzotti-Kelsoe, M., Lu, Y., Yu, C., … Teams, U. S. G. (USG)/CoVPN B. (2021). Immune Correlates Analysis of the mRNA-1273 COVID-19 Vaccine Efficacy Trial. MedRxiv, 2021.08.09.21261290. https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.08.09.21261290

    3. Background In the Coronavirus Efficacy (COVE) trial, estimated mRNA-1273 vaccine efficacy against coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) was 94%. SARS-CoV-2 antibody measurements were assessed as correlates of COVID-19 risk and as correlates of protection.Methods Through case-cohort sampling, participants were selected for measurement of four serum antibody markers at Day 1 (first dose), Day 29 (second dose), and Day 57: IgG binding antibodies (bAbs) to Spike, bAbs to Spike receptor-binding domain (RBD), and 50% and 80% inhibitory dilution pseudovirus neutralizing antibody titers calibrated to the WHO International Standard (cID50 and cID80). Participants with no evidence of previous SARS-CoV-2 infection were included. Cox regression assessed in vaccine recipients the association of each Day 29 or 57 serologic marker with COVID-19 through 126 or 100 days of follow-up, respectively, adjusting for risk factors.Results Day 57 Spike IgG, RBD IgG, cID50, and cID80 neutralization levels were each inversely correlated with risk of COVID-19: hazard ratios 0.66 (95% CI 0.50, 0.88; p=0.005); 0.57 (0.40, 0.82; p=0.002); 0.41 (0.26, 0.65; p<0.001); 0.35 (0.20, 0.60; p<0.001) per 10-fold increase in marker level, respectively, multiplicity adjusted P-values 0.003-0.010. Results were similar for Day 29 markers (multiplicity adjusted P-values <0.001-0.003). For vaccine recipients with Day 57 reciprocal cID50 neutralization titers that were undetectable (<2.42), 100, or 1000, respectively, cumulative incidence of COVID-19 through 100 days post Day 57 was 0.030 (0.010, 0.093), 0.0056 (0.0039, 0.0080), and 0.0023 (0.0013, 0.0036). For vaccine recipients at these titer levels, respectively, vaccine efficacy was 50.8% (−51.2, 83.0%), 90.7% (86.7, 93.6%), and 96.1% (94.0, 97.8%). Causal mediation analysis estimated that the proportion of vaccine efficacy mediated through Day 29 cID50 titer was 68.5% (58.5, 78.4%).Conclusions Binding and neutralizing antibodies correlated with COVID-19 risk and vaccine efficacy and likely have utility in predicting mRNA-1273 vaccine efficacy against COVID-19.
    4. 10.1101/2021.08.09.21261290
    5. Immune Correlates Analysis of the mRNA-1273 COVID-19 Vaccine Efficacy Trial
  3. Jul 2021
    1. 2021-07-21

    2. Dyer, O. (2021). Covid-19: Two thirds in India carry antibodies, while research suggests country’s death toll is 10 times official figure. BMJ, 374, n1856. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.n1856

    3. India’s fourth “serosurvey” of the covid pandemic has found neutralising antibodies to the novel coronavirus in 67.6% of people aged over 6, suggesting that more than two in three people have already been exposed to the virus or a vaccine.1The survey, conducted in the last 10 days of June and the first week of July, indicates the scale of the punishing second wave that hit the country in May. The previous survey, done in December and January, found seropositivity in only 24.1% of people tested.Some of the antibodies detected were due to vaccination rather than infection. India had administered about 300 million doses before the latest survey. The pace has since quickened, and 412 million doses have been given as of 21 July.About 400 million people remain highly susceptible to the virus, warned Balram Bhargava, director of the Indian Council of Medical Research, which conducted the survey. The distribution of antibodies was geographically uneven, he said, leaving pockets of greater vulnerability around the country. Women and city dwellers had slightly more antibodies than average. The most seropositive age group was people aged 45-60, of whom 77.6% had antibodies. The least seropositive group was children aged 6-9, of whom 57.2% had antibodies.
    4. 10.1136/bmj.n1856
    5. Covid-19: Two thirds in India carry antibodies, while research suggests country’s death toll is 10 times official figure
    1. 2021-07-21

    2. Holmberg, D., Bell, K. M., & Cadman, K. (2021). A Little Good News—Relationships During Early Stages of COVID-19 Pandemic. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/x7sq4

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/x7sq4
    4. Media attention has highlighted the Covid-19 pandemic’s negative effects on romantic relationships (e.g., increased partner aggression). The current mixed-method study also explored potential positive effects, and how the relative balance of positive versus negative effects might have changed over time during the first pandemic wave. Individuals (N = 186) who participated in a pre-COVID study were recruited through MTurk to participate in a four-wave longitudinal follow-up, every two weeks from mid-April to late May 2020. Participants completed an 8-item self-report measure assessing perceived negative and positive effects of the pandemic on their romantic relationship. Multi-level models revealed that perceived positive effects were substantially higher than perceived negative effects at each timepoint, even amongst those who reported being more heavily impacted by the pandemic. Both positive and negative effects were stable across time. Open-ended questions at the final time point were coded for common themes. The most common negative theme centered on increased stress or tension in the relationship, while the most common positive theme discussed the importance of focusing on and appreciating the relationship, including taking advantage of the gift of increased time together the pandemic had brought. Amongst all of the pandemic’s bad news, it is refreshing to consider the possibility of pandemic-related benefits for people’s romantic relationships.
    5. A Little Good News - Relationships During Early Stages of COVID-19 Pandemic
    1. 2021-07-21

    2. Anderson, J., Lueders, A., Sankaran, S., Green, E., & Politi, E. (2021). The COVID-19 Multifaceted Threat Scale. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/jfgvr

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/jfgvr
    4. The COVID-19 pandemic represents an unprecedented threat for individuals worldwide. This paper reports the initial psychometric properties for the recently developed COVID-19 Multifaceted Threat Scale. Across three studies the construction and initial psychometric evidence is presented. In Study 1 (n = 194, 11 national groups), we adopted an inductive qualitative methodology to elicit participants’ concerns, worries, or fears about the corona pandemic. A thematic analysis revealed 10 consistent themes around threat, from which we constructed a pool of 100 potential items. In Study 2, a sample from the United States (n = 322) provided data for an exploratory factor analysis which reduced the 100 items to 30 items across the 10 hypothesised dimensions sub-factors. In Study 3, these findings were then ratified in samples from the United States (n = 471) and India (n = 423) using a multi-group confirmatory factor analysis. We also present reliability estimates (internal consistency: Studies 2-3) and preliminary evidence of the validity for the scale across two national groups (United States and India). The evidence presented suggests that the COVID-19 Multifaceted Threat Scale is a psychometrically sound measure and can be used to explore current and long-lasting effects of the pandemic on individuals and societies.
    5. The COVID-19 Multifaceted Threat Scale
    1. 10.31234/osf.io/q3jus
    2. 2021-07-20

    3. Crandall, C., & Bahns, A. (2021). How Much Do Masks Affect Social Interaction? PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/q3jus

    4. We test the effect of mask-wearing on normal social interactino. College students (N=250) were assigned to find and interact with a previously unknown student in a lecture hall, converse and then evaluate the interaction. Half were randomly assigned to wear a blue surgical mask, sunglasses, and hat; half wore no extra gear. Run in 2012 before masks carried political meaning, mask wearing had almost no effect on the ease, authenticity, or friendliness of the conversation, mood, discomfort or interestingness of the interaction. Those without masks were more likely to find people on the basis of preference for shared social activities (e.g., going to the gym in groups); those wearing masks were more likely to find people by shared preference for more individual activities (e.g., going to the gym alone). Mask-wearing did not fundamentally disable normal social interaction in this setting.
    5. How Much Do Masks Affect Social Interaction?
    1. 2021-07-20

    2. Ścigała, K. A., Schild, C., Lilleholt, L., Moshagen, M., Stückler, A., Zettler, I., & Pfattheicher, S. (2021). Aversive personality and COVID-19: A first review and meta-analysis. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/vg465

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/vg465
    4. The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has strongly affected individuals and societies worldwide. In this review and meta-analysis, we investigated how aversive personality traits—i.e., relatively stable antisocial personality characteristics—related to how individuals perceived, evaluated, and responded to the COVID-19 pandemic. Across 34 studies with overall 26,780 participants, we found that people with higher scores in aversive personality traits were less likely to perceive guidelines and restrictions to curb the spread of the virus as protective (p̂ = -.11), to engage in health behaviors related to COVID-19 (p̂ = -.16), and to engage in non-health related prosocial behavior related to COVID-19 (p̂ = -.14). We found no consistent relation between aversive personality and negative affect regarding the pandemic. The results thus indicate the importance of aversive personality traits in understanding individual differences with regard to COVID-19.
    5. Aversive personality and COVID-19: A first review and meta-analysis
    1. 2021-07-20

    2. Romero, P., Mikiya, Y., Nakatsuma, T., Fitz, S., & Koch, T. (2021). Modelling Personality Change During Extreme Exogenous Conditions. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/rtmjw

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/rtmjw
    4. A Bayesian Study On Social Media Language During The First Wave of the COVID-19 Pandemic. Personality traits change over time, however research on it was sparse, since previous approaches were too time-consuming and expensive. Also, the necessary methodological complexity was beyond the capabilities of classical personality researchers, which resulted in contradictory results and lack of methodological standards. In this paper, we presented a simple and cost-effective method that overcame these restrictions. We introduced a machine learning approach for daily measurements to personality research, and developed a bespoke Bayesian algorithm to analyse the observed change. This resulted in uncovering concrete points of regime-shift that overlapped with relevant exogenous events for a Japanese sample of social media users. With it, we showed that personality measures displayed significant elasticity under extreme exogenous conditions during the first wave of COVID-19 and the subsequent societal countermeasures, which can be interpreted as a temporary shift from normal expression of latent psychological traits z to their respective emergency expression ze. Concretely, we found that the group of top 25% Conscientiousness users displayed a significant change in the FFM factors Agreeableness and Extraversion. We finally compared our findings with those from similar studies in other cultures, and discussed generalisability as well as future qualitative and quantitative directions for research.
    5. Modelling Personality Change During Extreme Exogenous Conditions