1,786 Matching Annotations
  1. Oct 2021
    1. 2021-10-11

    2. Paterlini, M. (2021). Covid-19: Sweden, Norway, and Finland suspend use of Moderna vaccine in young people “as a precaution.” BMJ, 375, n2477. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.n2477

    3. Sweden, Norway, and Finland suspended the use of Moderna’s covid-19 vaccine on 7 October after reports of possible rare side effects.The pause “for precautionary reasons” in Sweden and Finland concerns anyone born 1991 or later. In Finland, under 30s will now be offered the Pfizer vaccine as their second dose. Swedish officials are still discussing the second dose for the 81 000 under 30s who received a first dose of Moderna.In Norway officials have suspended the use of Moderna’s vaccine in those under 18, advising that they are offered the Pfizer vaccine instead.At a press conference on 6 October Anders Tegnell, epidemiologist at the Swedish Public Health Agency, explained that the suspension of the Moderna vaccine followed the detection of signals of an increased risk of side effects such as myocarditis and pericarditis.
    4. 10.1136/bmj.n2477
    5. Covid-19: Sweden, Norway, and Finland suspend use of Moderna vaccine in young people “as a precaution”
    1. 2021-10-11

    2. Mahase, E. (2021). Covid-19: Antibody levels fall after second Pfizer dose, but protection against severe disease remains, studies indicate. BMJ, 375, n2481. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.n2481

    3. Six months after the second dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech covid-19 vaccine, antibody concentrations in healthcare workers had decreased substantially, especially among older men and immunosuppressed people, a study has found.1The Israeli researchers carried out a six month longitudinal prospective study that involved monthly antibody testing of around 4000 vaccinated healthcare workers. At six months the mixed-model analysis showed decreases in antibody concentrations of 38% for IgG antibodies and 42% for neutralising antibodies among those aged 65 years or older, when compared with participants aged 18-45. Decreases of 37% (IgG) and 46% (neutralising) were also seen in men 65 years of age or older when compared with women in the same age group.The study, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, reported that immunosuppressed people had decreases in antibody concentrations of 65% (IgG) and 70% (neutralising) compared with participants without immunosuppression, while people with a BMI of 30 or over had 31% higher neutralising antibody concentrations, when compared with those whose BMI was under 30.
    4. 10.1136/bmj.n2481
    5. Covid-19: Antibody levels fall after second Pfizer dose, but protection against severe disease remains, studies indicate
    1. 2021-10-11

    2. Lucas, C., Vogels, C. B. F., Yildirim, I., Rothman, J. E., Lu, P., Monteiro, V., Gelhausen, J. R., Campbell, M., Silva, J., Tabachikova, A., Peña-Hernandez, M. A., Muenker, M. C., Breban, M. I., Fauver, J. R., Mohanty, S., Huang, J., Shaw, A. C., Ko, A. I., Omer, S. B., … Iwasaki, A. (2021). Impact of circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants on mRNA vaccine-induced immunity. Nature, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-04085-y

    3. 10.1038/s41586-021-04085-y
    4. The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants with mutations in major neutralizing antibody-binding sites can affect humoral immunity induced by infection or vaccination1–6. We analysed the development of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody and T cell responses in previously infected (recovered) or uninfected (naive) individuals that received mRNA vaccines to SARS-CoV-2. While previously infected individuals sustained higher antibody titres than uninfected individuals post-vaccination, the latter reached comparable levels of neutralization responses to the ancestral strain after the second vaccine dose. T cell activation markers measured upon spike or nucleocapsid peptide in vitro stimulation showed a progressive increase after vaccination. Comprehensive analysis of plasma neutralization using 16 authentic isolates of distinct locally circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants revealed a range of reduction in the neutralization capacity associated with specific mutations in the spike gene: lineages with E484K and N501Y/T (e.g., B.1.351 and P.1) had the greatest reduction, followed by lineages with L452R (e.g., B.1.617.2). While both groups retained neutralization capacity against all variants, plasma from previously infected vaccinated individuals displayed overall better neutralization capacity when compared to plasma from uninfected individuals that also received two vaccine doses, pointing to vaccine boosters as a relevant future strategy to alleviate the impact of emerging variants on antibody neutralizing activity.
    5. Impact of circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants on mRNA vaccine-induced immunity
    1. 2021-09-21

    2. Dowdy, D. (2021, September 21). On the J&J booster news, keep in mind: 1. Median follow-up since 2nd dose was just 36 days, 2. Efficacy vs moderate COVID was 75% globally, and 3. Total number of cases in the US was 15. Please don’t take this to mean that a 2nd dose provides long-term increase in protection. Https://t.co/RnqDNBmwuD [Tweet]. @davidwdowdy. https://twitter.com/davidwdowdy/status/1440323242942554122

    3. On the J&J booster news, keep in mind: 1. Median follow-up since 2nd dose was just 36 days, 2. Efficacy vs moderate COVID was 75% globally, and 3. total number of cases in the US was 15. Please don't take this to mean that a 2nd dose provides long-term increase in protection.
    1. 2021-09-24

    2. Rabin, R. C. (2021, September 24). U.S. schools with mask requirements are seeing fewer outbreaks, the C.D.C. finds. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2021/09/24/health/schools-mask-mandate-outbreaks-cdc.html

    3. School mask mandates have generated controversy in many parts of the country. Now, two studies, published on Friday by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, provide additional evidence that masks protect children from the coronavirus, even when community rates are high and the contagious Delta variant is circulating.
    4. U.S. schools with mask requirements are seeing fewer outbreaks, the C.D.C. finds.
    1. 2021-09-26

    2. Hawthorn, A. (2021, September 26). Like polio, the long-term impact of COVID will be measured in disability | CBC News. CBC. https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/newfoundland-labrador/apocalypse-then-disability-1.6187990

    3. Will the large numbers of people with disabilities from COVID make our society more accessible and inclusive?
    4. Like polio, the long-term impact of COVID will be measured in disabilityPractically everyone, from public health officials to political pundits to social media commentators, has framed the threat of COVID-19 in terms of its mortality rate. But as cultural historian Ainsley Hawthorn writes, COVID is going to injure many more people than it kills.Social Sharing
    1. 2021-10-01

    2. News ·, C. B. C. (2021, October 1). B.C. expands mask mandate in schools to include kindergarten to Grade 3 after community outcry | CBC News. CBC. https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/bc-schools-masks-safety-plans-update-1.6196198

    3. Provincial change comes after 3 school districts made own decisions to tighten rules
    4. B.C. expands mask mandate in schools to include kindergarten to Grade 3 after community outcryThe mask mandate for schools in B.C. is being expanded to include staff and students in kindergarten to Grade 3 as of Monday, provincial officials announced Friday after three school districts made their own decisions to tighten the rules.Social Sharing
    1. 2021-10-06

    2. Pokora, B. (2021, September 17). Forbes Advisor Guide To Covid Vaccine Requirements For Travel. Forbes Advisor. https://www.forbes.com/advisor/travel-rewards/airlines-cruises-countries-require-covid-19-vaccination/

    3. We know, we know: Vaccines are a polarizing topic which is all the reason to take note of where they’re mandatory. More and more countries are requiring vaccinations for all tourists in an effort to keep everyone safe while new variants take hold. Travelers themselves are also putting themselves at higher risk when leaving home. That might be a calculated risk, or perhaps an essential trip where you don’t have much choice, but if you’re looking for extra peace of mind, these countries require travelers to be fully vaccinated.
    4. Forbes Advisor Guide To Covid Vaccine Requirements For Travel
    1. 2021-09-28

    2. Majeed, A., Hodes, S., & Marks, S. (2021). Consent for covid-19 vaccination in children. BMJ, 374, n2356. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.n2356

    3. Now that covid-19 vaccination of children in the UK is starting, it is essential that the legal basis of consent is well understoodA Court of Appeal, on 17 September 2021, overturned a previous High Court ruling and decided that parental consent is not needed for children under 16 to take puberty blockers.1 This reaffirms, again, that the responsibility to consent to treatment depends on the ability of medical staff to decide on the capacity of those who are under 16.
    4. 10.1136/bmj.n2356
    5. Consent for covid-19 vaccination in children
    1. 2021-10-12

    2. Chu, J. S. G., & Evans, J. A. (2021). Slowed canonical progress in large fields of science. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118(41). https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2021636118

    3. Slowed canonical progress in large fields of science
    4. 10.1073/pnas.2021636118
    5. In many academic fields, the number of papers published each year has increased significantly over time. Policy measures aim to increase the quantity of scientists, research funding, and scientific output, which is measured by the number of papers produced. These quantitative metrics determine the career trajectories of scholars and evaluations of academic departments, institutions, and nations. Whether and how these increases in the numbers of scientists and papers translate into advances in knowledge is unclear, however. Here, we first lay out a theoretical argument for why too many papers published each year in a field can lead to stagnation rather than advance. The deluge of new papers may deprive reviewers and readers the cognitive slack required to fully recognize and understand novel ideas. Competition among many new ideas may prevent the gradual accumulation of focused attention on a promising new idea. Then, we show data supporting the predictions of this theory. When the number of papers published per year in a scientific field grows large, citations flow disproportionately to already well-cited papers; the list of most-cited papers ossifies; new papers are unlikely to ever become highly cited, and when they do, it is not through a gradual, cumulative process of attention gathering; and newly published papers become unlikely to disrupt existing work. These findings suggest that the progress of large scientific fields may be slowed, trapped in existing canon. Policy measures shifting how scientific work is produced, disseminated, consumed, and rewarded may be called for to push fields into new, more fertile areas of study.
    1. 2021-10-07

    2. Rumpf, S. (2021, October 7). Doctor on CNN Alarmed by ‘Historic Decimation’ in Hispanic Communities from Covid: The PTSD ‘Will Last a Generation.’ Mediaite. https://www.mediaite.com/tv/doctor-on-cnn-alarmed-by-historic-decimation-in-hispanic-communities-from-covid-the-ptsd-will-last-a-generation/

    3. Dr. Peter Hotez, the direct of the Center for Vaccine Development at Texas Children’s Hospital, spoke with CNN’s Ana Cabrera on Thursday about the impact of Covid misinformation and how the high number of deaths, especially in the Hispanic community, would cause lasting harm.
    4. Doctor on CNN Alarmed by ‘Historic Decimation’ in Hispanic Communities from Covid: The PTSD ‘Will Last a Generation’
  2. Sep 2021
    1. 2021-09-28

    2. Ciccione, L., Sablé-Meyer, M., & Dehaene, S. (2021). Analyzing the misperception of exponential growth in graphs. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/dah3x

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/dah3x
    4. Exponential growth is frequently underestimated, an error that can have a heavy social cost in the context of epidemics. To clarify its origins, we measured the human capacity to extrapolate linear and exponential trends in scatterplots. Four factors were manipulated: the function underlying the data (linear or exponential), the response modality (pointing or venturing a number), the scale on the y axis (linear or logarithmic), and the amount of noise in the data. While linear extrapolation was precise and largely unbiased, we observed a consistent underestimation of noisy exponential growth, present for both pointing and numerical responses. A biased ideal-observer model could explain these data as an occasional misperception of noisy exponential graphs as quadratic curves. Importantly, this underestimation bias was mitigated by participants’ math knowledge, by using a logarithmic scale, and by presenting a noiseless exponential curve rather than a noisy data plot, thus suggesting concrete avenues for interventions.
    5. Analyzing the misperception of exponential growth in graphs.
    1. 2021-09-27

    2. Shu, J., Ochsner, K. N., & Phelps, E. A. (2021). The Impact of Intolerance of Uncertainty on Reappraisal and Suppression. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/fsnvy

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/fsnvy
    4. The uncertainty of the COVID-19 pandemic highlights the importance of understanding how attitudes towards uncertainty affect well-being. Intolerance of uncertainty is a trait associated with anxiety, worry, and mood disorders. As adaptive emotion regulation supports well-being and mental health, it is possible that intolerance of uncertainty decreases the capacity to use adaptive emotion regulation and increases the use of maladaptive strategies. However, little research exists on the relationship between intolerance of uncertainty and use of cognitive emotion regulation strategies, such as reappraisal and suppression. Study 1 demonstrated that scores on the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale were associated with greater worry related to the COVID-19 pandemic, decreased capacity to implement reappraisal, and greater self-reported use of suppression in daily life. Study 2 provided a preregistered replication of these findings. These results suggest that intolerance of uncertainty may impact mental health by reducing the capacity and tendency to use adaptive emotion regulation.
    5. The Impact of Intolerance of Uncertainty on Reappraisal and Suppression
    1. 2021-09-26

    2. Milfont, T. L., Osborne, D., & Sibley, C. G. (2021). Political efficacy explains increase in New Zealanders’ pro-environmental attitudes due to COVID-19. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/m7w9y

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/m7w9y
    4. The COVID-19 pandemic caused millions of deaths and unprecedented disruptions on societies. Negative impacts are coupled with optimism the pandemic may shift public opinion on other cross-national crises. Comparing matched samples of New Zealanders assessed before and after nationwide lockdowns in 2020 (Ns = 15,815), we show the pandemic enhanced participants’ political efficacy, which in turn amplified respondents’ pro-environmental attitudes. Climate beliefs and concern increased as a function of political efficacy, and similar effects were observed for support for a government subsidy for public transport and decrease in support for government spending on new motorways. The crisis might offer a window-of-opportunity to foster sustainability actions.
    5. Political efficacy explains increase in New Zealanders’ pro-environmental attitudes due to COVID-19
    1. 2021-09-24

    2. Gelfand, M., Li, R., Stamkou, E., Pieper, D., Denison, E., Fernandez, J., Choi, V. K., Chatman, J., Jackson, J. C., & Dimant, E. (2021). Persuading Republicans and Democrats to Comply with Mask Wearing: An Intervention Tournament. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/6gjh8

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/6gjh8
    4. Many people practiced COVID-19-related safety measures in the first year of the pandemic, but Republicans were less likely to engage in behaviors such as wearing masks or face coverings than Democrats, suggesting radical disparities in health practices split along political fault lines. We developed an “intervention tournament” which aimed to identify the framings that would promote mask wearing among a representative sample of Republicans and Democrats in the U.S. (N = 4,931). Seven different conditions reflecting different moral values and factors specific to COVID-19—including protection from harm (self), protection from harm (community), patriotic duty, purity, reviving the economy, threat, and scientific evidence—were implemented to identify which framings would “win” in terms of promoting mask wearing compared to a baseline condition. We found that Republicans had significantly more negative attitudes toward masks, lower intentions to wear them, and were less likely to sign or share pledges on social media than Democrats, which was partially mediated by Republicans, compared to Democrats, perceiving that the threat of COVID-19 was lower. None of our framing conditions significantly affected Republicans’ or Democrats’ attitudes, intentions, or behaviors compared to the baseline condition, illustrating the difficulty in overcoming the strength of political polarization during COVID-19.
    5. Persuading Republicans and Democrats to Comply with Mask Wearing: An Intervention Tournament
    1. 2021-08-06

    2. Dupuy, B. (2021, August 6). COVID-19 vaccines offer benefits even to those previously infected. AP NEWS. https://apnews.com/article/fact-checking-130053228518

    3. CLAIM: Those who have had COVID-19 have natural immunity against the disease and do not need a vaccine. No one should be vaccinated without first testing for COVID-19 antibodies. AP’S ASSESSMENT: False. Studies have shown that infection from COVID-19 provides short-term immunity, but that protection fades over time. In addition, natural immunity differs from person to person. Even those who have had COVID-19 can benefit from the vaccine because it boosts existing immunity. THE FACTS: Social media users are spreading misleading information about immunity after COVID-19.
    4. COVID-19 vaccines offer benefits even to those previously infected
    1. 2021-12-01

    2. Weiss, D. J., & Shanteau, J. (2021). The futility of decision making research. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A, 90, 10–14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.shpsa.2021.08.018

    3. 10.1016/j.shpsa.2021.08.018
    4. We have each spent more than 50 years doing research that has had little impact. Even more lamentable is that our field, judgment and decision making (JDM), has on the whole had little impact during that span. We attribute that failure to the use of methodologies that emphasize testing models rather than looking for differences in behavior. The “cognitive revolution” led the field astray, toward the goal of studying model fit rather than comparing observable results. With modeling as the goal, experimentation was stultified. Simple tasks became dominant. Although a poor metaphor for real decision making, the gambling paradigm has lasted forever because the inputs to the decision are known to the researcher and thus easily modeled.
    1. 2021-09-17

    2. Halstead, I., Lewis, G., & McKay, R. (2021). Opposition to Novel Biotechnologies: Testing An Omission Bias Account. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/4ef7m

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/4ef7m
    4. The COVID-19 pandemic has taken a significant toll on the global population, but biotechnology has a big role to play in arresting the spread of the virus. However, the adoption of biotechnologies may be held back by cognitive biases. In particular, omission bias – the observation that people are more sensitive to the negative outcomes of acting than to those of failing to act – has been suggested to influence vaccination decision making. Omission bias might also underpin attitudes towards newer biotechnologies. In this study, we explored the role of omission bias in vaccination, gene editing, and nanotechnology decision-making using a US sample (N = 613). We examined participant’s risk choices across these three biotechnologies, focussing on the point at which they would use the respective biotechnology to treat a fictional illness (COVID-23). Although our findings are nuanced, overall we observed evidence consistent with an omission bias across all three biotechnologies.
    5. Opposition to Novel Biotechnologies: Testing An Omission Bias Account
    1. 2021-09-22

    2. Zimmer, C., Corum, J., & Wee, S.-L. (2020, June 10). Coronavirus Vaccine Tracker. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/science/coronavirus-vaccine-tracker.html

    3. Vaccines typically require years of research and testing before reaching the clinic, but in 2020, scientists embarked on a race to produce safe and effective coronavirus vaccines in record time. Researchers are currently testing 105 vaccines in clinical trials on humans, and 35 have reached the final stages of testing. More than 75 preclinical vaccines are under active investigation in animals.
    4. Coronavirus Vaccine Tracker