19 Matching Annotations
  1. Sep 2021
    1. Continual engagement with the mental rigors of modern life coincided in many parts of the world with improving nutrition, rising living conditions and reduced exposure to pathogens. These factors produced a century-long climb in average I.Q. scores — a phenomenon known as the Flynn effect, after James Flynn, the political philosopher who identified it.

      The Flynn effect is the substantial and sustained increase in intelligence test scores over most of the twentieth century.

      Research seems to indicate that the effect is environmentally caused: https://www.pnas.org/content/115/26/6674

  2. Jun 2021
    1. In GAD patients, high IQ was associated with a greater degree of worry (r = 0.46; p = 0.016). In healthy volunteers, high IQ was associated with a relatively lower degree of worry (r = −0.60; p = 0.009). The correlation between IQ and worry was significant in both the GAD group and the healthy control group. However, in the former, the correlation was positive and in the latter, the correlation was negative (see Figure ​Figure2).2)

      It is almost like... for a person with GAD, having higher IQ correlates with greater degrees of anxiety. Very interesting.

    2. Patients with GAD reported significantly more worry, exhibited higher IQ scores, and showed reduced concentrations of choline-containing compounds in the subcortical white matter voxels (see Table ​Table11).

      Patients with generalized anxiety disorder having higher IQs also seems to go in the face of what Sinthe stated.

    3. Others have suggested a positive correlation between intelligence and pathological anxiety based on the hypothesis that gifted children are prone to disharmonious development, which may result in the development of personality disorders, obsessional behavior, and anxiety disorders.

      This links to pathological forms of anxiety - and the implications are for all sorts of development.

      Intelligence creates disharmonious development due to not fitting in is certainly an interesting concept.

    4. individuals exhibiting low intelligence are unable to make responses that lead to success, which in turn results in the development of anxiety (Phillips et al., 1960).

      This flies in the face of what Sinthe stated - apparently, normal levels of worry might be due to lack of intelligence; not being able to figure things out adequately results in having a lower iq.

    1. According to Cattell's psychometrically-based theory, general intelligence (g) is subdivided into gf and gc.

      G is divided into crystalized versus fluid intelligence according to Cottrell.

    1. Fluid intelligence refers to the ability to reason and think flexibly. Crystallized intelligence refers to the accumulation of knowledge, facts, and skills that are acquired throughout life.

      fluid vs crystlized

    1. tress exposure facilitates ventral striatal dopamine release [22, 23, 56], and Robinson et al. [14] recently observed increased ventral striatal PE signaling (model-free) of negative errors of reward prediction (i.e. when received outcome is smaller than expected) during acute stress. Additionally, Otto et al. [16] reported that acute stress exposure reduces the amount of model-based learning in subjects with low working memory capacity (a measure closely related to fluid intelligence and general cognitive ability), while model-free learning was unaffected and thus shifts the balance from goal-directed (model-based) toward more habitual (model-free) learning strategies during decision making

      People who have low working memory capacities have reduced [ability?] in model-based learning, and model-free learning emains unaffected.... The balance goes from goal-directed (model based) to habitual (model free) learning during decision making.

    2. Recently, we reported that individual differences in fluid IQ are associated with VS BOLD PE signals, with stronger VS BOLD PE correlates in subjects with higher IQ [13]. At the same time, there is recent evidence that acute stress increases BOLD responses elicited by aversive PE signals in the VS [14]. Furthermore, fluid IQ and stress are well known to interact, with stress having a strong moderating influence on cognitive abilities [15, 16], reward learning [17, 18], risk taking [19], reward responsivity [20], and decision-making speed [19]. Also, stress due to social exclusion situations impairs cognitive speed and accuracy [21]. However, despite strong evidence for an impact of stress on cognition and decision-making processes, little is known about the specific patterns and moderating trait components underlying these changes on a behavioral and neuronal level. Interestingly, it has recently been observed that (on a behavioral level) acute stress does not impair so-called model-free reward learning, while more cognitively demanding model-based reward learning is more affected by acute stress when working memory capacity is lower [16].

      The interaction here is interesting

  3. Dec 2019
    1. Th ough cautions are oft en expressed [e.g., Plomin, DeFries, McClearn, & Rutter, 1997], the fact that reported biological mothers-adopted children correlations are higher than adoptive mothers-adopted children correlations has had a big impact in psychology and on theories of development. Most usually, the correlations have been computed into heritability

      This does suggest some of the supposed heritability is actually prenatal environment (or some other analogous factor). It's also possible that e.g. mitochondrial DNA plays a bigger role than previously recognized, much how thyroid status is the #1 predictor of mental retardation. Perhaps IVF will shed further light on the issue.

    1. The average IQs of adopted children in lower and higher socioeconomic status (SES) families were 85 (SD = 17) and 98 (SD = 14.6), respectively, at adolescence (mean age = 13.5 years)

      I'm looking for the smallest standard deviation in an adopted sample to compare the average difference to that of identical twins. This study suggests that the SD in adoption is identical to the SD in the general population. This supports the idea that lower SD in adopted identical twins is entirely down to genes (or, in principal, prenatal environment).

      Note that this comment is referring to this Reddit inquiry.

  4. Jan 2019
    1. Curiosity Is as Important as Intelligence

      This one is a pretty bold statement to make, in general.

      Mike Johansson, at Rochester Institute of Technology, makes the case that curiosity is the key to enabling both Creative and Critical Thinking for better problem solving, in general.

      What are some of your ideas?

    2. Although IQ is hard to coach, EQ and CQ can be developed.

      This one is an interesting phrasing -- there's a lot of debate going on about IQ being an outdated metric already.

      For example, N. Taleb is very vocal that IQ simply does not make sense in today's society.

      What do you think? Is IQ overrated?

    1. This means that it is actually easier to measure intelligence than many other psychological constructs. Indeed, some individuals trying to measure other constructs have inadvertently created intelligence tests

      When I learned this, it blew my mind.

    2. Minnesota Transracial Adoption Study

      This is a study begun in the 1970s of African American, interracial, and other minority group children who had been adopted by White families in Minnesota. The 1976 results indicated large IQ boosts (about 12 points) for adopted African American children at age 6, compared to the average IQ for African Americans in general. However, the 1992 report shows that the advantage had faded to about 6 points when the children were aged 17 years. Generally, intelligence experts see this landmark study as supporting both "nature" and "nurture."

    3. the Stanford-Binet intelligence test

      Although the Stanford-Binet is historically important, the Wechsler family of intelligence tests have been more popular since the 1970s.

  5. Nov 2018
    1. To make matters worse, "intelligence" itself is weaponized by the status quo against people of color and white women. That's especially evident in the continuing battles over the interpretation of IQ test results.
  6. Apr 2018
  7. Jan 2018