155 Matching Annotations
  1. Jan 2020
    1. (A)–(C) Changes in markers of thyroid status over the course of the study (mean ± standard error). (D) Changes in treatment preference.

      Looks like preference for T3 increased as the number of hyperthyroid symptoms increased. It would be interesting to know if those are the same patients.

  2. www.drugwiki.net www.drugwiki.net
    1. L-T3 has proven to be 4-5 times more biologically active and to take effect more quickly than L-thyroxine (L-T4).

      Will need to check up on that. I recall T4 being less potent.

    1. Following this observation, the same group conducted a cross-sectional analysis to assess the association among 140 patients with EE and TH replacement hypothyroid treated with LT4. In this study population, REE did not differ significantly between patients achieving low-normal (TSH ≤ 2.5 μIU/mL) vs high normal TSH (TSH >2.5 μIU/mL). Conversely, free T3 level showed a direct correlation with EE, but also with indices of adiposity including body mass index (BMI), body composition, and fat free mass [49]. This latter observation is consistent with other cross-sectional studies that have clearly defined the positive association between circulating levels of T3 and adiposity [50, 51].

      This is consistent with my previous assertion that T3 may result in greater energy expenditure than T4.

    2. The authors demonstrated an inverse correlation between TSH and REE with a change of 15% for a TSH ranging from 0.1 to 10 μIU/mL. Of interest, free T4 remained within the normal range in all of the study volunteers. Nonetheless, the changes in REE with different LT4 doses were demonstrated in every patient [46].

      Thus, a 15% expected increase would be reasonable for a euthyroid subject such as myself. However, since T3 reduces weight compared to T4, it is possible the weight loss indicates greater energy expenditure.

  3. Dec 2019
    1. React Native vs Flutter vs Xamarin: A Comparative Guide [2020]

      The most popular cross-platform frameworks are React Native, Xamarin and Flutter. But, which to select out of three? We’ll go through each one of them and by the end of this article, you will get the one which suits best for your business.

    1. Th ough cautions are oft en expressed [e.g., Plomin, DeFries, McClearn, & Rutter, 1997], the fact that reported biological mothers-adopted children correlations are higher than adoptive mothers-adopted children correlations has had a big impact in psychology and on theories of development. Most usually, the correlations have been computed into heritability

      This does suggest some of the supposed heritability is actually prenatal environment (or some other analogous factor). It's also possible that e.g. mitochondrial DNA plays a bigger role than previously recognized, much how thyroid status is the #1 predictor of mental retardation. Perhaps IVF will shed further light on the issue.

    1. do not run the installer directly as/from the 'root' account! Always use the sudo command from a non-privileged user account. This is due to variables that are different between root's environment and a user's that aren't affected by an EUID change, as well as code checks in the install itself.
    1. sudo, especially combined with NOPASSWD as recommended in the comments, has no security benefits over just using the root account.

      Well, there is at least one security benefit: security through obscurity. Every hacker will try to ssh root@host. But they may not think to attempt rsyncuser@host.

      (Same argument used for using non-standard port instead port 22)

    2. Now using sudo to work around the root account is not only pointless, it's also dangerous: at first glance rsyncuser looks like an ordinary unprivileged account. But as I've already explained, it would be very easy for an attacker to gain full root access if he had already gained rsyncuser access. So essentially, you now have an additional root account that doesn't look like a root account at all, which is not a good thing.
    3. No, clumsily working around the root account in situations where it is absolutely appropriate to use it is not for good reasons. This is just another form of cargo cult programming - you don't really understand the concept behind sudo vs root, you just blindly apply the belief "root is bad, sudo is good" because you've read that somewhere.
    1. It's confusing whether one should put things in gemspec development_dependencies or in Gemfile or in both.

      Duplication is bad since the lists could get out of sync. And the gemspec's development_dependencies should be a complete list. Therefore, my opinion is that that should be the canonical list and therefore the only list.

      Actually, what good is gemspec's development_dependencies? A contributor should clone the repo, run bundle, and get the dev dependencies that way. Therefore development_dependencies is unneeded and you should only list them in Gemfile.

      It is simpler to just use Gemfile, since it is a more familiar format. You can copy and paste content into it. For example, if you extract a gem out of an app, you may wan to copy/move some gems from app's Gemfile into new gem's Gemfile. It also generates a Gemfile.lock (which you shouldn't add to git).

    1. Comparison Between: Design Contest, Freelancer & AgenciesSushmachoudharyDec 7 · 3 min readWe all compare and inspect the best way to get a job done. We read reviews, talk to people and research online about the product or service. When you are seeking design help you often become confused about what to choose- Design contest, Freelance or an Agency.You can design a graphic by yourself using an online tool but the problem with those graphics is unprofessional. You can pretty much design something that does not attract people if you do not know what you are doing.Brainstorming about what to choose can be difficult but when you define your requirements then you can find the best design within your budget.In this article, we will discuss what’s the difference between design contests, freelancers and agencies, guide you on what to choose and why? Before that, let’s find out why you need a graphic design.Why Do You Need a Graphic Design?Graphic Design is a medium through which you can convey a message. Professional graphic designers know the importance of the designs. The design conveys specific meaning, a story, and a message which are interpreted in the form of emotions. People react differently to certain imagery. This reaction can be negative as well as positive. Graphic design helps the content to get delivered easily.Design Contest V/S Freelancer V/S AgenciesCostingDesign ContestA design contest can cost you somewhere from 99$ to 1000$ depending on your graphics. For Example- a logo design contest can cost you $99 to $600 on averageFreelancerA freelancer can be hired for cheap starting from $5 and going up for 150$ range on an hourly basis and the amount charged by them is per hour.AgenciesAgencies are fallen under the high end and can cost a lot of money. The design agency can charge $10000–20000+ for a design project. Some agencies charge less than $10000 but for smaller projects.Design Concept OptionsDesign ContestYou can get multiple design concepts as anyone can participate in the contest. On average 50+ designs are guaranteed.FreelancerFreelancers can provide you with many options but it is limited to the creativity and experience of the designer.AgenciesAgency can also provide multiple options and generally, the designs are so great that you do not need multiple designs.QualityDesign ContestThe quality of the logo can be good as the contest winner is decided by the clients themselves.FreelancerThe quality of the logo depends on the experience and creativity of the designer hired by you.AgenciesThe highest quality is guaranteed and you get a design that you paid for.Time frameDesign ContestThe design contest is organized for at most 10 days and you will be provided with multiple options up until the winner is chosen or the contest is withdrawn.FreelancerFreelancer can deliver you the options within 2 days but the final graphic could take more days.AgenciesIt depends on the design project.What to Choose?Now the overwhelming question comes, what to choose?There is no perfect answer as everyone has their own preferences. Freelancing, Graphic design contest, and agencies all have their disadvantages and advantages of their own.The very first factor that affects your choice is the project budget. If your budget is high then you can opt the agency to get the professional designs, but if you find yourself short on the budget then choose a design contest.The quality of the design concept also plays a very important role. The best option to choose when it comes to quality is an agency as they only equip professional designers who have years of experience in their field.In the end, it depends on your preference and your budget. So, choose those options that fit your pocket as well as lure your eyes.

      It can be really confusing what to choose when it come to custom graphic design services. There are three options to go for- Freelancer, Agency and Graphic design contest. This article will help you in filtering the best option for your business logo design

  4. Nov 2019
    1. Onivim 2 leverages the VSCode Extension Host process in its entirety - meaning, eventually, complete support for VSCode extensions and configuration.
    1. In the React rendering lifecycle, the value attribute on form elements will override the value in the DOM. With an uncontrolled component, you often want React to specify the initial value, but leave subsequent updates uncontrolled. To handle this case, you can specify a defaultValue attribute instead of value.
    1. The terms “controlled” and “uncontrolled” usually refer to form inputs, but they can also describe where any component’s data lives. Data passed in as props can be thought of as controlled (because the parent component controls that data). Data that exists only in internal state can be thought of as uncontrolled (because the parent can’t directly change it).
  5. Oct 2019
    1. observations are consistent with a previous report showing that AHLs preferentially partition to the biofilm, reaching concentrations 600-fold in excess of the signal concentration in the surrounding bulk liquid medium
    1. Project is written in TypeScript and provides type safety out of the box. No Flow Type support is planned at this moment, but feel free to contribute.
    1. Selección comunitaria de temas para Data Weeks o Data Rodas. Apoyo de proyectos de los participantes de la comunidad. Reuniones periódicas de la Comunidad, algo así como Data Roda el primer viernes de cada mes, así sea para saludarnos síncronamente y ver en qué andamos y hacer un encera - brilla de bacanes.

      Estos tres puntos se podrían juntar con la idea de que los participantes propongan sus propios proyectos y se apropien de la planeación y ejecución de las Data Rodas o Data Weeks venideros.

      Sólo quitaría el carácter periódico, pues creo que una de las potencias de nuestra comunidad es responder flexiblemente a lo eventual. Por ejemplo, ahora tenemos un periodo electoral en Colombia. De allí surgió mi preocupación por visualizar financiación de campañas, pero los eventos de la semana pasada derivaron en blikis, con soporte de comentarios. Una reacción ágil a la contingencia y no el seguimiento riguroso de algo pre-planeado (a mi me gustaría retomar lo de financiación de campañas, pero será luego).

      De nuevo la sugerencia, como dije en mi entrada de respuesta a esta, y en otras ocasiones es sustituir la planeación por la coordinación. Mi propuesta de coordinación es la siguiente:

      • Los miembros que quieren ver otras temáticas las proponen en los canales comunitarios y se apersonan de su preparación y ejecución.
      • Los otros miembros respondemos a esas iniciativas autónomas, en solidaridad, acompañando esas sesiones y aportándoles.
      • Al final de cada evento, miramos hacia dónde podemos llevar los otros.
    1. However, if more control is needed, you can pass any of these pieces of state as a prop (as indicated above) and that state becomes controlled. As soon as this.props[statePropKey] !== undefined, internally, downshift will determine its state based on your prop's value rather than its own internal state.
  6. Sep 2019
    1. You can control the following props by providing values for them. If you don't, react-select will manage them for you. value / onChange - specify the current value of the control menuIsOpen / onMenuOpen / onMenuClose - control whether the menu is open inputValue / onInputChange - control the value of the search input (changing this will update the available options) If you don't provide these props, you can set the initial value of the state they control: defaultValue - set the initial value of the control defaultMenuIsOpen - set the initial open value of the menu defaultInputValue - set the initial value of the search input

      Example of having props for both ways: value or defaultValue, depending on whether you want it to be controlled or not.

  7. Aug 2019
    1. Netflix vs Amazon Prime: Which platform is the best for you? So in order to find out which platform is suitable for you, I would be comparing them both on price, features, UI and content. 

      Netflix vs Amazon Prime: Which platform is the best for you? So in order to find out which platform is suitable for you, I would be comparing them both on price, features, UI and content.

    1. Its aim is producing students who can think critically, be considerate of others, take risks, think dangerously and imagine a future that extends and deepens what it means to be an engaged citizen capable of living in a substantive democracy.

      What does Giroux's "be considerate of others" look and feel like in practice? How is it related to the problematic calls for civility?

  8. Jul 2019
    1. If you are an aspiring a developer or an entrepreneur interested to learn about Backend vs Frontend Programming Languages & Frameworks, you are in the right place. This blog will help you understand what are the basic differences between frontend and backend technologies.

      What's the difference between Frontend Vs Backend? The backend consists of a server, application, and database. The frontend is the look & feel of website or application.

    2. Backend Vs Frontend: Guide to Development for Developers

      What's the difference between Frontend Vs Backend? The backend consists of a server, application, and database. The frontend is the look & feel of website or application

    1. Firebase Vs MongoDB : Battle of the Best Databases 2019You are here:HomeDev & DesignFirebase Vs MongoDB : Battle…

      Now that you may have found that NoSQL database is the best option for you to set up your servers, you must find the best NoSQL database. Likewise, there are two prominent candidates for you to choose from Firebase Vs MongoDB.

  9. Jun 2019
    1. JAMES CHARLES Vs TATI REAL TIME YOUTUBE SUBSCRIBERS COUNT Find out real time YouTube subscriber count of James Charles Vs Tati. With live display of the subscriber count of both channels, you can now see who is leading the race.

      Find out real time YouTube subscriber count of James Charles Vs Tati. With live display of the subscriber count of both channels, you can now see who is leading the race.

    1. Where react native is veteran in the mobile app development platform, flutter is also leaving its mark by delivering the best cross-platform apps and it is here to stay.

      Confused between Flutter vs React Native? This blog is your guide to learn everything about both the app development frameworks.

    1. In this article, we are going to talk about the same kind of much-debated back-end programming technologies like Node.Js and PHP! We will know how do they differ from each other and why Node.js vs PHP is such a hot topic among developers.
    1. Distributed App (dApp)

      A distributed application (Dapp) in this context is refers to an ordinary real world application that runs on an arbitrary platform (desktop, web, mobile) and that utilizes a smart contract to use blockchain technology

  10. May 2019
    1. At the individual level, this principle supports reflection on and reuse of one’s earlier ideas. At the group level, thisprinciple facilitates collaborative discourse by enabling learners to incorporate peers’ ideas to solve new problems

      Students can watch their ideas evolve and a class can trace changes across a series of readings.

    2. spatiotemporally distributed on the web.

      So maybe the more reasonable long-term strategy is to build these web-based linkages rather than try to capture all these network-resident learning elements within an LMS.

  11. Apr 2019
    1. If you are planning to build your own on-demand taxi app service, instead of developing your own app from scratch, it is advisable to go with the

      I’ve always wondered, and you would’ve wondered too, which is the better ride sharing service: Uber Vs. Lyft?

      If you are planning to build your own on-demand taxi app service, instead of developing your own app from scratch, it is advisable to go with the Uber clone app development approach.

  12. Mar 2019
    1. We'll stick to working with prose text in our examples—most people can grasp easily enough what we are doing there without having to have special backgrounds in mathematics or science as they would to gain equal comprehension for some of the similar sorts of things we do with diagrams and mathematical equations.

      I think this sentence is one of the most overlooked key points. This virtual, and in '68 the live demo was a quantum leap in managing text and locked the attention on that level. However, the essence of this framework is managing symbols and making statements by them directly - not editing texts on pages and navigate around them. For example, seeing and managing the following statements in parallel: 1: there is an idea of "Locatable" represented by an entity. 2: "Locatable" in this environment contains X and Y attributes represented by their respective entity instances. 3: Another entity (be it a mouse pointer, a window or a car on a street) can or must be "Locatable" (among many other possible aspects). 4: "My car" entity is "Locatable" at 40, 20. We need a system that allows managing such statements and allow other systems behave according to them.

  13. Feb 2019
    1. to give direct aid to an individual in comprehending complex situations, isolating the significant factors, and solving problems

      This is where most modern technology deviates from the Engelbartian norm. Instead of broadening our horizons today's platforms often seek to constrain them because it is through constraint that control and profit can be had. Many platforms from Facebook to Learning Management Systems are more interested in locking you into their ecosystems than drinking in the wider panoply of human creativity and knowledge. The more I think about this, the more see evidence of it everywhere in our world today. In education alone, the aforementioned LMSes are being complemented by even more restrictive (and exploitative) textbook publisher "online supplements." I'm hoping both of these are the endgames of obsolete modes of thought but they have sustained themselves long after we wrote them off. I remember Bryan Alexander bemoaning this facet of the LMS as far back as 2006. That was 13 years ago - a geologic era in technology terms - and yet they are still with us.

    1. Google Home vs Alexa

      We all know Google Home vs Alexa is a talk of the town nowadays. The article is about much talked battle of these voice assistants and benefits of integrating them.

    1. abstraction is in itself but a dull and inert thing

      That "in itself" is an important qualifier. My initial thought was how this idea contrasts with Hume's discussion of the uses of general concepts, but the "in itself" poses abstractions by themselves, when not employed to a particular use. When abstractions are put to work, do they do something similar to Hume's generalities? (How closely related are abstractions and general principles?)

  14. Jan 2019
    1. So I'd rather have, you know, five of these tabs open with the order book and trade history for something that I'm, uh, watching imminently than just have the chart open on one page and then the exchange with the order book, trade history on, on another tab. You know what I mean?
    2. Kind of the technical philosophy is everything that happens in the market is captured in the data and so any headline moves will be captured pretty much instantaneously or in a few minutes in the charts.
    3. Yeah, uh, I would say for reallocating, I'm, yeah. So I would say on Gemini I do Bitcoin, ethereum, and that's kind of like the longer term things.
    4. no, and I was talking to her at the meetup and find it very useful to see all my accounts on these three exchanges on one screen. I don't want to have to log in to each one separately and keep track of how much coins I have on each. I would rather see this on one screen every morning. I pull up the screen easy to see. I don't necessarily need to trade from that screen, but I can just an idea of what holdings I have because I'm constantly rebalancing.
    5. So that's what I, that's why I had many exchanges, but then it became a hassle to manage and like anyway, I profited off that that was good. But in 2018 when it, when it became a bear market, that same strategy didn't work. And just because there was just the overabundance of coins, new coins, and they weren't blowing up like they used to. So I was like, why am I keeping all of this bitcoin scattered across diff or ether or rather scattered across different exchanges?
    6. Uh, I definitely have some other, you know, mostly it's mostly I use ta very, very ta heavy. Um, I will, but I'll always keep the fundamentals in mind, especially for the medium to long term.
    7. I really try to focus on technicals cause I mean, yeah, the technicals is, is supposed to be representative, at least from an historical standpoint of the sentiment, right? Like if it's, if it's losing, if people are losing faith in it, then you'll probably see where did it go down? You'll see the price get affected by it. Um, and I tried to just trade on that. I try to minimize my sources all over the place.
    8. Then once of use various tools to basically identify a potential trade, then I will basically figure out what the risk to reward is going to be for that trade.
    9. say try to focus on something that's really gonna drive you away from the competition, that people need. Because like I pay for multiple tools.
    10. So depending on where you're trading, you could put more emphasis on where the other, when when you're doing fundamental analysis on a stock, there's a lot more information going into that, you know, potential company valuation. Um, whereas I would argue most cryptocurrencies heavily lack fundamentals at all.
    11. I personally try to trade based on technicals only. I'll read stuff for more general and for information. Um, but I guess the way I look at is like technical is this more short term? And fundamentals is more longterm.
    12. Uh, yeah, I'm in a few groups. There's a couple of the crypto focused, uh, the also have been just, I wouldn't say [inaudible], but have put more emphasis on, you know, since we're technical traders, there's a reason not to take advantage of, uh, the market opportunities and traditional as they pop up. So we've been focused mainly on just very few inverse etfs to short the s&p to short some major Chinese stocks, um, doing some stuff with, uh, oil, gas. And then there's some groups that I'm in that are specifically focused on just traditional, uh, that are broken up or categorized by what they're trading.
    13. Yeah, I mean, so if you have one tool, I mean, in theory it makes more sense because you're not all over the place.
    14. So, you know, it's just, it's a, it's a little repetitive.
    15. e? I use individualized applications for exc
    1. The machine-beings that emerge from these couplings thus demon-strate a different form of identity, o

      I had to come back to this when I had a memory flash-back. My oldest daughter had Polio before we adopted her from China. For years she had to wear a full leg brace (KAFO) to keep her from hyper-extending her weak and somewhat underdeveloped leg. At first people assumed the brace was temporary, but eventually she started calling it her "bionic leg." It worked. People laughed. It opened up a conversation about her leg rather than making it an object of negative conjecture.

      So, to diffuse ideas about disability, difference, and "other," she took on the identity of a cyborg, which acted rhetorically and psychologically on herself and others to diminish the "other" distinction. Calling herself a cyborg became a rhetoric of inclusion.

    2. . In eXistenZ, however, the characters are notall cyborg-style hybrids, wherein the category of the human must first beimagined as relatively discrete in order for it to be connected to (andpotentially troubled by) its Others (human plus machine). Many of thehuman characters in this film exist simply as sites of information ex-change—material entities produced by and teeming with swarms ofothers (codes, identities, technologies, knowledges, and so forth). In

      As opposed to the robots in WestWorld: they look human, they have skin and blood, but the emphasis is mostly on the code that makes them behave in certain ways.

      I wouldn't say that I consider the "hosts" in WestWorld to be cyborgs--they are not part machine, part human-- they are all machine. Or is skin the definition of human? How much human material does it take to be cyborg?

    1. The We Defense argues that there are two kinds of rhetoric, good and bad. The good kind is used in good causes, the bad kind in bad causes. Our kind is the good kind; the bad kindjs used by our opponents

      Is Lanham suggesting that the "Weak Defense" argues that rhetoricians have an "us" vs. "them" mentality?

    1. Coming back to the two ‘FreeSync’ settings in the monitor OSD, they differ in the variable refresh rate range that they support. ‘Standard Engine’ supports 90 – 144Hz (90 – 119Hz via HDMI) whilst ‘Ultimate Engine’ gives a broader variable refresh rate range of 70 – 144Hz (62 – 119Hz via HDMI). We didn’t notice any adverse effects when using ‘Ultimate Engine’, so we’d suggest users simply stick to that option.

      In my tests using Standard Engine, in combo with G-Sync Compatible Driver, I get more screen flickering during menus.

    1. Although IQ is hard to coach, EQ and CQ can be developed.

      This one is an interesting phrasing -- there's a lot of debate going on about IQ being an outdated metric already.

      For example, N. Taleb is very vocal that IQ simply does not make sense in today's society.

      What do you think? Is IQ overrated?

  15. Nov 2018
    1. OER matters not because textbooks matter. OER matters because it highlights an example of how something central to our public missions, the transfer of our foundational disciplinary knowledge from one generation of scholars to the next, has been co-opted by private profit. And OER is not a solution, but a systemic shift from private to public architecture in how we deliver learning.

      I love this framing of OER as public infrastructure to facilitate the transfer of knowledge. I think it is not only generational, but also more broadly to the public. OER use is not limited to just students within our institutions, but are available freely and openly more broadly to the public. To anyone. I think we need to make that point more widely known. Every OER that is made freely available is making knowledge more open to not only students in our institutions, but to anyone, anywhere. It truly is "public" infrastructure.

  16. Oct 2018
    1. Der Gerichtshof muss jedoch angesichts der Gefahr, dass ein System der geheimen Überwachung zum Schutz der nationalen Sicherheit unter dem Vorwand, die Demokratie zu verteidigen, diese unterminieren oder sogar zerstören könnte, davon überzeugt sein, dass angemessene und wirksame Garantien gegen Missbrauch vorgesehen sind
    2. Mindestgarantien entwickelt, die zur Vermeidung von Machtmissbrauch in den gesetzlichen Regelungen enthalten sein sollten: Die Art der Straftaten, die eine Überwa­chungsanordnung rechtfertigen können; eine Beschreibung der Personengruppen, bei denen Telefongespräche abgehört werden können; die Begrenzung der Dauer der Abhörmaß­nahme; das Verfahren für die Auswertung, Verwendung und Speicherung der erlangten Da­ten; die bei der Übermittlung der Daten an andere Parteien zu beachtenden Vorsichtsmaß­nahmen und die Umstände, unter denen die Aufzeichnungen gelöscht und die Bänder ver­nichtet werden müssen oder dürfen

      The six basic requirements

    3. Jedoch ist insbesondere bei der geheimen Ausübung einer der Exekutive zustehenden Befugnis die Gefahr der Willkür offensichtlich (siehe u. a. Malone, a.a.O., S. 32 Nr. 67; Huvig, a.a.O., S. 54-55, Nr. 29; und Rotaru, a.a.O., Nr. 55). Daher ist für die Überwachung von Telefonge­sprächen eine klare, detaillierte Regelung unerlässlich, insbesondere wegen der ständigen Weiterentwicklung der verfügbaren Technik (siehe Urteil Kopp ./. Schweiz vom 25. März 1998, Urteils- und Entscheidungssammlung 1998-II, S. 542-43, Nr. 72, und Urteil Valenzuela Contreras ./. Spanien vom 30. Juli 1998, Urteils- und Entscheidungssammlung 1998-V, S. 1924-25, Nr. 46). Das innerstaatliche Recht muss hinreichend klar und für die Bürger in an­gemessener Weise erkennbar darlegen, unter welchen Umständen und Bedingungen die öffentlichen Behörden befugt sind, auf solche Maßnahmen zurückzugreifen (siehe Malone, a.a.O.; Kopp, a.a.O., S. 541, Nr. 64; Huvig, a.a.O., S. 54-55, Nr. 29; und Valenzuela Contreras, a.a.O.).
  17. Sep 2018
    1. No. It’s not you. You were different before. – I’m still the same person, Lin. – I wasn’t, when I was on it. I did things I would never do. – Those things saved your life. – But they weren’t me. – Yes, they were. No, the way it works… – I know how it works. I get it. I totally get it. You feel invincible.

      The rhetoric of this passage raises a very important question. Are the people who are taking this drug really themselves still? If this was just a thought enhancing drug then perhaps this would be the case, however it does more than just make the user hyper-intelligent. The fact that this drug changes people's attitudes and their personalities proves that these people aren't themselves. On the other hand a hyper-intelligence may not directly change the person, but may enable them because a higher intelligence could reasonably lead to a higher confidence and a higher rationale of thinking.

    1. The case marked one of the highest-profile clashes in the debate over encryption and data privacy between the government and a technology company. Law enforcement authorities say that encryption used by the likes of Apple makes it harder for them to solve cases and stop terrorist attacks.

      It makes it harder for the government to catch terrorist if they can't get access to their cell phones.

    2. . Apple declined to help the FBI.

      The company doesn't want to have a bad reputation and lose money from selling phones do to the lack of trust from its clients if they give a client privacy away.

    1. But we are also hopeful that, by informing and moderating our desires, and by grasping the limits of our new powers, we can keep in mind the true meaning of our founding ideals—and thus find the means to savor the fruits of the age of biotechnology, without succumbing to its most dangerous temptations.

      This idea in the text might also largely reference the uses of drugs and medications as one means of seizing happiness---a "founding ideal". The narrator of this quote, however, emphasizes the importance in not "succumbing to its most dangerous temptations" by means of remembering the "true meaning of our founding ideals".

  18. Aug 2018
    1. The cry was pinched off short as the blood-warm waters of the Caribbean Sea dosed over his head.

      This is an example of a man vs. nature conflict, because the sea water is making it hard for him to stay above and breathe.

    2. The cry was pinched off short as the blood-warm waters of the Caribbean Sea dosed over his head.He struggled up to the surface and tried to cry out, but the wash from the speeding yacht slapped him in the face and the salt water in his open mouth made him gag and strangle.

      This is a Man vs. Nature conflict because Rainsford is struggling to stay above water after he has fallen into the ocean and the salt water engulfs him making it impossible to breathe.

    3. "Tonight," said the general, "we will hunt--you and I."Rainsford shook his head. "No, general," he said. "I will not hunt."The general shrugged his shoulders and delicately ate a hothouse grape. "As you wish, my friend," he said. "The choice rests entirely with you. But may I not venture to suggest that you will find my idea of sport more diverting than Ivan's?"

      This is a Man vs. Self conflict becuast Rainsford is giving the choice to either be given to Ivan to be taken care of or to go against the general in a hunting game and it is a dicision he has to make himself.

    1. 6 key principles of experts' knowledge

      1. experts notice features and manful patterns of info
      2. experts have abilities to make sense of the content based on prior knowledge that is organized in some ways
      3. experts' knowledge is not isolated and it related to context.
      4. experts have abilities to flexibly retrieve important aspects of their knowledge.
      5. experts may not have abilities to teach others
      6. experts have flexibilities in their approach to apply to new situations.
  19. Jul 2018
  20. May 2018
    1. er. Kay ultimately attempted toclose his own ontological circle and find object-computers recursively defining eachother and infinitively deferring any concrete representation. It is striking how much thisvision anticipated the current world of networked computers with large cloud-basedtasks spread across multiple individual machin

      Ideas de Maturana y Varela respecto a la clausura operacional dialogarían fuertemente con este enfoque de la computación.

    2. cts. There isan important difference, except in trivial cases, between:the inside view of an object,understood in terms of local variables, possibly initialising operations establishingan invariant, and implemented proceduresoperating on the variables maintainingthe invariant, andthe outside view,as presented by the remotely accessible proce-dures, including some generatingmechanism, dealing with moreBabstract^entities
    1. They can enable individuals to reflect on the personal and social impact of new technologies, and provide a provocative, speculative, and rich vision of our technological future that avoids the clichés of consumerist-oriented industrial design.

      Although this article emphasized the difference between critical design and critical making, the later being more process oriented and involving information systems than only physical objects I wish the author could have illustrated that with an example. How to make a digital object critically? How to think of UI design patterns critically? All the tacit knowledge a UI and UXer is expected to have in order to get hired and that they use everyday. If the aim of critical making of information systems concern is to uncover the embedded values in software and the process of designing of software than it also needs to question the industry jargon and process which forms the lived experience of designers everyday.

  21. Apr 2018
    1. Thus the grass my horse has bit; the turfs my servant has cut; and the ore I have digged in any place, where I have a right to them in common with others, become my property, without the assignation or consent of any body. The labour that was mine, removing them out of that common state they were in, hath fixed my property in them.

      It would be very interesting to discuss this and the surrounding passages in light of the armed standoff that occurred in either Oregon or Washington about a year ago regarding the use of federal lands for grazing purposes by the local ranchers.

    1. There was a boy who was born with congenital hypothyroidism and was raised on traditional T3 (Cytomel). He was never treated with a T4-containing medicine, and so essentially never had a molecule of T4 in his body. By age 26 he had developed normally with no problems.

      This is precisely the type of information I was looking for. Wikipedia implied T4 should be taken with long-term T3, but the reasoning was poorly explained. However, I'd like a more official source for this case report.

      This case would also express no rT3 (reverse-T3). Thus, it appears that neither T4 nor rT3 serve any vital functions.

  22. Mar 2018
    1. That, on the other hand, is a system all by itself, and it’s rather restricted in its range. It only forms restrictive relative clauses, and then only in a narrow range of syntactic constructions. It can’t follow a preposition (the book of which I spoke rather than *the book of that I spoke) or the demonstrative that (they want that which they can’t have rather than *they want that that they can’t have), and it usually doesn’t occur after coordinating conjunctions. But it doesn’t make the same personhood distinction that who and which do, and it functions as a relative adverb sometimes. In short, the distribution of that is a subset of the distribution of the wh words. They are simply two different ways to make relative clauses, one of which is more constrained.

      One of the best explanations of why relative "that" isn't a pronoun.

  23. Feb 2018
    1. Una serie de ‘Laboratorios Cali’ destinada a determinar el rango de respuestas a la pregunta ‘¿qué quiere que sea Cali?’, seguida por la construcción de escenarios en donde las diversas visiones se puedan exponer, junto con la transición potencial y los imaginarios de diseño especulativo desarrollados por el equipo de co-diseño —para que cada vez más gente juegue con la idea de Cali como un espacio verdaderamente acogedor para vivir y no como una máquina de insostenibilidad—.

      Algo similar se intentó con la plataforma Bogotá Abierta, localmente y en Medellín, pero dichas plataformas no son abiertas, paradógicamente, ni trazables.

    1. The mental energy required for readers to constantly jump from the present text to an older one is considerable, and if readers must supply the gaps in their ‘allusive competency’ by engaging in ‘textual archaeology,’35or going outside the text to research its allusions, the demand is indeed extreme.

      This demand seems especially daunting in poetry, with few words as it is. Does the novel or film have an easier go of connecting the reader to the demands of allusion? Less of a loss in understanding the idea of the work if the reader doesn't bat a thousand with the allusions because other elements carry the storyline.

  24. Jan 2018
    1. Otherwise, changes in the school institution and tradition will be looked at as the arbitrary inventions of particular teachers; at the worst transitory fads, and at the best merely improvements in certain details—and this is the plane upon which it is too customary to consider school changes.

      I think this quote serves as counterpoint to the Connected Learning and Research Agenda quote on Page 14 (Connected learning recognizes a tension... ... competition for scarce opportunities.) The tension that the Agenda describes is an incomplete implementation of connected learning that some may consider as a fad in the eyes of Dewey. Again, to make sure that the Agenda policy makers can implement the alternative connected learning pathways, policymakers must take on Dewey's broader social view that we must undertake the learning paradigms that enhance student learning...

    1. Hola David,

      Contesto a tu comentario acá, pues estoy intentando depender de infraestructuras abiertas y libres para ello (no me gusta que los comentarios de mi blog estén en Disqus, pero no he tenido tiempo de migrarlos).

      Creo que para que la frase no sea lapidaría, lo primero que deben hacer las instituciones es abrir el código fuente de sus proyectos y las infraestructuras detrás, para que se puedan extender más allá de sus breves tiempos y miradas parciales, mucho más si se trata de instituciones académicas y/o financiadas con dineros públicos.

      Esto es algo que hemos logrado con suficiente consistencia en los últimos años, desde 2013. Hay algunas triquiñuelas, que hay que manerar respecto a la formualación del proyecto y las cláusulas contractuales, pero se puede hacer.

      Si se prioriza la apertura antes mencionada, tanto desde el planteamiento del proyecto, como de su ejecución contractual y tecnológica, creo que se logrará disminuir esto.

  25. Oct 2017
    1. inHabboHotelcontrolismodulatedwherenewactionsareconstantlybeingincorporated,aninventivepowerthatisworkingbyinclusion,asFoucaultillustrated,and‘whoseeffectwillbegreaterthanthesumofitscomponentparts’,asDeleuzeargued.
    2. EvgenyMorozov,forexample,arguesthatopennessisconfiguredbypoliticalchoicesandinrelationtospecific‘digitaltechnologies’andthatthosechoicesshouldbebothresistedandpoliticallydebated.Butlikethemisfiresofcriticswenotedattheendofchapter4,controlisgivenovertohowdigitaltechnologiesareconfiguredwithoutaccountingforhowpeopleactthroughtheInternet,theconventionstheyrepeat,iterate,cite,orresignify,andtheperformativeforceoftheirengagements
    3. Soifopennessisanimaginarythatcallsuponcitizensubjectstoparticipate,thenclosingsseektofurtherconfiguretheactionsthroughwhichparticipationisdone.Butthisisneversettled.Thetworemainintension.

      En la medida en que leo y tengo que combinar distintas tecnologías para hacerlo (Docear, Linux, Hypothesis), principalmente porque ellas no se integran bien entre sí, pienso en cómo Grafoscopio soportaría estas formas de lectura integrada. Quizás asumiendo el papel de Docear, implementando funcionalidades de mapas mentales, extendíendose hacia los mapas argumentativos y comunicándose con Hypothesis para leer la tabla de contenido, hacer lecturas anotadas y visualizaciones de datos de lo leído.

      Avanzar en esta línea me distraería de la escritura de la tesis misma, por lo que estas características serían implementadas y exploradas de manera orgánica, desde las que más fácilmente se integran al cotidiano (ejp: visualizar datos de lecturas), hacia las más demandantes/esotéricas (reemplazar Docear).

      La pregunta por cómo cambiamos los artefactos digitales que nos cambian ha permeado el cotidiano no sólo desde sus posibilidades teóricas, sino desde sus implementaciones prácticas, ahora que cuento con un artefacto prototipo para dichos cambios.

    4. JonathanFranzenaccusesAmazonofturningliterarycultureintoshallowformsofsocialengagementconsistingof‘yakkersandtweetersandbraggers’andTwitterasthe‘ultimateirresponsiblemedium.’[89]Thesemisfiresproduceatleasttwoinfelicities.First,inadvertentlytheyendupascribingmorepowertosuchcorporationsasAmazonorGooglethantheyactuallyhave.WhilemuchattentionisgiventotheautomatedandcomputationalaspectsofGoogle,theworkingsofthesearchengineareunstableandrelyonthedistributed,heterogeneous,anddynamicactionsofnotonlyalgorithmsbutalsoengineers,operators,webmasters,andusers.[90]Second,theyascribelesspowertopeoplethantheyactuallyhave.WhiletherulesofGoogle’salgorithmandfunctionssuchasautocompleteareatightlyheldsecret,Google’soperationisshapedandmediatedbythesearch-and-findbehavioursofcitizensubjects
    5. Ifwefocusoncallingsandtheactionstheymobilizeandhowtheymakeactspossible,wealsoshiftourfocusfromafreedomversuscontroldichotomytotheplayofobedience,submission,andsubversion.Thisisaplayconfiguredbytheforcesoflegality,performativity,andimaginarywhichcalluponsubjectstobeopenandresponsibleandthroughwhichmostlygovernmentalbutalsocommercialandnongovernmentalauthoritiestrytomaintaintheirgripontheconductofthosewhoaretheirsubjects.
    6. WeagreewithCohenontheseeminglyparadoxicalrelationbetweenimaginariesofopenness(copyleft,commons)andclosedness(copyright,privacy)andtheirconnectiontoinformationfreedomandcontrol.Sheisrighttoarguethatthisparadoxcannotberesolvedinlegaltheoryfortwomainreasons.First,freedomandcontrolarenotseparatebutrequireeachother,andhowthisplaysoutinvolvescalibrationwithinspecificsituatedpractices.[6]Second,andrelatedly,legaltheorydependsonaconceptionofabstractliberalautonomousselvesratherthansubjectsthatemergefromthecreative,embodied,andmaterialpracticesofsituatedandnetworkedindividuals
    1. In all my dreams before my helpless sight He plunges at me, guttering, choking, drowning.

      It is interesting that the speaker gives us a graphic image of the sound of death using the language "guttering," "choking," and "drowning," yet it is in contrast to a dream-like state. This creates slight confusion as to whether we are now in the speaker's dream or his reality. This could be a futile attempt in showing how easy it is to have the lines of reality and fantasy cross; making the soldier a prisoner to war and "The old Lie: Dulce et decorum est Pro patria mori."

    2. The old Lie: Dulce et decorum est Pro patria mori.

      We come back to this Latin phrase, “Dulce et decorum est Pro patria mori” yet again. After being exposed to the imagery of the cruelties produced by chemical warfare, the soldiers are forever altered like the state of being “drunk” or in "An ecstasy" with now having to constantly live in the aftermath of war. The allusion of this phrase creates a shattering of one owns belief and alters the idea of what it means to be patriotic; just as the gas alters the mental capacity of the individual fighting for their country.

      To quote W.B. Yeats), a poet during the 1920's post-war Europe, "Things fall apart; the centre cannot hold;" Our perception of war is forever changed through the lens and perspective of those used as human sacrifice.

    3. Drunk with fatigue

      War is not only difficult on the physical aspect of an individual; it is just as difficult on the emotional and mental capacity of a human. It is factual that WWI culminated an astronomical amount of casualties, destruction, and disablement. This reference to being “drunk” may help guide us into the notion that soldiers are not able to differentiate between fantasy and reality under the duress of mentioned “fatigue.” We can understand that the state of "drunk" alters your reality and can have dangerous repercussions; in this sense, the loss of one's mind or life. In the prior lines we have loss of physical functionalities of the human body with words such as “limped on,” “lame,” and “blind,” which coincides with the premature aging or physical deterioration of the soldiers.

    4. Dulce et Decorum Est

      This title was written in Latin and originally comes from the Roman poet Horace ode (III.2.13) which translates to “sweet and fitting it is to die for one’s country.” Horace’s ode paints patriotism and nationalism in a positive light as opposed to Owen’s bitter and stark realization of the cost of patriotism; paid for at the expense of the physical and mental deterioration of the soldier’s body during the First World War. As Harold Bloom suggest, Owen’s aim was “to attack the concept that sacrifice is sacred; he hoped to destroy the glamorized decency of war.” It is important to keep the title in mind in regards to what it means in the connotation of sweet verses sickly.

    1. Test first development, also known as Test Driven Development (TDD) is a development style in which you write the unit tests before you write the code to test.

      Actually, there's a lot of debate regarding this exact distinction. It's a question of whether Test First Programming is the same as Test Driven Development.

      The answers lie, however, into the intent of approach.

  26. Sep 2017
    1. This doctrine is the genuine fruit of the alliance between church and State

      While Jefferson is often accredited with being on of the primary figures supporting a separation of church and state, this line brings that into question. This seems to assert that the church and the government have a bond and are on the same side. In many ways, this is true; both religion and public education have similar goals in educating youth so that they can be productive and valued people in the future. The only difference being that these institutions have different definitions for what is "valued". In the Can a text be Ethical engagement class, it is frequently discussed how the Bible is used as evidence for many philosophical arguments. It is clear that the writers of the Rockfish Gap Report do respect the church and its basic beliefs because they freely admit to being in an alliance with the church. However, in spite of this, it must still be asked whether Jefferson and the other writers of this document were for or against the complete separation of church and state.

      Ryan Keane

    1. Swartz objected because transparency for transparency’s sake shifted labor from government entities to eve-ryday citizens, and the connection of transparency to accountability had been irrevo-cably altered: “the pipeline of leak to investigation to revelation to report to reform has broken down.” In their opinion, flows of information became detached from their uses to gain leverage against corruption.
    2. Crowdsourcing is often used as a metaphor for open data initiatives with emergent and vaguely defined goals of collaboration rather than specific ones (Brabham, 2013). Open data came increasinly referred to an ecosystem of production rather than accountability. In The New Ambiguity of Open Government, Harlan Yu and David Robinson (2012) note that open data signals a movement toward “politically neutral public sector disclosures that are easy to reuse, even if they have nothing to do with public accountability” (p. 178).
    3. The computational shift of open government data refers to the move from governments fulfilling information requests to automatically releasing data to fulfill a range of more speculative uses. While promises about the Internet (Morozov, 2013b) encouraged this move, so too did notions of open government from previous decades. For example, David Osborne’s notion of “reinventing government” involved hallmarks familiar to open data initiatives: “catalytic” public–private relationships, connecting with communi-ties, and decentralized collaboration (Osborne and Gaebler, 1992)
    4. On the level of municipal governments in particular, the movement from information to data focused on new uses that emphasized collaboration and utility over accountability (Yu and Robinson, 2012), signaling what I term the computational shift of openness.
    5. His stance was not cyberlibertarian (Barbrook and Cameron, 1996). As his successive refutation of transparency in this shift toward open data indicates (Lessig, 2009), he was quite concerned about efforts with software becoming distanced from tangible outcomes. Lessig might regarded as a hacker in the mold of Tim Jordan (2008), taking a progressive perspective on how we might regulate technologies—alongside laws, norms, and markets—that affect behavior.
    1. Computers that are “awake” and superhumanly intelligent may be developed. (To date, there has been much controversy as to whether we can create human equivalence in a machine.

      The author speculated of technology that could think for itself, in other words Artificial Intelligence. Surprisingly, these things already exists. For example the computer developed by IBM, "Deep Blue". This computer was created for the sole purpose of thinking for itself and playing chess. This computer even beat a word champion in chess, Garry Kasparov. Although, this computer could only think about one thing this still support the fact that super humanly intelligent computers could be developed.

    1. Everywhere we remain unfree and chained to technology, whether we passionately affirm or deny it. But we are delivered over to it in the worst possible way when we regard it as something neutral

      In today's society it is common to hear that we are chained to our smartphones, computers, and other personal electronics.The author is supporting this by saying that we are imprisoned by technology even if we like it or not. The author is also suggesting that if we resist technology our lives would be harder than it already is.

    1. The military superiority of states did not guarantee vic-tory over the much weaker NSAs and many have gone down in defeat. Van Creveld arguesthat twentieth- and twentieth-first-century armed forces“are helpless infighting off smallgroups of often ill trained, ill funded, ill equipped terrorists.

      Van Creveld highlights, if overstates, the difficulty states have in combating NSAs. *Historically, states used slaughter of innocents and scorched earth tactics to suppress revolts by NSAs... current weaponry as well as media technologies makes these sort of repressive tactics unfeasible in the post WWII period

  27. Jul 2017
    1. Creation can be viewed simply as the act of producing, or causing to exist.  Construction is the building or assembling of an infrastructure. Construction is equal parts inspiration and perspiration. Construction calls on creativity as well as persistence, flexibility, and revision. Construction asks our students and teachers to focus on the power and patience employed during work process…and not just the final resultant work product.
    1. For design this is a crucial factor, and a profound change. The designer of such ‘pages’ / sites is no longer the ‘author’ of an authoritative text, but is a provider of material arranged in relation to the assumed characteristics of the imagined audience. The power of the designer is to assemble materials which can become ‘information’ for the visitor, in arrangements which might correspond to the interests of the visitor. For the visitor however “Information is material which is selected by individuals to be transformed by them into knowledge to solve a problem in their life world” (Boeck, 2002)
    1. A dual-level theory of New Literacies conceptualizes literacy at low-ercase (new literacies) and uppercase (New Literacies) levels. Lowercase theories of new literacies explore several types of elements: (1) a set of new literacies required by a specific technology and its social practices such as text messaging (Lewis & Fabos, 2005); (2) a disciplinary base, such as the semiotics of multimodality in online media (Kress, 2003); or (3) a distinctive, conceptual approach such as new literacy studies (Street, 2003).
    1. When he read the Web address, http://pubweb.northwestern.edu/~abutz/di/intro.html, he assumed that the domain name “northwestern.edu” automatically meant it was a credible source. He did not understand that the “~” character, inserted after the domain name, should be read as a personal Web page and not an official document of the university.

      Even though I consider myself web literate enough to tell the difference between a personal and academic page, I honestly didn't know that the "~" denoted that. I really need to get better about thinking of web addresses and code as a language (which they are).

  28. Jun 2017
    1. supernatural

      I remember learning about the Vietnam war in history class, i thought the exact same thing, the amount of North Vietnamese soldiers was a measly 461,000 whereas the Americans and their allies had over 1 million troops (over twice as much) however, the North Vietnamese won! And moreover, with much less casualties. This led me to believe they definitely had some supernatural abilities or they were just extraordinarily smart with using tactics such as guerrilla fighting etc.

      This also reminds me of the historic Khalsa battles such as the battle of Mukatsar in which Maharaj Sri Guru Gobind Singh Jee only had an army of around 40 (Chaalee Mukte along with the panj piaare and their two Sahibzaade - i think), thus roughly an army of 48. Yet, Wazir Khan had an army of well over 100,000 yet around It was said in the Zafarnama that each Sikh probably killed 100's yet 11 Sikhs, and Guru Gobind Singh jee Maharaj remained physically alive - thus, the Mughal forces were not successful in their aim

    1. CINNA. I am not Cinna the conspirator. FOURTH CITIZEN. It is no matter, his name’s Cinna; pluck but his name out of his heart, and turn him going.

      In this act, mistaken identity is used to break tension. Apart from the obvious comedic relief this scene adds to the ever mounting tension and drama in the play, this scene also indicates the disintegration of society and the lack of social restraints of the general public after Caesar’s death.

      In this scene, the plebeians initially surround Cinna the poet after confusing him with Cinna the conspirator. Even when Cinna repeatedly tells them “I am not Cinna the conspirator”, the citizens, in their bloodthirsty rampage, still decide to kill him, stating that “It is no matter, his name’s Cinna”. This degradation of social standards and the crumbling of the social foundations of Ancient Rome bolster the image of the plebeians as ‘sheep’ to be swayed and controlled by the ruling classes, and solidifies their position in the play.

      It is also no coincidence that Shakespeare made Cinna a poet. In the citizens’ interrogation of Cinna, Cinna not only speaks for himself, but as a poet and as a projection of those in scholarly fields and free speech as a whole. With this, Shakespeare compels the audience to question whom poets and those who provide information to the public are accountable to, and whether free speech is more important than a stable and safe society.

  29. May 2017
  30. Apr 2017
    1. a rebellion a rebellion

      But rebellions themselves are dependent on viewpoint, as well. What might be called a "rebellion" by the rebels if they succeed might also be called a riot by the dominant forces should the rebellion fail.

      Rebellion definition: an act of violent or open resistance to an established government or ruler.

      Riot definition: a violent disturbance of the peace by a crowd.

  31. Mar 2017
    1. f science deals with the abstract and the universal, rhetoric is near the other end, dealing in significant part with the particular and the con-crete.

      I was surprised by this distinction; I tend to think of science as dealing with the concrete and rhetoric as dealing more often with the abstract. I wonder if Weaver's distinction was more common in his time than now.

  32. Feb 2017
  33. Jan 2017
    1. To me, that sense of complete commensurability between form and content at the level of the individual sentence is really what writing is all about.

      Power's sentence-level interest: form and content

  34. Oct 2016
  35. Aug 2016
    1. From “Bow Down” come “Rise Up,”

      Still relevant to this day. They say, 'the system is broken' but I say it's not, it was designed like that on purpose..

  36. Jun 2016
    1. . It follows then that the machinery of the institution does not grow up to accommodate needs that are independently perceived but that, rather, the institutional machinery comes first and the needs then follow, as do the ways of meeting them. In short, the work to be done is not what the institution responds to but what it create

      On the creative nature of literary criticism

    2. t "[ilf Northrop Frye should write an essay attacking archetypal criticism, the article would by definition be of much greater significance than an article by another scholar attack- ing the same approach" (Schaefer 5). The reason, of course, is that the approach is not something in- dependent of what Northrop Frye has previously said about it; indeed, in large part archetypal criticism is what Northrop Frye has said about it, and therefore anything he now says about it is not so much to be measured against an independent truth as it is to be regarded, at least potentially, as a new pronouncement of what the truth will hereafter be said to be

      author-function at work: Frye is an author-concept and his work is a coherent whole--an Oeuvre.

      This is absolutely fine for literary criticism and the humanities. The same is in practice true of the sciences--what Steven Hawking says about physics is more interesting than other people, especially if he reverses his previous claims. But in contrast to Frye, where a reversal is a change in the discursive practice (cf. Foucault), in the case of science, it should not be the case that hearing a "great man" reverse himself is more significant than hearing an unknown post-doc. The reversal should be evidence-based.

  37. screen.oxfordjournals.org screen.oxfordjournals.org
    1. The initiation of a discursive practice,unlike the founding of a science, overshadows and is necessarilydetached from its later developments and transformations. As aconsequence, we define the theoretical validity of a statement withrespect to the work of the initiator, whereas in the case of Galileoor Newton, it is based on the structural and intrinsic norms estab-lished in cosmology or physics. Stated schematically, the work ofthese initiators is not situated in relation to a science or in thespace it defines; rather, it is science or discursive practice thatrelate to their works as the primary points of reference.

      On the difference between scientific and discursive schools. I don't find it convincing.