19 Matching Annotations
  1. Nov 2020
    1. At the same time, use of the web is now ubiquitous,and ”Google” is a verb. With the advent of search en-gines, users have learned to find data by describing whatthey want (e.g., various characteristics of a photo) insteadof where it lives (i.e., the full pathname of the photo inthe filesystem). This can be seen in the popularity ofsearch as a modern desktop paradigm in such products asWindows Desktop Search (WDS) [26]; MacOS X Spot-light [21], which fully integrates search with the Mac-intosh journaled HFS+ file system [7]; and the variousdesktop search engines for Linux [4, 27]. Indeed, MacOS X in particular goes one step further and exports APIsto developers allowing applications to directly access themeta-data store and content index.

      With the advent of search engines, search as a paradigm for retrieving files has become ubiquitous.

    1. The real heart of the matter of selection, however, goes deeper than a lag in the adoption of mechanisms by libraries, or a lack of development of devices for their use. Our ineptitude in getting at the record is largely caused by the artificiality of systems of indexing. When data of any sort are placed in storage, they are filed alphabetically or numerically, and information is found (when it is) by tracing it down from subclass to subclass. It can be in only one place, unless duplicates are used; one has to have rules as to which path will locate it, and the rules are cumbersome. Having found one item, moreover, one has to emerge from the system and re-enter on a new path.

      Bush emphasises the importance of retrieval in the storage of information. He talks about technical limitations, but in this paragraph he stresses that retrieval is made more difficult by the "artificiality of systems of indexing", in other words, our default file-cabinet metaphor for storing information.

      Information in such a hierarchical architecture is found by descending down into the hierarchy, and back up again. Moreover, the information we're looking for can only be in one place at a time (unless we introduce duplicates).

      Having found our item of interest, we need to ascend back up the hierarchy to make our next descent.

    2. So much for the manipulation of ideas and their insertion into the record. Thus far we seem to be worse off than before—for we can enormously extend the record; yet even in its present bulk we can hardly consult it. This is a much larger matter than merely the extraction of data for the purposes of scientific research; it involves the entire process by which man profits by his inheritance of acquired knowledge. The prime action of use is selection, and here we are halting indeed. There may be millions of fine thoughts, and the account of the experience on which they are based, all encased within stone walls of acceptable architectural form; but if the scholar can get at only one a week by diligent search, his syntheses are not likely to keep up with the current scene.

      Retrieval is the key activity we're interested in. Storage only matters in as much as we can retrieve effectively. At the time of writing (1945) large amounts of information could be stored (extend the record), but consulting that record was still difficult.

    3. A record if it is to be useful to science, must be continuously extended, it must be stored, and above all it must be consulted.

      Bush emphasises the need for notes to not only be stored, but also to be queried (consulted).

  2. Aug 2019
    1. Retrieval practice boosts learning by pulling information out of students’ heads (by responding to a brief writing prompt, for example), rather than cramming information into their heads (by lecturing at students, for example). In the classroom, retrieval practice can take many forms, including a quick no-stakes quiz. When students are asked to retrieve new information, they don’t just show what they know, they solidify and expand it. Feedback boosts learning by revealing to students what they know and what they don’t know. At the same time, this increases students’ metacognition — their understanding about their own learning progress. Spaced practice boosts learning by spreading lessons and retrieval opportunities out over time so that new knowledge and skills are not crammed in all at once. By returning to content every so often, students’ knowledge has time to be consolidated and then refreshed. Interleaving — or practicing a mix of skills (such as doing addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division problems all in one sitting) — boosts learning by encouraging connections between and discrimination among closely related topics. Interleaving sometimes slows students’ initial learning of a concept, but it leads to greater retention and learning over time.

      How can I build this into my curriculum?

  3. Jul 2019
    1. In 1996 and 1998, a pair of workshops at the University of Glasgow on information retrieval and human–computer interaction sought to address the overlap between these two fields. Marchionini notes the impact of the World Wide Web and the sudden increase in information literacy – changes that were only embryonic in the late 1990s.

      it took a half a century for these disciplines to discern their complementarity!

  4. Sep 2015
    1. Warner's view is related to what might be termed a hermeneutical approach to searching (cf. Boell & Cecez-Kecmanovic, 2010) as opposed to a positivist approach. The positivist view implies that searching can be done in a formal way (algorithmic) that retrieves relevant knowledge without bias in the search (and this is the assumption behind evidence-based practice). The hermeneutic approach is based on the assumption that there is a constant reinterpretation of the relevant literature, implying the need for great flexibility in search criteria and a great level of iteration in search processes—and, most important, an understanding of what is going on during the search.

      hermeneutical approach versus positivist approach

    2. A fourth level of KO in Boolean systems is generated by the searcher
    3. A third level of KO in classical databases consists of the information retrieval thesaurus,19 ontologies, and other kinds of controlled vocabulary constructed by information specialists.
    4. Another level of KO is the bibliographical record and its organization into fields (and the corresponding organization of data in linear and inverted files). Such records vary from database to database and from host to host.
    5. The selection of material to the bibliography constitutes the first and most basic level of KO. Because the meaning of terms is implicitly understood in this disciplinary context and to the extent that classification and indexing is based on the principle of “literary warrant,” this selection influences the developments of thesauri and ontologies, which may thus be understood as a higher level of KO.
    6. Given the Boolean model, the goal for KO can be understood as improving bibliographical records in ways which improve searchers' selection power.

      drawing the connection between information retrieval and the bibliographic universe and to bibliographic control

    7. In the Boolean model, a great range of strategies are available to increase “recall” and “precision” (sometimes termed “recall devices” and “precision devices”). To utilize such devices in optimal ways, the user has to know about the databases, search facilities, documents, genres, languages, paradigms, and so on, in which he or she is searching. This should be part of what is often termed information literacy.

      drawing the connection to information literacy

    8. The problem is not that best-match systems are being developed, but that an ideological tendency to make things “user friendly” (and the market bigger) tends to hurt the development of systems aimed at increasing the selection power of users and search experts.
    9. But much of the popularity of contemporary search engines may also be attributed to the easy pickings afforded by the first generation of Internet full-text based systems (owing to the cheap cost of digital storage capacity after 1990): no doubt it is good to have all text on the web indexed and made searchable—and often with free access. However, when the easy pickings have been utilized, more complex strategies (and more humanistic approaches) may be needed to make further progress.

      relate 'easy pickings' to the 'path of least resistance' and the need for 'more complex search strategies' to the need to counter 'easy pickings' behavior as a professional

    10. Again, though, if maximum recall is required, it is impossible in ranked retrieval to know what is omitted by new queries, whereas Boolean queries allow the user to control and modify the search until a satisfactory result has been achieved and they therefore also seem better suited to iterative searches.
    11. For a researcher conducting human studies, writing a dissertation, finding information pertinent to patient care, or conducting an in-depth literature review, Google Scholar does not appear to be a replacement for PubMed, though it may serve effectively as an adjunct resource to complement databases with more fully developed searching features.
    12. To understand the possibilities of Boolean search when used in its most advanced ways, it is necessary to know about bibliographical records in online databases,
    13. As previously mentioned, the medical domain is an exception to the general trend that the study of the optimization of document searching strategies has suffered in information science.