11 Matching Annotations
  1. Sep 2021
  2. Aug 2021
    1. I used to think copying was unseemly before one of my writing professors in college filled me in on the big, unkept secret. He handed us a small trove of writing samples from folks like Joan Didion, John McPhee, Barbara Kingsolver, and Ernest Hemingway. Essentially a Who's Who of New Yorker essayists. We had to copy out their work, then write our own pieces using the copied sentences as 'templates.'

      This general thought goes back to antiquity (and possibly earlier). In writing about classic rhetoric Seneca the Younger wrote in Epistulae morales

      "We should follow, men say, the example of the bees, who flit about and cull the flowers that are suitable for producing honey, and then arrange and assort in their cells all that they have brought in; these bees, as our Vergil says, 'pack close the flowering honey | And swell their cells with nectar sweet.' "

      (Sound a bit like he's one of the original digital gardeners, but in an analog world?)

      He's essentially saying, read the best, take their thoughts and ideas, consume them, make them your own."

      Generations later in ~430 CE, Macrobius in his Saturnalia repeated the same idea and even analogy (he assuredly read Seneca, though he obviously didn't acknowledge him):

      "You should not count it a fault if I shall set out the borrowings from a miscellaneous reading in the authors' own words... sometimes set out plainly in my own words and sometimes faithfully recorded in the actual words of the old writers... We ought in some sort to imitate bees; and just as they, in their wandering to and fro, sip the flowers, then arrange their spoil and distribute it among the honeycombs, and transform the various juices to a single flavor by some mixing with them a property of their own being, so I too shall put into writing all that I have acquired in the varied course of my reading... For not only does arrangement help the memory, but the actual process of arrangement, accompanied by a kind of mental fermentation which serves to season the whole, blends the diverse extracts to make a single flavor; with the result that, even if the sources are evident, what we get in the end is still something clearly different from those known sources."

    1. I should perhaps also note that I try, whenever possible, not to collect raw quotes or information simply copied from the Internet or from books, but to write excerpts or summaries in my own words on the basis of my reading. Luhmann called this "reformulating writing" and argued that such an approach is most important for one's own intellectual life. But this idea is not a new discovery Luhmann made. In fact, the idea that excerpts should be used to keep on's research goes back to at least the Renaissance when people first began to make extensive excerpts on paper.

      This is also related to the ideas of invention as well as the analogy of the bee in relation to commonplaces. Link this to the bee analogy of Seneca the Younger and Macrobius in Saturnalia.

  3. Jul 2021
  4. Jun 2021
  5. Feb 2021
  6. Mar 2019
    1. Training Older Adults To Use New Technology

      This article, published in the Journals of Gerontology, discusses a study that focused on teaching older adults to use technology. This is often discussed in a practical sense, with many how-to's. This article, however, discusses the theory behind gerontological learning. Older adults don't generally learn the same way younger adults do. Therefore, it is important to provide them with practice that shows tasks have continuity, to ensure the important task components are focused on strongly, and to consider whether the learning goals are appropriate for the learner. Representative design is addressed here. This is the first time I've heard of representative design. I teach many people over the age of 60 to use technology, so it is important for me to know the theory that will help them learn best. Interestingly,this article mentioned that performance should be assessed based on a comparison of the older adult's environment. I wish I could use that more in my work, but it's a young person's world now. 9/10

  7. Nov 2018
    1. Learning a Map of Environment: The Role of Visuo-Spatial Abilities inYoung and Older Adults

      This study focused on the difference in visuo-spatial relations between younger adults and older adults. The purpose was tol determine the effect of aging on visuo-spatial relations.<br> Both groups performed the same tasks using a simplified map for orientation, pointing out locations, and recreating the map. The results indicated that older adults successfully completed the tasks at a lower rate and that males successfully completed tasks more that women. The researches highly recommended other duplicate the study to determine if the results can be generalized and consistent. This study is a valuable indication of the changing needs of adult learners due to aging. Rating: 8/10

  8. Sep 2018
    1. Snapchat says it reaches 28.5 to 30 million 18-24 year old users in the U.S. According to a recent survey of Instagram users, approximately 32 percent of its 1 billion-strong user base is 18-24.

      Snapchat reaches around 30 million 18-24 year old users; important ages that are more recently able to vote and take political action. Instagram and snapchat are most popular amongst younger users.