29 Matching Annotations
  1. Aug 2019
    1. the Cooperative Research and Development Agreement,

      CRADA. Es una licencia simple que firma el NIST de US que regula que tipo de cosas pone cada institucion que colabora y de quien seria despues la propiedad industrial y las licencias. ES MUY ABIERTA

    2. Transforming a discovery made in the lab to something you can use is what government calls technology transfer.

      TT definition: Transforming descovery in something you can use

  2. Sep 2018
    1. ntegrated, dynamic, spatially explicit computer modelling isincreasingly being used as a tool to address the complexity ofinteractions that lead to ecosystem services production

      Modelos para predecir la producción de los servicios ecosistemicos

      Serìa interesante evaluar todos los modelos existentes y hacerlos correr con datos chilenos de manera de ajustarlos lo mas posible a nuestras condiciones. Esta podría ser una manera de extender el valor de lo se que logre en con el proyecto GES a humedales no considerados y tambien un manera de hacerse una idea de las brechas existentes hoy respecto a información

    2. If we are tosucceed at moving beyond the current model of ‘growth at allcosts’ to embrace the idea of a ‘wellbeing economy’, we need a dif-ferent approach to data collection and modelling that is adaptable,evolutionary, and integrated (Fioramonti, 2017a)

      Como colectamos datos hoy determina nuestra visión de crecer a toda costa. Se debe involucrar a ciudadanos y ampliar el tipo y cantidad de registros

    3. e need modelling to synthesize and quantify our understand-ing of ES and to understand dynamic, non-linear, spatially explicittrade-offs as part of the larger social-ecological systems(Fioramonti, 2017b).

      Good modeling to test different scenarios is a must. Building a model requires the participation of most or all stakeholders

    4. ractical applicationsare still limited. Limiting factors include: (1) inconsistentapproaches to ecosystem service modelling, assessment and valu-ation; (2) the expense of applying sophisticated enough methodsto adequately answer the questions; (3) the lack of appropriateinstitutional frameworks; and (4) mistrust or misunderstandingof the science

      Limitaciones a los conceptos de servicios ecosistemicos y capital natural

      1. modelamiento poco consistente respecto a los servicios ecosistemicos, beneficios y valorizacion
      2. El costo de aplicar bine metodos sofisticados para de verdad evaluar y conocer los servicios ecosistemicos
      3. Falta de parametros institucionales y regulatorios adecuados
      4. Desconfianza y falta de conocimiento del conocimiento científico
    5. A few years ago, DowChemical established a $10 million collaboration with The NatureConservatory (TNC) to tally up the ecosystem costs and benefitsof every business decision (Walsh, 2011; Molnar andKubiszewski, 2012). Such collaboration will provide a significantaddition to ecosystem services valuation knowledge andtechniques.Another example is TruCos

      HAY dos ejemplos de empresas grandes que ahora valorizan los costos y beneficios ambientales de todas sus decisiones de negocios

    6. One solution is common investmentand common use. Common asset trusts (CATs) are one institutionthat can assign property rights to the commons on behalf of thecommunity, using trustees as protectors of the asset (Barneset al., 2008; Farley et al., 2015).

      Hay que estudiar esto. Es un método de propiedad de tierras que se le asignan a administradores privados para uso de comunidades.

    7. Systems of payment for ecosystem services (PES) and commonasset trusts can be effective elements in these institutions (Sattlerand Matzdorf, 2013).

      PES pagos por servicios ecosistemicos prestados por la tierra de un privado.

    8. One advantage of this approach is that it can potentially incorpo-rate both perceived and non-perceived benefits in a dynamic waythat allows for the evaluation of a range of policy scenarios

      La gracia es que estos modelos permiten tener en cuenta beneficios que no son obvios, en forma dinámica y evaluar escenarios de política publica

    9. But recognizing the importance of information does not obviatethe limitations of human perception-centered valuation

      Aunque la comunicación es absolutamente relevante para asegurar la valorizacion de los ecosistemas, aunque así el ser humano tiene limitaciones propias para valorizar intangibles que dependen exclusivamente en su percepción

    10. the anal-ysis shows that the total value of ecosystem services is consider-able and ranges between 490 $/ha/year for the total bundle ofecosystem services that can potentially be provided by an ‘average’hectare of open oceans to almost 350,000 $/ha/year for the poten-tial services of an ‘average’ hectare of coral reefs.

      Existe un modelo que calcula el valor para una unidad e ecosistema y luego ese valor se extrapola a otros considerados similares y se asume que cada sistema es completamente homogéneo

    11. tated preference methods rely on individuals’ responses tohypothetical scenarios involving ecosystem services and includecontingent valuation and structured choice experiments(Fioramonti, 2014). Contingent valuation

      Otro metodo consiste en detallar las mejoras que un ecosistema sufre con ciertas intervenciones y ver cuanto esta dispuesto a pagar un individuo antes y después

    12. Other revealedpreference methods include replacement costs or hedonic or sha-dow pricing, which infer ecosystem service values from closelylinked, parallel markets, like real estate.

      Para calculus economics de valor. Uno de los métodos usados es calcular el valor inmobiliario de las propiedades que se rodean de ecosistemas mas complejos. Un ejemplo es el valor estimado que produce el Central Park (70 billion/hectare pero year)

    13. hree types of value for ESand NC, based on the three sub-goals for sustainable wellbeing firstarticulated byDaly (1992)as (1) sustainable scale; (2) fair distribu-tion; and (3) efficient allocation. Conventional economic ‘willingness-to-pay” approaches are focused on the third of these goalsusing current individual preferences. But valuation with respectto the fairness and sustainability goals need very differentapproaches that are more in line with community or societalpreferences and whole system sustainability issues

      Para asignar valor economico a us ecosistema, se puede usar tres acercamientos:

      1. eficiencia/ basado en preferencias individuales (eficiencia económica)
      2. Justicia/basado en preferencias de comunidades (justicia social)
      3. Sustentabilidad/ basado en preferencias del sistema completo (sustentabilidade del ecosistema como un todo)
    14. group dimensions on the valuator side and incorpo-rate the dynamics of natural capital and ecosystem services at mul-tiple geographical and temporal scales

      Es importante considerar que para proponer inversiones de conducentes a conservación se debe explicar que el valor cambia con el tiempo y con el cambio en el estado del ecosistema de forma que puede ser lineal o no. Por ejemplo, un humedal en estado básala, sin malos olores con pocas aves puede ser valorizado en x y si tiene malos olores puede rápidamente caer a cero su valor. En el esfuerzo de visibilizar y poner en valor los humedales se debe incorporar un calculo actualizado del valor a medida que el lugar pierde o gana valor

    15. identifying and mappingand modeling the properties

      La metodologia de valorizacion debiera considerar, caracterización, mapeo y modelamiento con variable de tiempo incluida

    16. Thereis therefore much additional work that needs to be done in valuingES and NC, in individual, social, community, and group contexts.Conventional approaches can only get us part of the way

      Idea importante: Para valorizar un ecosistema, es muy importante proveer información relevante a individuos, comunidades y sistema completo, porque sino las preferencias y evaluación de valor son distorsionadas. "Nosotros como individuos normalmente no espasmo al tanto de todos los beneficios que nos proveen los ecosistemas"

    17. On the otherhand, appreciation may be the first step in what is called an eco-nomic valuation, when options are traded off and decisions on allo-cation of other (often financial) resources are made

      Appreciation might be the first step for economical valuation. This apply also for science in general

    18. Our point is that this perspective is itself an implicit valuation. Itis simply arguing that nature is more valuable than any possiblealternative. While in many cases this may be true, society hasmade decisions that imply it is not always the case (Russell-Smith et al., 2015). Every time we build homes, schools, and hospi-tals, which are essential for human wellbeing, we appropriateecosystems and impact our natural capital. Thus, being more expli-cit about the value of ES and NC can help society make better deci-sions in the many cases in which trade-offs exist

      Very important. If we do not make an effort to value ecosystems with the argument that nature should be always protected, What we are saying is that nature has a higher value than enything else. Even when this might sound convincing, obviously we as society or individuals do not think so: We built houses and hospitals with the agreement of everyone and the obvious consequence of running over nature.

    19. Habitat Servicesor refugia service (as it was called inCostanza, 1997)tohighlight the importance of ecosystems to provide habitatfor migratory species (e.g., as nurseries) and gene-pool ‘‘pro-tectors” (e.g., natural habitats allowing natural selection pro-cesses to maintain the vitality of the gene pool)

      uno de los beneficios de los ecosistemas es el proveer hábitat a especies y espacio físico para proteger polis genéticos que aseguren variabilidad en poblaciones

    20. forms of capital thatdorequire human agency to build and main-tain. These include: (1) built or manufactured capital; (2) humancapital; and (3) social or cultural capital

      Natural Capital includes other three capitals form human origins: Infrastructure or capital manufactured by humans, human capital=people, and social and cultural capital

    21. cosystem pro-cesses and functions describe biophysical relationships that existregardless of whether or not humans benefit. By contrast, ecosys-tem services are those processes and functions that benefit peo-ple2, consciously or un-consciously, directly or indirectly

      Difference between ecosystem processes and ecosystem services. Essentially, ecosystem services are those ecosystem outputs that contribute to human wellbeing

    22. Ecosystem services’ (ES) are the ecological characteristics, func-tions, or processes thatdirectly or indirectlycontribute to humanwellbeing: that is, the benefits that people derive from functioningecosystems

      Definition of Ecosystem services

    23. Twenty years of ecosystem services: How far have we come and how fardo we still need to go?

      A review of seminal work by Constanza et al about the value of ecosystem services

    24. an article inNatureby a group of ecologists and economists on the value of theworld’s ecosystem services

      Nature article from 1997. Initiated and explosion of research about the value of ecosystems

    25. it points to the weakness ofthe mainstream economic approaches to valuation, growth, and development. It concludes that the sub-stantial contributions of ecosystem services to the sustainable wellbeing of humans and the rest of natureshould be at the core of the fundamental change needed in economic theory and practice

      Esencially, authors of the original papers points to the weakness of the economic analysisi

    1. Modeling the dynamics of the integrated earth system and the value of global ecosystem services using the GUMBO modelAuthor links open overlay panelRoelofBoumansa1RobertCostanzaa1JoshuaFarleya1

      Modelo que permite calcular el valor de los servicios ecosistemicos. Modelo con múltiples variables

  3. Feb 2018
    1. strategy to diminish gender bias in the peer review process. Suggesting female and young scientist when a male reviewer declines invitation to review.