461 Matching Annotations
  1. Feb 2016
    1. As news of the Spanish conquest spread, wealth-hungry Spaniards poured into the New World seeking land and gold and titles
    1. Wave after wave she unleashed, until much of the land was underwater and many of the people were drowned.

      Olokun seems very bitter and full of rage not caring about how many other she would kill

    1. A long time ago human beings lived high up in what is now called heaven.

      The humans arrived in the world by coming from heaven.

    2. When the boys had grown to man’s estate, they decided that it was necessary for them to increase the size of their island,

      The twins created the world to become larger and modified the animals and plant life.

    3. After much discussion the toad was finally persuaded to dive to the bottom of the waters in search of soil. Bravely making the attempt, he succeeded in bringing up soil from the depths of the sea. This was carefully spread over the carapace of the Turtle, and at once both began to grow in size and depth.

      The animals helped the women when she came through the hole. The also helped prepare the earth for the women to live there.

  2. Jan 2016
    1. Eshu demanded sacrifice be made to Obatala and himself before he would deliver the message. The people sacrificed some goats, and Eshu returned to the sky.  
    2. The next day he realized what he had done, and swore never to drink again, and to take care of those who were deformed, thus becoming Protector of the Deformed.  
    3. He did as he was told, whereupon the hen landing on the sand began scratching and scattering it about
    4. In the beginning, there was only the sky above, water and marshland below. The chief god Olorun ruled the sky, and the goddess Olokun ruled what was below. Obatala, another god, reflected upon this situation, then went to Olorun for permission to create dry land for all kinds of living creatures to inhabit

      So at the beginning was Africa was land of gods

    1. So he shook violently the various animals – the bears, deer, and turkeys – causing them to become small at once, a characteristic which attached itself to their descendants
    2. When the boys had grown to man’s estate, they decided that it was necessary for them to increase the size of their island, so they agreed to start out together, afterward separating to create forests and lakes and other things.
    3. When these were wearied they asked, "Who will volunteer to care for this woman?" The great Turtle then took her, and when he got tired of holding her, he in turn asked who would take his place. At last the question arose as to what they should do to provide her with a permanent resting place in this world.
    4. It so happened that this chief’s daughter was taken very ill with a strange affection. All the people were very anxious as to the outcome of her illness. Every known remedy was tried in an attempt to cure her, but none had any effect.

      she was very ill.

    1. And God said, Let us make man in our image, 1 Cor. 11.7 after our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth. 27  So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them

      God made the human a likeness and give him dominion over all animal

    2. And God set them in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth, 18  and to rule over the day and over the night, and to divide the light from the darkness: and God saw that it was good
    3. In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.

      God did everthing

    1. In the American Southwest sometime between the years 900 and 1300 ancient Puebloan peoples built a large civilization sustained by advanced irrigation and a vast trading network linking goods from as far as Central Mexico and the Mississippi River
    2. Several expansive civilizations in the Midwest and Southwest demonstrated the potential for large-scale Indian civilizations.
    3. But native populations adapted: they fished, hunted small mammals, and gathered nuts and berries.

      The native adapted fast or how many years past?

    4. Agriculture arose sometime between nine- and five-thousand years ago, almost simultaneously in the Eastern and Western Hemispheres. Mesoamericans in modern-day Mexico and Central America first domesticated maize and and developed perhaps the hemisphere’s first settled population around 1,200 BCE.

      How did they get the maize?

    5. Nomadic hunter-gatherers, they traveled in small bands following megafauna–enormous mammals that included mastodons and giant horses and bison–into the frozen Beringian tundra at the edge of North America.

      The native american descend from Asia?

    6. Hunters across the hemisphere preyed on plentiful game and natural foods and the population boomed
  3. Dec 2015
    1. The effects of slavery endured long after emancipation.

      The effects of slavery had been ingrained too deep for it to get ineffective that soon.

    2. Yet the end of legal slavery did not mean the end of racial injustice.

      Despite the legal end of slavery, blacks were still not treated as equals by white.

    3. Lincoln won twenty-two states, and McClellan only managed to carry three: New Jersey, Delaware, and Kentucky.19

      What a huge difference!

    4. In a time when the average woman gave birth to eight to ten children in her lifetime,

      That's too many kids for one woman to give birth to!

    5. In the North, the conditions in hospitals were somewhat superior. 

      thanks to the women!

    6. It is a common misconception that amputation was accompanied without anesthesia and against a patient’s wishes.
    7. Around 1862 both armies began to dig latrines rather than rely upon the local waterways.

      Lesson learnt the hard way!

    8. Tuberculosis, measles, rheumatism, typhoid, malaria, and smallpox spread almost unchecked among the armies.
    9. arrested all rebellious women as prostitutes.

      Such a harsh and demeaning term to be used for women who were fighting for their country.

    10. The working class citizens of New York felt especially angered as wealthy New Yorkers paid $300 for substitutes, sparing themselves from the hardships of war.

      The rich always get away for everything that's probably the reason why they live for so long.

    11. The Gettysburg Campaign was Lee’s final northern incursion and the Battle of Gettysburg remains the bloodiest battle of the war, and in American history, with 51,000 casualties.
    12. There was never any doubt that black laborers and camp servants were property.

      Black were not even considered living beings since a living being can never be referred to as one's "property".

    13. Gooding argued that, because he and his brethren were born in the United States and selflessly left their private lives and to enter the army, they should be treated “as American SOLDIERS, not as menial hirelings.
    14. African American soldiers in the Union army endured rampant discrimination and earned less pay than white soldiers, while also facing the possibility of being murdered or sold into slavery if captured by Confederate forces.

      African Americans never really felt the true sense of freedom!

    15. In order to avoid the issue of the slaves’ freedom, Butler reasoned that runaway slaves were “contraband of war,” and he had as much a right to seize them as he did to seize enemy horses or cannons

      The extreme measures that were taken in desperation of not letting the eradication of slavery occur.

    16. . War meant the possibility of disruption to their cotton produced on the backs of slave labor, and disruption could have catastrophic ramifications in commercial and financial markets abroad.
    17. “I think to lose Kentucky is nearly the same as to lose the whole game.

      Tells the significance of winning over Kentucky.

    18. . Like an anaconda snake, they planned to surround and squeeze the Confederacy.

      Perfect analogy.

    19. Committee of Thirteen

      It was a committee of thirteen individuals that was formed to investigate the possibility of a "plan of adjustment" that might solve the growing secession crisis.

    20. sine qua non

      something that was absolutely needed. In this case it was SLAVERY.

    21. while doing little else to address the issues tearing the country apart.

      The issues that needed the utmost attention were being ignored.

    22. the Republicans were hardly unified around a single candidate themselves

      Finding unity among human race has always been a rare incidence.

    23. The nation’s oldest party had split over differences in policy toward slavery.

      One party wanted to eradicate slavery while the one wanted to keep it going.

    24. The American Civil War, the bloodiest in the nation’s history, resulted in approximately 750,000 deaths.1 The war touched the life of nearly every American as military mobilization reached levels never seen before or sinc
    1. The first and most ominous sign of a coming sectional storm occurred over debates surrounding the admission of the State of Missouri in 1821.
    2. Abraham Lincoln won the 1860 contest on November 6, gaining just 40% of the popular vote and not a single southern vote in the Electoral College.
    3. It was Kansas that at last proved to many northerners that the sectional crisis would not go away unless slavery also went away.

      Finally they understood the main root of the problem.

    4. “Bleeding Kansas” was the first place to demonstrate that the sectional crisis could easily, and in fact already was, exploding into a full-blown national crisis.
    5. the anti-immigrant movement simply could not capture the nation’s attention in the ways the antislavery movement already had.
    6. The year 1855 nearly derailed the northern antislavery coalition
    7. In the words of Amos Adams Lawrence, “We went to bed one night old-fashioned, conservative, compromise Union Whigs & woke up stark mad Abolitionists.”13

      shows that stark change of events

    8. Ordinary Americans in the North increasingly resisted what they believed to be a pro-slavery federal government on their own terms.
    9. One measure of the popularity of antislavery ideas came in 1852 when Harriet Beecher Stowe published her bestselling antislavery novel, Uncle Tom’s Cabin.

      Antislavery was becoming more and more popular.

    10. The 1852 Presidential election gave the Whigs their most stunning defeat and effectively ended their existence as a national political party.

      I am glad that Whig's party got wiped out.

    11. The Fugitive Slave Act created the foundation for a massive expansion of federal power, including an alarming increase in the nation’s policing powers
    12. By 1850, California wanted admission as a free state.
    13. a women’s rights movement also got underway in July at Seneca Falls, New York

      At last!

    14. Left unrepresented, antislavery Free Soil leaders swung into action.

      Since they were not left any other choice.

    15. Douglass grew up, like many enslaved people, barely having known his own mother or date of birth

      How unfortunate could it be to not know one's mother and date of birth.

    16. But the Liberty Party also shunned women’s participation in the movement, and distanced themselves from visions of true racial egalitarianism.

      As if antislavery movement was not big of a deal to handle.

    17. whites never intended them to be citizens of the United States

      Blacks are being referred to as "them"

    18. Even seemingly simple and straightforward phrases like “All Men Are Created Equal” were hotly contested all over again

      Whites did not think of blacks as their equal. What a shame!

    19. laws tried to keep blacks out of the West entirely.

      Law should never cast out a certain group of people based on their skin color!

    20. Kentucky and Tennessee emerged as slave states, while free states Ohio, Indiana (1816) and Illinois (1818) gained admission along the river’s northern banks.
    21. Thomas Jefferson, believed that slavery was a temporary institution and would soon die ou

      Slavery was never built as a temporary institution.

    22. Vermont coming into the Union as a free state, and Kentucky coming in as a slave state
    23. communities that would continually reignite the antislavery struggle.

      These were former enslaved Africans.

    24. English political theorists, in particular, began to re-think natural law justifications for slavery.

      How inhuman is it for a certain group of humans to try to think of a natural law to justify their repulsive act of enslaving other humans?

    25. They generated tremendous wealth for the British crown

      The enslaved workers

    26. Southerners feared that without slavery’s expansion, the abolitionist faction would come to dominate national politics and an increasingly dense population of slaves would lead to bloody insurrection and race war.

      Northerners and Southerners had the same motive despite the opposite mentalities and thought processes.

    27. Slavery’s history stretched back to antiquity. Prior to the American Revolution, nearly everyone in the world accepted it as a natural part of life.
    28. Congress reached a “compromise” on Missouri’s admission, largely through the work of Kentuckian Henry Clay
    29. Revolutionaries in the United States declared

      “All men are created equal,”

  4. Nov 2015
    1. I cannot but laugh

      John Adams is not taking his wife's concerns seriously.

    2. Do not put such unlimited power into the hands of the husbands.

      Husbands tend to take their wives as their properties and not as other halves.

    3. "I long to hear that you have declared an independency

      Abigail says it in a sense where the independence would only affect her husband and not her.

    1. former slaves fled with the British army.

      in hopes of getting freedom.

    2. Americans began to create their own manufactures, no longer content to rely on those in Britain

      There were upsides and downsides.

    3. Americans celebrated their victory, but it came at great cost
    4. By 1781, the British were also fighting France, Spain, and Holland.
    5. he developed his own logic of warfare

      to split the armies into small groups

    6. The Congress approved the document on July 4, 1776

      The document of Independence.

    7. dangerous and ill-designing men


    8. Congress was in the strange position of attempting reconciliation while publicly raising an army.

      The Congress was two-faced and untrustworthy.

    9. The Congress struck a compromise

      When everything else failed, Congress had no other option but to come to an agreement.

    10. the Coercive Acts fostered the sense of shared identity created over the previous decade

      This Act backfired

    11. Because women were often making decisions regarding which household items to purchase, their participation in consumer boycotts held particular weight
    12. By buying the tea, even though it was cheaper, colonists would be paying the duty and thereby implicitly acknowledging Parliament’s right to tax them.

      explains the reason for tea resistance.

    13. . A new sense of shared grievances began to join the colonists in a shared American political identity.

      Sharing the same sense of pain unites people more than sharing the same joy.

    14. bloodthirsty British soldiers with grins on their faces firing into a peaceful crowd.

      worked perfectly well to aggravate the situation even further.

    15. When a small number of soldiers came to the sentry’s aid, the crowd grew increasingly hostile until the soldiers fired.

      shows the hostility the colonists felt towards the Britishers.

    16. colonists, once again, resisted.

      Since the protest against the Stamp Act did work, the colonists thought of solving every issue with resistance.

    17. In New York City, the inhabitants raised a huge lead statue of King George III in honor of the Stamp Act’s repeal.
    18. However, the colonists rejected the notion of virtual representation, with one pamphleteer calling it a “monstrous idea
    19. This led, in part, to broader, more popular resistance.

      referring to Stamp Act

    20. Stamp Act

      The first internal tax levied directly on American colonists by the British government.

    21. The King forbade settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains in an attempt to limit costly wars with Native Americans.

      They could not afford spending any more money on war.

    22. Britain now controlled the North American continent east of the Mississippi River, including French Canada.

      The Seven Years' War grew Britain's power in unimaginable ways.

    23. Both Locke and Whitefield had empowered individuals to question authority and to take their lives into their own hands.

      Both education and religion played the key role in changing people's train of thought.

    24. Education would produce rational human beings capable of thinking for themselves and questioning authority rather than tacitly accepting tradition.

      Educating people is the initiate step a government could take towards better future.

    25. Perhaps no single philosopher had a greater impact on colonial thinking than John Locke
    26. Colonial political culture in the colonies also developed differently than that of the mother country

      So each colony had their own culture?

    27. Samuel Adams, in the Boston Gazette, described the colonies as each being a “separate body politic” from Britain.
    28. Constant war was politically consuming and economically expensive.

      War always has a negative impact on the economy.

    29. But the Revolution was as paradoxical as it was unpredictable
    30. Throughout the eighteenth century, colonists had developed significant emotional ties with both the British monarchy and the British constitution

      this explains why Benjamin Rush felt the way he did.

    1. I am not of opinion that in giving Land to the English, we deprive ourselves of the use of it, on the Contrary, I think we shall share it with them,

      I really am impressed by his thought process.

    2. Neither will the Generous Inflict a Punishment without a Crime.
    3. eternal marks traced

      Every word said out loud was written down so that no one could alter it later on.

    4. No group—European or Indian—held sovereign power, and diplomatic, military, trading, and social exchanges continued for much of the eighteenth century.

      Only if this could have lasted for a longer period of time.

    5. Native Americans living in interior regions maintained greater control over their lands and culture

      These were the peaceful times before the invasion of the White.

    1. Oh that I would be a Dog or a toad or any Creature but Man

      Isn't that what Buddhism believes in? That a man's acts decide if he would reborn as a human or not.

    2. and put me into a trembling fear before he began to preach;

      That's how the people fortunate enough to having met the men of God must have felt.

    3. I saw no man at work in his field, but all seemed to be gone.

      Because everyone had gathered up to listen to Mr. Whitefield.

    4. 4000 of people

      that is a large number of people.

    5. every horse seemed to go with all his might to carry his rider to hear news from heaven for the saving of Souls;

      The horse riders were making their horses run as fast as they could since they were so eager to hear to the news.

    6. I dropt my tool and I had in my hand an ran home to my wife telling her to make ready quickly to go and hear Mr. Whitefield preach at Middletown

      shows clearly how excited people were to go listen to Mr. Whitefield.

    7. and great numbers were converted to Christ;

      i.e turned Christians.

  5. classicliberal.tripod.com classicliberal.tripod.com
    1. It is true governments cannot be supported without great charge, and it is fit every one who enjoys his share of the protection should pay out of his estate his proportion for the maintenance of it

      That's where taxes came into the picture.

    2. men unite into societies that they may have the united strength of the whole society to secure and defend their properties,

      United we stand, divided we fall.

    3. The rules that they make for, other men's actions must, as well as their own and other men's actions, be conformable to the law of Nature — i.e., to the will of God, of which that is a declaration, and the fundamental law of Nature being the preservation of mankind, no human sanction can be good or valid against it.

      The world would be a much peaceful place to reside in if humankind followed the will of God.

    4. it being ridiculous to imagine one can be tied ultimately to obey any power in the society which is not the supreme.

      Now I understand why when a case is indecisive, it goes to a supreme court.

    5. This legislative is not only the supreme power of the commonwealth, but sacred and unalterable in the hands where the community have once placed it

      I'm not sure whether having an unalterable law is a good thing or bad?

    6. if anybody dislike, I consent with him to change it for a better.

      It's always a good sign to know that the government is willing to change for the better.

    7. hereditary monarchy

      What if the heir is not worthy enough of the responsibility?

    8. whoever has the legislative or supreme power of any commonwealth, is bound to govern by established standing laws

      Law is something that keeps us humans in limits

    9. of doing whatsoever he thought fit for the preservation of himself

      A human being is not perfect, therefore can not be 100% certain of his decisions.

    10. Secondly, in the state of Nature there wants a known and indifferent judge, with authority to determine all differences according to the established law.
    11. he be absolute lord of his own person and possessions
    1. 'Many of the most mutinous leapt overboard and drown'd themselves in the ocean with such resolution, shewing no manner of concern for life.'

      Anyone would accept death with open arms if living means having to die everyday.

    2. seven hundred

      That explains the limited space

    3. where he was freed.

      He was the luckiest guy ever who got his freedom without having to work for it.

    4. The shrieks of the women, and the groans of the dying, rendered the whole a scene of horror almost inconceivable.

      One could only imagine the horrifying experiences these unfortunate people had and the scar that had been left in their minds and souls.

    5. The stench of the hold

      Not only did the salves had to put up with the cruelty of the owners, but also with the loathsome smell.

    6. he feared that he was about to be eaten by the European crew

      sheds light on the thought that would cross the slaves' minds everyday

    7. transatlantic slave trade

      spreading across the Atlantic

    1. Quakers were the first group to turn against slavery

      Someone had to start somewhere.

    2. Carolina slaves had less direct oversight than those in the Chesapeake

      Chesapeake slaves had more insight on how to get their freedom.

    3. to avoid the diseases of the rice fields

      Why does the rich get to avoid all the bad stuff?

    4. Slave owners could not be convicted of murder for killing a slave;

      This is so heart breaking and unfair

    5. This distribution of property, which kept wealth and property consolidated, guaranteed that the great planters would dominate social and economic life in the Chesapeake.

      This system made sure that the money circulated around the rich only, which in turn made the rich richer and the poor poorer.

    6. Slavery was a transatlantic institution

      It was crossing the Atlantic

    1. anti-Catholic and anti-immigrant sentiment, slowed European immigration

      Americans were afraid of the spread of Catholic.

    2. Jewish immigrants found work in retail, commerce, and artisanal occupations such as tailoring.

      Jewish civilians have always been intelligent people.

    3. hain migration allowed Irish men to send portions of their wages home, which would then be used to either support their families in Ireland or to purchase tickets for relatives to come to the United States

      This tradition still has not changed much. People working in the US still send part of their wages back home to their families.

    4. Middle-class owners and managers justified their economic privilege as the natural product of superior character traits, including their wide decision-making and hard work.

      "Superior character traits", the lamest excuse ever!

    5. Americans embarked upon their industrial revolution

      First the transportation and communication revolution and then industrial.

    6. enable the ‘rich’ to ‘take care of themselves’ while the poor must work or starve.

      Another change that the built of machines and factories had brought.

    7. They no longer shared the bonds of their trade but were subsumed under a new class-based relationships

      The introduction of the factories were changing a lot of relationships and were having negative impacts on many people's lives.

    8. twenty-one-year-old British immigrant Samuel Slater to build a yarn-spinning machine and then a carding machine

      Americans were using Britisher's brain to improve their technological knowledge.

    9. cotton

      main crop of that time

    10. steamboats filled the waters of the Mississippi and Ohio rivers

      Railroads were constructed before steamboats

    11. improved road networks

      was what made the change

    12. Her trip was less than 500 miles but took six full weeks to complete

      another example of the outrageous cost of traveling in lands

    13. exorbitant internal transportation costs hindered substantial economic development

      The costs to transport goods in lands were way expensive than the costs across the country

    14. America’s exports rose in value from $20.2 million in 1790 to $108.3 million by 1807

      Due to the increase in the number of the immigrants

    15. The revolution reverberated across the country. More and more farmers grew crops for profit, not self-sufficiency.

      What made them realize this again? I remember reading about it but can't remember the reason why

    16. Irish, German, and Jewish immigrants sought new lives and economic opportunities. By the Civil War,
    17. United States ended its legal participation in the global slave trade in 1808
    18. American farmers increasingly exported foodstuffs to Europe as the French Revolutionary Wars devastated the continent between 1793 and 1815
    19. larger exchange network connected by improved transportations
    1. You need not be afraid to give us our rights for fear we will take too much—for we won’t take more than our pint’ll hold.

      Men were really scared of giving women their rights since they knew women were as intelligent as them, but they just didn't want women to have a chance at proving themselves.

    2. Since no written transcript of the speech has appeared,

      That's unfortunate! Not having a written transcript of a historical event.

    3. Women’s Rights Convention

      All these conventions resulted in getting women their rights.

    4. That man over there says women need to be helped into carriages, and lifted over ditches, and to have the best place everywhere. Nobody ever helps me into carriages, or over mud-puddles, or gives me any best place! And arn’t I a woman? Look at me! Look at my arm! I have ploughed, and planted , and gathered into barns, and no man could head me! And arn’t I woman? I could work as much and eat as much as a man—when I could get it—and bear the lash as well! And arn’t I a woman? I have borne thirteen children, and seen them most all sold off to slavery, and when I cried out with my mother’s grief, none but Jesus heard me! And aren’t I a woman?

      I think men and woman should have always had their own rights, the same and equal

    1. He has denied her the facilities for obtaining a thorough education, all colleges being closed against her.

      Keeping women from getting education was a tactic to keep them under control.

    2. right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they were accustomed.

      Basically talking about men to abolish their acts of injustice towards women.

    3. all men and women are created equal;

      A man can not call himself lover of the God, if he does not think of women as his equal.

    4. During the first day the meeting will be exclusively for women, who are earnestly invited to attend.

      It just sounds like women were very conservative and that majority did not have the courage to voice their opinion.

    5. When, in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one portion of the family of man to assume among the people of the earth a position different from that which they have hitherto occupied, but one to which the laws of nature and of nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes that impel them to such a course.

      I agree with this statement, does this mean they need to have god more in their lives?

    1. Missionaries worked to translate the Bible into Iroquois and other languages

      Having Bible translated into other languages helped in the spread of the word of God

    2. word of God

      i.e Bible

    3. an empire of benevolence

      the group that not only had the desire to do nice things but also made efforts to do so

    4. “fallen women.”

      They are referring to the prostitutes

    5. impassioned forms of worship

      A form of worship that includes executing great emotion

    6. Women, too, exhorted, in a striking break with common practice.

      Another activity that women were trying to take part in

    7. Middle-class women, in particular, were able to play a leading role in reform activity.

      Women finally started taking parts in social activities

    8. After religious disestablishment

      People need religion not just to look good in God's eye but also to have moral value and conscience.

    9. They began to see that they would need to fight for women’s rights simply in order to be able to fight for the rights of slave

      This is the best thing that they could have done to help the slaves.

    10. several female reformers worked tirelessly to increase women’s access to educatio

      This should be for women, men and children as well.

    11. men gained legal control over their wives’ property

      I guess this was okay back then but I am more than happy that this is not how society works as of today.

    12. Women and men of all colors were encouraged to associate together in these spaces to combat what they termed “color phobia.”

      Everyone should be able to come together as a community and not because of color.

    13. Temperance reformers pledged not to touch the bottle

      This made a huge impact on their community and a huge impact on families.

    14. After religious disestablishment, citizens of the United States faced a dilemma: how to cultivate a moral and virtuous public without aid from state-sponsored religion. Most Americans agreed that a good and moral citizenry was essential for the national project to succeed, but many shared the perception that society’s moral foundation was weakening.

      whats this now mean ?

    15. Transcendentalists

      promotes spiritual thinking instead of scientific thinking

    16. As the borders of the United States expanded during the nineteenth century and as new demographic changes altered urban landscapes, revivalism also offered worshippers a source of social and religious structure to help cope with change.

      And for ministers and preachers to spread their service

    17. Communion,

      What do they mean by this?

    1. policies of their owners

      which I am pretty sure that they were not lenient.

    2. Some owners allowed their enslaved people to roam, in order to scavenge for food, in times of drought or crop failures

      They also gave them parts of a food that they would not eat.

    3. Africans survived on the slave ships on diets which the European captain thought were appropriate for their survival

      Which was not the best idea. These Africans suffered from starving but yet they have to put energy into completing the task that they are given.

    4. they created new instruments

      They had to be creative with what they have.

    5. American-born slaves grew up speaking these languages naturally

      And they have adapted to that culture as well.

    6. Europeans arrived, and as their trading presence became more concentrated

      as well as the increase of slaves.

    1. to the astonishment of the Negroes on the plantation, who thought I had made my escape to some other part of the country, as my father had done before

      I am curious as to what was also running through his mind when he seen all of the "Negroes"

    2. employed I was reflecting on many things that would present themselves to my imagination;

      settings goals and see your future