78 Matching Annotations
  1. Dec 2015
    1. Lincoln, who initially waged a conservative, limited war, believed that the presence of African American troops would threaten the loyalty of slaveholding border states, and white volunteers who might refuse to serve alongside black men.
    2. the Union adopted General-in-Chief Winfield Scott’s Anaconda Plan to suppress the rebellion.
    3. Some southerners couched their defense of slavery as a preservation of states rights. But in order to protect slavery, the Confederate nation created a central government that ruled over the states even more than what the constitution called for—an irony not lost on many.
    4. The Committee of Thirteen ultimately voted down the measure and it likewise failed in the full Senate vote (25-23).
    5. The Confederacy even veered from the American constitution by explicitly invoking Christianity in their founding document.
    6. Abraham Lincoln’s nomination proved a great windfall for the Republican Party. Lincoln carried all free states with the exception of New Jersey (which he split with Douglas)
    7. The parties leaders refusal to include a pro-slavery platform resulted in Southern delegates walking out of the convention
    8. The American Civil War, the bloodiest in the nation’s history, resulted in approximately 750,000 deaths
    1. Congress reached a “compromise” on Missouri’s admission, largely through the work of Kentuckian Henry Clay
    2. French visionaries issued the “Declaration of Rights and Man and Citizen”
    3. Revolutionaries in the United States declared

      “All men are created equal,”

    4. A new transatlantic antislavery movement began to argue that freedom was the natural condition of man was freedom.
  2. Nov 2015
    1. Irish, German, and Jewish immigrants sought new lives and economic opportunities. By the Civil War,
    2. Waltham-Lowell System, created the textile mill that defined antebellum New England and American industrialism before the Civil War
    3. United States ended its legal participation in the global slave trade in 1808
    4. Robert Fulton established the first commercial steam boat service up and down the Hudson River in New York in 1807
    5. Depressions devastated the economy in 1819, 1837, and 1857
    6. American farmers increasingly exported foodstuffs to Europe as the French Revolutionary Wars devastated the continent between 1793 and 1815
    7. larger exchange network connected by improved transportations
    1. An hour before day light the horn is blown. Then the slaves arouse, prepare their breakfast, fill a gourd with water, in another deposit their dinner of cold bacon and corn cake, and hurry to the field again.
    2. Solomon Northrup was a free black who was kidnapped in New York and sold into slavery for twelve years
    1. For the enslaved, understanding the language of European and American slave traders and plantation owners was necessary to understand the new world of Atlantic slavery that legally determined so many aspects of their lives from life to death.
    2. folklore of Africans and their descendants in the Americas was crucially fashioned not simply by an African past, but by the complex ways African cultures interacted with European and American peoples and cultures in the New World.
    3. Africans brought to the Americas the greatly varied cultures of their homelands, including folklore, language, music, and foodways.
    1. Napoleón decided to reconquer the island and restore slavery
    2. the slaves had been evangelized and educated by Jesuit missionaries in the early days of the colony
    3. Haiti, known as Saint-Domingue before the revolution, was the richest colony in the Americas in 1789.
    4. Other independence movements in the Americas at the time, like the American Revolution (1775–1783) or the independence struggles in Spanish America,
    1. The explosion of available land in the fertile cotton belt brought new life to the South. By the end of the 1830s, “Petit Gulf” cotton had been perfected, distributed, and planted throughout the region.
    2. Thousands of people, each one with his or her own dream of massive and immediate success, rushed to the area quickly becoming known as the “Cotton Belt.
    3. a machine developed by Eli Whitney in 1794 for deseeding cotton—more easily than any other strain. It also grew tightly, producing more usable cotton than anyone had imagined to that point.
    4. The discovery of Gossypium barbadense—often called “Petit Gulf” cotton—near Rodney, Mississippi, in 1820 changed the American and global cotton markets forever.
  3. Oct 2015
    1. The major intellectual problem in understanding ratification is sorting out the relationships between the Federalists' -- and the Anti-Federalists' -- understandings of politics and society and their positions on the Constitution.
    2. Thus, when the Federal Convention dissolved on 17 September 1787, it sent the proposed Constitution and its accompanying resolutions to the Confederation Congress.
    1. The delegates arrived at the convention with instructions to revise the Articles of Confederation.
    2. Thomas Jefferson, thought “a little rebellion now and then” helped keep the country free
    3. political leaders saw both the debt and the struggling economy as a consequence of the Articles of Confederation
    4. That November, Washington called his fellow citizens to celebrate with a day of thanksgiving, particularly for “the peaceable and rational manner”
    1. Britain had largely failed to define the colonies’ relationship to the empire and institute a coherent program of imperial reform.
    2. The colonies had resisted the implementation of direct taxes, but the Declaratory Act reserved Parliament’s right to impose them.
    3. The most famous of the anti-Stamp Act resolutions were the “Virginia Resolves,” passed by the House of Burgesses on May 30, 1765,
    4. colonists began to fear a pattern of increased taxation and restricted liberties.
    5. The Seven Years’ War culminated nearly a half-century of war between Europe’s imperial powers
    1. "This is rather too coarse a compliment, but you are so saucy, I won't blot it out
    2. Men of sense in all ages abhor those customs which treat us only as the (servants) of your sex
    3. I desire you would remember the ladies and be more generous and favorable to them than your ancestors.
    1. the English went they caused disturbances for they lived under no Government and paid no respect either to Wisdom or Station.
    2. I expect they will be equally Bountyfull which must be done if they wish equally to gain the affection of my people.
    1. The delays we meet with in carrying on the Service, from every parts of this country, are immense. They have assumed to themselves, what they call Rights and Priviledges, totaly unknown in...[England]....
    2. commander of the British North American forces, arrived in New York City on July 22, 1756

      john campbell

  4. Sep 2015
    1. Relationships between colonists and Native Americans were complex and often violent. In 1761, Neolin, a prophet, received a vision from his religion’s main deity, known as the Master of Life
    2. These victories brought about the fall of French Canada, and for all intents and purposes, the war in North America ended in 1760 with the British capture of Montreal. The British continued to fight against the Spanish, who entered the war in 1762. In this war, the Spanish successfully defended Nicaragua against British attacks but were unable to prevent the conquest of Cuba and the Philippines.
    3. In 1754 a force of British colonists and Native American allies, led by young George Washington, attacked and killed a French diplomat. This incident led to a war,

      That was how the seven years' started.

    4. New ideas governing romantic love helped to change the nature of husband-wife relationships. Deriving from the sentimental literary movement, many Americans began to view marriage as an emotionally fulfilling relationship rather than a strictly economic partnership.
    5. Connections between the Caribbean and North America benefitted both sides. Those living on the continent relied on the Caribbean colonists to satisfy their craving for sugar and other goods like mahogany.
    6. Virginia, the oldest of the English mainland colonies, imported its first slaves in 1619
  5. classicliberal.tripod.com classicliberal.tripod.com
    1. men when they enter into society give up the equality, liberty, and executive power they had in the state of Nature into the hands of the society,
    2. there wants an established, settled, known law, received and allowed by common consent to be the standard of right and wrong, and the common measure to decide all controversies between them.
    1. Thomas Phillips

      1694 master of slave

    2. The 1660s marked a turning point for black men and women in English colonies like Barbados in the West Indies and Virginia in North America.
    3. English Puritans from Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth, and Connecticut colonies trekked into Indian country in territory claimed by New England. Referring to themselves

      “Sword of the Lord,”

    4. Middle Passage

      European slavers transported millions of Africans across the ocean in a terrifying journey.

    5. Skin color became more than superficial difference; it became the marker of a transcendent, all-encompassing division between two distinct peoples, two races, white and black.
    6. English traders fomented Indian war in order to purchase and enslave captives, and planters justified the use of an enslaved workforce by claiming white servants were “good for nothing at all.
    7. Native American slaves died quickly, mostly from disease, but others were murdered or died from starvation. The demands of growing plantation economies required a more reliable labor force,

      When the Native America labor forces stared dying, the European started bringing slaves from Africa to America.

    8. “I can’t think there is any intrinsic value in one color more than another, nor that white is better than black, only we think it so because we are so.”

      Thomas Phillips

    1. The common ways mainly employed by the Spaniards who call themselves Christian and who have gone there to extirpate those pitiful nations and wipe them off the earth is by unjustly waging cruel and bloody wars
    2. San Juan [Puerto Rico] and Jamaica are two of the largest, most productive and attractive islands
    3. This large island was perhaps the most densely populated place in the world.
    1. s she had seen long the way, she began to crave and wanted to know what was underneath that tree – she wanted the roots of that tree
    1. And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament: and it was so.
    2. And God said, Let there be light: 2 Cor. 4.6 and there was light
    1. Planter Nathaniel Bacon focused inland colonists’ anger at local Indians,
    1. Powhatan


    2. He navigated Indian diplomacy, claiming that he was captured and sentenced to death but Powhatan’s daughter, Pocahontas, intervened to save his life

      so pocahontas was real!

    1. Montezuma was killed along with a third of Cortes’s men in la noche triste, the “night of sorrows.”

      Was this the man whom some one burned his feet?

  6. Aug 2015
    1. Native Americans lacked the immunities that Europeans and Africans had developed over centuries of deadly epidemic

      How many decades had to go by before Latin America's immunological system could fight against those diseases?