14 Matching Annotations
  1. Oct 2021
  2. Sep 2021
    1. The Virginians needed labor, to grow corn for subsistence, to grow tobaccofor export. They had just figured out how to grow tobacco, and in 1617 theysent off the first cargo to England. Finding that, like all pleasurable drugstainted with moral disapproval, it brought a high price, the planters, despitetheir high religious talk, were not going to ask questions about something soprofitable.

      Told from this perspective and with the knowledge of the importance of the theory of First Effective Settlement, is it any wonder that America has grown up to be so heavily influenced by moral and mental depravity, over-influenced by capitalism and religion, ready to enslave others, and push vice and drugs? The founding Virginians are truly America in miniature.

      Cross reference: Theory of First Effective Settlement

      “Whenever an empty territory undergoes settlement, or an earlier population is dislodged by invaders, the specific characteristics of the first group able to effect a viable, self-perpetuating society are of crucial significance for the later social and cultural geography of the area, no matter how tiny the initial band of settlers may have been.” “Thus, in terms of lasting impact, the activities of a few hundred, or even a few score, initial colonizers can mean much more for the cultural geography of a place than the contributions of tens of thousands of new immigrants a few generations later.” — Wilbur Zelinsky, The Cultural Geography of the United States, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1973, pp. 13–14.

  3. May 2021
    1. but there was no difference in levels of withdrawal between those on NRT patches and those on placebo.

      Data like this seems to be definitive proof that nicotine is nothing like tobacco. I'm not aware of any evidence that nicotine itself is addictive, save for a few anecdotes. I don't put much stock in these anecdotes because people also report habit-withdrawal symptoms when they quit zero nicotine e-juice. That is to say, without placebo controls we cannot conclude drug withdrawal is the cause because it can also be explained by psychology.

      That said, I'm reasonably certain that nicotine contributes to tobacco addiction. While I think nicotine is fairly non-addictive, I believe it enhances the addictiveness of other drugs. I think this is partly due to an entourage effect that alters the high, and also a memory-enhancing effect so one remembers the high more vividly.

  4. Apr 2021
    1. Day 2: extremely difficult. My brain was convincing me time and again to light one . It was trying to convince me that i Needed one. Almost lit one but put it down. It felt like i had gulped down a pre workout or a protein shake and had not worked out. Felt frisky and restless. Dependent on a vape - 9/10

      Sounds like withdrawal. Why is information like this so hard to find?

  5. May 2020
    1. assessed prospectively in men and women smokers before and then day-by-day

      No control group? This study tells me literally nothing. It just demonstrates that the effects of tobacco are not the same as nicotine. That was already obvious.

    1. Hippocampal size of nonusers reflects a direct relationship to memory function; the smaller the hippocampus, the poorer the memory function. Individuals who use marijuana and tobacco show an inverse relationship, i.e., the smaller the hippocampus size, the greater memory the function. Furthermore the number of nicotine cigarettes smoked per day in the marijuana and nicotine using group appears to be related to the severity of hippocampal shrinkage. The greater the number of cigarettes smoked per day, the smaller the hippocampal volume and the greater the memory performance. There were no significant associations between hippocampal size and memory performance in individuals who only use tobacco or only use marijuana.

      They mention abstainers below. It appears that they are saying that there is memory improvement compared to complete non-smokers. Will need to check actual study. Note that my interest in nicotine is confounded by the use of tobacco.

      Edit: eyeballing the graphs, it appears that the tobacco group did the best, while the marijuana plus tobacco group did the worst. Given the small sample size and high variability, these are not statistically significant. Nonetheless, that suggests that marijuana never benefits memory. Edit: eyeballing the graphs, it appears the tobacco group did the best, while the marijuana plus tobacco group performed worst. Given the small sample size and high variability, these results are not statistically significant. Nonetheless, it suggests that marijuana is never a benefit to memory.

  6. Mar 2018
    1. Nicotine is composed of a pyridine ring and a pyrrolidine ring, synthesized from two separate branches as demonstrated in Figure S1

      This is interesting!

  7. May 2017
  8. Sep 2015
    1. It saved Virginia from ruin, incentivized further colonization, and laid the groundwork for what would become the United States.

      Tobacco may be the reason the United States exists. or at least a big reason.

  9. Aug 2015
    1. Crown.

      Study Questions:

      How did Powhatan initially receive the colonists? Why?

      How does tobacco change the colony?

      How does the notion of race begin to change in the colony?

    2. Crown.

      Study Questions:

      How did Powhatan initially receive the colonists? Why?

      How does tobacco change the colony?

      How does the notion of race begin to change in the colony?

    3. IV. English Colonization

      Before reading this text watch and annotate the following video lecture for this week. Make sure you can answer the study questions that will appear within the video:

      The Growth of British North America video lecture: