245 Matching Annotations
  1. Mar 2021
    1. No social study that does not come back to the problems of biography, of history, and of their intersections within a society has completed its intellectual journey.

      Is this what I need to include in my historiography?

    2. The ideas of "going away" to college and of living on campus are valorized in the academic literature (and upper middle-class culture) as important for separating from parents, developing independence, and broadening social networks. It is important for students to move away to grow up.

      This is antithetical to adult learners who need to stay within their community to grow.

    3. There is little consideration of what is lost by not selecting locally. Apart from losing high-quality people who are unwilling to leave their communities, we see three losses: (a) a sense of social responsibility and depth of commitment to parts of the local community; (b) a sense of respect for and understanding of the community's resources and cultural assets that could be tapped into (see Gonzalez, Moll, & Amanti, 2005, on "funds of knowledge"); and (c) a connection to the community that facilitates working with it

      Does UMaine hire its own graduates? Or do they consider this inbreeding?

    4. Whether in their linguistic capital (Bourdieu & Passeron, 1977; Ogbu 1978), and/or in their cultural, social, and symbolic capital (Bourdieu, 1984, 1988), academics must distance themselves from other groups. That is part of their distinction as academics, as professionals.

      Does distance education bring them closer to others?

    5. Given an academy that does not reward community service (Blackburn & Lawrence, 1995), the advice to new professors, especially to women and those of color, is to not get drawn into such activity (Johnsrud & Des Jarlais, 1994; Tierney & Bensimon, 1996) for it distracts from time that could be spent doing research and developing professional networks. The advice is more about how to "make it" than how to remake it.

      Did this affect which faculty were interested in distance education and how involved they were?

  2. Dec 2020
  3. link-springer-com.wv-o-ursus-proxy02.ursus.maine.edu link-springer-com.wv-o-ursus-proxy02.ursus.maine.edu
    1. Three kinds of goals of multimedia instruction design are to minimize extraneous cognitive processing during learning (i.e., cognitive processing that does not serve the instructional goal), to manage essential processing during learning (i.e., cognitive processing needed to mentally represent the essential material), and to foster generative processing during learning (i.e., cognitive processing aimed at making sense of the material)

      3 goals of multimedia instructional design:

      1. minimize extraneous cognitive processing
      2. manage essential processing
      3. foster generative processing
    2. Three major principles for a cognitive theory of multimedia learning are that learners have separate information processing channels for verbal and visual material (i.e., dual channel principle), that learners can engage in only a small amount of processing in each channel at any one time (i.e., limited capacity principle), and that meaningful learning depends on the learner’s cognitive processing during learning (i.e., active processing principle)

      3 principles of multimedia learning:

      1. dual channel
      2. limited capacity
      3. active processing
    3. The science of multimedia learning is concerned with developing a research-based theory of how people learn from words and pictures.

      As differentiated from the science of multimedia instruction

    4. The science of multimedia instruction is concerned with developing design principles for multimedia instruction that are consistent with research evidence and grounded in cognitive theory.

      I think this will be my theoretical framework.

    5. the elaboration principle is that people learn better when they outline, summarize, or otherwise elaborate on the presented material
    6. The questioning principle is that people learn better when they must ask and answer deep questions during learning
    7. The guided discovery principle is that people learn better when they are allowed to solve problems while receiving appropriate guidance
    8. The worked-example principle is that people learn better when they are shown a step-by-step example of how to solve a problem, with commentary
    9. The self-explanation principle is that people learn better when they are prompted to explain lesson elements during learning
    10. The testing principle is that people learn better when they take a practice test on the material have studied
    11. The anchoring principle is that people learn better when material is presented in the context of a familiar situation,
    12. Research on concrete advance organizers provides encouraging evidence that students learn more deeply from a text lesson when it is preceded with a familiar concrete model or analogy (Mayer, 2008).

      How do you tease out concretizing from connecting new content to prior knowledge? Are these two different principles?

    13. The concretizing principle is that people learn better when unfamiliar material is presented in a way that relates it with the learner’s familiar knowledge, such as using concrete examples and analogies.
    14. some other candidates for fostering generative processing—also relevant to non-multimedia environments (Mayer, 2011)—are the concretizing principle, the anchoring principle, the testing principle, the self-explanation principle, the worked-out example principle, the guided discovery principle, the questioning principle, and the elaboration principle

      Additional principles for fostering generative processing not related to multimedia:

      1. concretizing
      2. anchoring
      3. testing
      4. self-explanation
      5. worked example
      6. guided discovery
      7. questioning
      8. elaboration
    15. The rationale is that an instructor using a human voice is more readily accepted as a social partner (Nass & Brave, 2005), thereby fostering deeper cognitive processing during learning.

      Again, this seems related to the principle of social presence.

      Are any of these experiments done in vivo during real online classes or just in the lab with one exchange? It seems like social connectedness needs more time and interactions to become a factor in learning.

    16. lecture on learning principles

      Here is an example of non-science content

    17. The rationale is that people try harder to make sense of the presented material (i.e., engage in the cognitive processes of organizing and integrating) when they feel they are in a social partnership with the instructor.

      Is this effect stronger in distance learning? It seems related to social presence research.

  4. Nov 2020
  5. link-springer-com.wv-o-ursus-proxy02.ursus.maine.edu link-springer-com.wv-o-ursus-proxy02.ursus.maine.edu
    1. three principles for fostering generative processing—multimedia, personalization, and voice

      3 Principles for managing generative processing:

      1. multimedia
      2. personalization
      3. voice
    2. The modality principle is that people learn better from a multimedia lesson when words are spoken rather than printed

      I'm not quite sure how this is different than the redundancy principle. It seems like some content is better learned visually than through reading text, so this isn't really about the learner. Some content is best learned through listening, some through manipulation, some through reading, and some through looking.

    3. Concerning boundary conditions, preliminary evidence suggests that the effects of pretraining may be strongest for low knowledge learners (Clarke et al., 2005; Pollock et al., 2002).

      Both the segmenting and pretraining principles are especially beneficial for low knowledge learners.

    4. For example, Mayer and Chandler (2001) found that compared to viewing a continuous 2.5 min narrated animation on lightning formation, students performed better on a transfer test after viewing a narrated animation on lightning formation that paused after each of 16 segments until the learner clicked a “Continue” button. Similarly, compared to viewing continuous narrated animation on how an electric motor works, students performed better on a transfer test in two experiments if they could see the presentation broken into five segments, each started by the learner’s mouse click (Mayer et al., 2003). Overall, across three experiments conducted in our lab, the median effect size across these three experiments was d  =  0.98, favoring the segmented group over the continuous group.

      I have a hard time believing that just splitting a video up into shorter segments with a continue button leads to better learning with an effect size so high. I think I will need to look at some of these studies closer. Chunking is a good principle, but how small should the chunks be? Is it because students get to pace the lesson themselves? Does it keep them more engaged when they need to click a button to continue?

    5. three principles for managing essential processing—segmenting, pretraining, and modality principles

      3 Principles for managing essential processing:

      1. segmenting
      2. pretraining
      3. modality
    6. students who received a narrated animation (or narrated slideshow) performed better on a transfer posttest than students who received the identical presentation with on-screen text added as captions. The median effect size was d  =  0.72.

      This is very surprising. I wonder if these findings have been replicated in other studies. I find captions to be helpful for my learning, so I'm puzzled by this.

    7. Do these principles apply to all types of content? All of the studies described here used concrete subjects with physical properties. Do these principles work with abstract content or things that don't have clear right and wrong answers?

    8. Overall, there is strong and consistent evidence for the coherence principle based on well-controlled laboratory studies

      Are there any in vivo studies of the coherence principle?

    9. in a replication involving a text lesson on lightning formation, Lehman, Schraw, McCrudden, and Hartley (2007) found that adding interesting but extraneous sentences about lightning throughout a lesson resulted in significantly less learning (d  =  0.88) based on deep processing measures such as a holistic understanding score for student essays

      Providing seductive details in lessons reduces student learning significantly.

    10. The median effect size was d  =  1.66, which is large effect

      This is an impressive effect size! The coherence principle suggests that presentations should be stripped down to the essentials without extraneous text or images.

    11. six principles for reducing extraneous processing—coherence, signaling, spatial contiguity, temporal contiguity, redundancy, and expectation principles

      6 Principles for reducing extraneous processing:

      1. coherence
      2. signaling
      3. spatial contiguity
      4. temporal contiguity
      5. redundancy
      6. expectation
    12. In the generative underuse situation (shown in the bottom of Fig. 31.4), extraneous load has been eliminated and essential load has been managed so the learner has cognitive capacity to engage in generative processing but chooses not to do so. In this case, an important instructional goal is to foster generative processing by designing instruction in ways that encourage the learner to engage in deeper processing (e.g., organizing and integrating) during learning.

      This is really overlooked in instructional design and by most faculty. There is a misunderstanding that just presenting the information is enough, whereas the learner needs to be encouraged to think deeply about the content in order to learn it. This is where instructional design interventions can be beneficial, such as reflection prompts, discussions, activities, etc.

    13. When an instructional scenario creates excessive extraneous cognitive processing, an important instructional goal is to design the lessons in ways that reduce extraneous processing.

      There are external factors that can cause extraneous cognitive processing for the learner, such as distractions, motivation, or technical difficulties, but I think the remedy is the same in all instances--the instructional design should limit the amount of extraneous processing.

    14. Drawing on Sweller’s (1999, 2005; Brunken, Plass, & Moreno, 2010) cognitive load theory and Mayer’s (2009; Mayer & Moreno, 2003) cognitive theory of multimedia learning, Table 31.1 lists three kinds of demands on the learner’s cognitive processing capacity during learning.

      This is similar to the three types of cognitive load: extraneous, intrinsic, and germane. Here, Mayer describes processing as extraneous (unnecessary), essential (inherent in the complexity of the content), and generative (the efforts of the learner to make sense of the information).

    15. Dual channels—people have separate channels for processing verbal and pictorial material (Paivio, 1986, 2001) Limited capacity—people can process only a few pieces of information in each channel at any one time (Baddeley, 1986, 1999; Sweller, 1999) Active processing—meaningful learning occurs when people engage in appropriate cognitive processing during learning, including attending to the relevant information, mentally organizing it into coherent structures, and integrating it with other structures and with knowledge activated from long term memory (Mayer, 2009; Mayer & Wittrock, 2006; Wittrock, 1989)

      3 important cognitive science principles for multimedia learning:

      1. dual channels
      2. limited capacity
      3. active processing
    16. The science of learning is the scientific study of how people learn, that is, how the learner’s experience causes a change in the learner’s knowledge (Mayer, 2008, 2011)
    17. Historical Overview of Multimedia Instruction

      3 phases of multimedia instruction:

      1. early years beginning in 1658 with first published illustrated diagrams.
      2. study of learning from printed word and illustrations.
      3. study of computer-based multimedia instruction,
    18. Levin, Anglin, and Carney (1987) reported a large effect size when the illustrations were designed to promote deep cognitive processing (with effect sizes greater than d  =  0.50) but not when they served mainly to decorate the page (with effect sizes below d  =  0.00).

      Carefully selected illustrations that promote deep cognitive processing can have large effects on learning.

    19. people can learn more deeply from words and pictures than from words alone—a finding that has been called the multimedia principle
    20. Multimedia instruction is instruction that includes words (e.g., printed or spoken text) and pictures (i.e., static graphics such as illustrations, diagrams, charts, maps, and photos, or dynamic graphics such as animation and video).
    1. Researchers doing such work should focus on developmental and contextual influences on the sources of information individuals of different ages use, the processes by which they form their ASCs and STVs, and the nature of the specific hierarchies of ASCs and STVs being activated for any specific achievement-related choice. Interviews and other methodologies to examine process rather than relations of constructs to outcomes should be used. These include the use of more implicit and projective measures, the use of more time intense ESM and diary methods, the use of more physiological measures, and the more use of intense observation.

      Recommendations for research

    2. about information used and processes involved in the development of children’s STVs

      How are subjective task values developed in adults?

    3. utility value as the aspect of task value

      Much research has been done on utility-value as a measurement of task value. These authors suggest measuring other aspects of task value, such as cost. These authors identify 4 components of STV: intrinsic value, attainment value, utility value, and cost.

    4. We also suggest that individuals’ relative weighting of the various components of STV and the impact of situational demands and characteristics on them will increase with increasing social and cognitive maturity.

      I expect that the weighting of the factors of subjective task value change over time and maturity and are different for adults than children.

    5. change over time in children’s ASCs and STVs

      Has any research been done on academic self concept or subjective task value in adult learners?

    6. (1) Effort cost – the perception of how much effort would need to be exerted to complete a task and whether it is worth doing so; (2) Opportunity cost- the extent to which doing one task takes away from one’s ability or time to do other valued tasks; and (3) Emotional cost -the emotional or psychological costs of pursuing the task, particularly anticipated anxiety and the emotional and social costs of failure

      These are especially important considerations for adult learners who have both opportunity costs to consider because of their competing demands, and emotional costs of dealing with making sacrifices, guilt, or disappointment if they don't meet their own expectations.

    7. 3.2.3. Attainment STV

      I'm not really sure I understand attainment STV

    8. This article describes an update to the Expectancy Value Theory of motivation to include situational factors: Situational Expectancy Value Theory.

      ES = expectancies for success ("individuals' beliefs about how well they will do on an upcoming task") STV = subjective task values ("intrinsic value, attainment value, utility value, and cost") ASC = academic self-concept

    9. perceptions of task difficulty

      Is this a factor in anyone's model of self-regulated learning?

    10. Fourth, we shift to the left side of the model focused more on the world in which individuals mature, their own relatively more stable characteristics, and their own history of experiences that we hypothesize lay the social and experiential background for the ontogeny of within- and between-person differences in the cognitive, affective, and behavioral components of rest of the model.

      This fits with HPL2 and their emphasis on experiences, culture, and individual variability as important components affecting how people learn.

    1. This article described a study where working adults were tested in three different conditions: (1) low structure and error management training, (2) high structure and error management training, and (3) high structure and no error management training.

      Those in the low structure and EMT condition had significantly better learning outcomes. EMT was beneficial in both conditions for older learners, particularly those with higher cognitive ability.

    2. Hypothesis 1: Cognitive ability will moderate the relation between structure and training outcomes such that those lower in ability would benefit from more structure. FAILED

      Hypothesis 2: older learners would benefit from increased structure in training, even when they are high in ability, as a result of diminished fluid‐type abilities, but that younger learners high in ability would not benefit from highly structured training. FAILED

      Hypothesis 3: Error management instructions become more effective for older learners as their ability increases but that ability has less of an influence on the effectiveness of error management instructions for younger learners. SUPPORTED

      Hypothesis 4: metacognition would mediate the effect of structure on task performance. FAILED

      Hypothesis 5: emotional control skills would mediate the relation between the effect of error management instructions and task performance. FAILED

      Hypothesis 6: self‐efficacy for test performance would mediate the effect of instructions on actual task performance. FAILED

    3. Research has demonstrated that the time required for trainees to process training materials typically increases with advancing age (Kubeck et al., 1996).

      They make an argument here that taking too much time to learn can have negative consequences and that while self-paced learning is beneficial for adults, it may take too long. They suggest that combining high structure and error management training can reduce the time for self-paced learning.

    4. some learners will benefit from error management instructions even in highly structured training

      Error management instruction is beneficial for adults, even in highly structured activities where there is less room for error, but especially so for adults with higher cognitive ability.

    5. resource allocation theory, which states that performance on tasks is dependent on the attentional resources available, the degree of self‐regulation during task engagement, and task complexity (Kanfer & Ackerman, 1989),

      Resource allocation theory:

      Performance is dependent on the attentional resources available, the degree of self-regulation during task engagement, and task complexity.

    6. the higher older participants were in cognitive ability the better their performance with the error management instructions

      For older adults, error management instruction was especially beneficial for those with high cognitive ability.

    7. low structure + error management instructions condition was superior overall

      Low structure with error management instruction was the most helpful condition for learning--including learning outcomes in immediate performance and delayed performance and self-efficacy for retention.

    8. This suggests that the error management instructional manipulation was effective but mainly in the low structure condition, when people could actually make errors during practice.

      People need an opportunity to make errors and learn from them in order to benefit from error management instruction.

    9. This suggests that metacognitive skill and confidence in knowledge decline with age

      Need to see more research to support this.

    10. The cognitive abilities that are implicated in learning—such as general reasoning ability, working memory capacity, and processing speed—peak in late adolescence/early adulthood (i.e., the college years, where most research efforts are focused) and decline with age (Cattell, 1987).

      Fluid versus crystallized intelligence

      Fluid intelligence refers to processes like reasoning, working memory, and processing speed (supporting the claims in HWL2), and begins to decline in early/mid adulthood.

      Crystallized intelligence refers to the knowledge that we build through learning and experience, and this continues to grow throughout adulthood.

      Which instructional strategies use fluid intelligence and which use crystallized intelligence?

    11. self‐regulatory processes, cognitive ability, and the effect of structure and instruction in active learning

      Learner variability is important to consider with instructional design. The studies discussed here showed that students with lower cognitive ability benefit from more structure while the students with higher cognitive ability benefit from less structure. Perhaps courses for adults could be designed in a way that allows students to choose more or less structure for assignments.

    12. We did not include the low structure + no instruction condition tested by

      This is interesting. They did not include a condition in their experiment because there was little evidence that it would be effective and they were concerned that it would cause stress for the participants.

    13. given that older learners tend to have greater negative emotional reactions to errors in computer training than younger learners

      Older learners have more negative emotional responses to computer errors. This is especially relevant for distance learning as errors are likely often made and may contribute to feelings of incompetence or other negative emotions.

    14. Results indicated that trainees in the EMT condition outperformed those in the error‐avoidant and error‐training conditions

      Providing instructions that errors are beneficial to learning and providing low structure in training can result in beneficial learning outcomes.

    15. Self‐regulatory processes help sustain focused attention on performance through self‐monitoring and self‐reactions during task execution

      SRL can help to focus the limited resources in resource allocation theory

    16. Resource allocation theory posits that individuals possess limited cognitive resources that can be directed to meet the attentional demands of one or more tasks. When learning a complex task, performance is determined by individual differences in attentional resources, the attentional requirements of the task, and the self‐regulatory processes used to allocate attention across tasks (Kanfer, Ackerman, Murtha, Dugdale, & Nelson, 1994)

      Resource allocation theory sounds like it would be a good theoretical perspective to use in my study.

    17. Over half of working adults in the United States will be over the age of 40 by the year 2012

      What is this rate now? In Maine?

    18. Active learning approaches are more beneficial than passive strategies (such as classroom/lecture approaches and didactic step‐by‐step approaches) for adaptive transfer (Bell & Kozlowski, 2008; Keith & Frese, 2008).

      Active learning has the added benefit of increasing adaptive transfer.

    19. Research has demonstrated the efficacy of active learning approaches that encourage exploration and emphasize the learner's responsibility in their own development

      Active learning can be beneficial for adults, encouraging exploration and SRL.

    20. Changes in self‐regulatory skills such as the ability to monitor and manage one's performance are also likely to occur with age,

      This is interesting. SRL abilities decline with age?

    21. abilities that are implicated in learning, such as working memory, typically decline over the lifespan, whereas levels of experience‐based knowledge typically increase or remain stable

      This is the same thing that they were saying in How We Learn II. Reasoning declines by knowledge increases. Here, they are saying working memory declines.

    22. research shows that older adults typically take longer and learn less in training than younger adults

      A noted difference in how adults learn: older adults take longer and learn less in training than younger adults.

    23. The aging of the global labor force necessitates a focus on how to train and retrain workers over the age of 40

      Need for educating older adults.

    1. We find that multiple instructional methods facilitate learningamong this group; however, self paced training makes the largest positive impact on trainingperformance among older learners

      The did find that there were positive effects of lecture, modeling, and discovery-based learning, but the most important factor was the option for self-paced learning.

    2. Training that occurred insmaller groups or training that enabled learners to progress at their own pace was associatedwith higher levels of observed training performance relative to training occurred in largegroups or training that was paced

      These results support the benefit of small groups and self-paced learning for older adults.

    3. The references used in this article are pretty old. The article is written in 2003, yet few of the references are within the prior 10 years.

    4. the lecture method may prove useful under certain conditions: (1) if the older learnerperceives the content as relevant, (2) the content builds on their current knowledge base,and (3) the information is presented in a logical sequence (Knowles, 1990; Tough, 1979).

      Conditions supporting the use of lecture as an instructional strategy.

    5. Research has shown that attentional deficits re-sult in inadequate registration of instructional materials

      Attention deficits can make it more difficult for older adults to focus on coursework.

    6. The decrement is slight for simple tasks but increases monotoni-cally as task complexity increases

      Complex tasks can take even longer for older adults to complete.

    7. cognitive response times slow with age

      Older adults can have slower mental processes.

    8. These projections indicate that a great many people will work past

      The number of adults working past the traditional age of retirement is growing. Engaging adults in continuing education is becoming more important.

    9. Callahan, J. S., Kiker, D. S., & Cross, T. (2003). Does Method Matter? A Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Training Method on Older Learner Training Performance. Journal of Management, 29(5), 663–680. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0149-2063_03_00029-1

    Tags

    Annotators

    1. Because of the variability in learning contexts, there is a need for methods to determine whether a technology is well suited to the ecological learning niche in which it may be used.

      This is an important consideration for studying the effectiveness of technology for learning and for any strategy to improve the effectiveness of learning. Context matters.

    2. An immedi-ate goal of such research should be to identify promising interventions and determine their potential efficacy and generalizability. Researchers examining the determinants of learning and development through the life span should look beyond prior achievement and also examine ability, attitude, motivation, and self-regulatory processes for all learners

      The authors recommend research on self-regulation throughout the lifespan.

    3. Results from such studies could elucidate whether self-regulation is a skill that is fundamental to academic and life success, whether the develop-ment of self-regulation can be sustained over time, and at what developmen-tal time period(s) practitioners might most effectively target self-regulation interventions.

      I hope to answer some of these questions with my own research.

    4. “to learn” is an active verb naming a dynamic process through which humans continuously adapt, through conscious and unconscious physiological and cognitive responses, to the unique circumstances and experiences they encounter.
    5. People continue to learn and grow through-out the life span, and their choices, motivation, and capacity for self-regulation, as well as their circumstances, influence how much and how well they learn and transfer their learn-ing to new situations.

      These are other factors that are important to understand about how people learn: interest, motivation, and self-regulation. Adults in higher education are often interested and motivated to learn in their degree program, so the most salient factor for their success, particularly in distance education that lacks the supports inherent in live classrooms, is self-regulated learning.

    6. Both reasoning and knowledge increase up to early adulthood, when their paths begin to diverge: abilities to quickly generate, transform, and manipulate factual information begin to decline, while knowledge levels remain stable or increase

      These are essentially the two differences between how children learn and how adults learn: reasoning declines while knowledge increases. It will be important for faculty to understand this and use instructional strategies that capitalize on these differences.

    7. Most research in this area has focused on K-12 students.

      Yes, unfortunately, most self-regulated learning research has been conducted in the classroom or lab with K-12 students, not adults and rarely in vivo in the home environment.

    8. most workers can expect to have multiple jobs and even several careers, pursued at many organizations, over the course of their working life.

      This has also changed the need for adults to continue to pursue higher education, whether through individual courses or as part of a degree.

    9. research does indicate that older adults can learn in training environments if that environment is designed to meet the individual needs of learners (Callahan et al., 2003; Charness and Schumann, 1992)

      Does this translate to learning in higher ed at a distance?

    10. This increased autonomy highlights the importance of inter-est, motivation, and the capacity to monitor and regulate their own progress

      These are the essential skills needed for the autonomy of learning that distance education affords: interest, motivation, and self-regulated learning.

    11. the focus is on recognizing and rewarding talent, rather than raising the performance of those who are struggling

      This is true of higher education institutions, although this is beginning to change with the focus on student retention and degree completion.

    12. some abilities (e.g., binding pieces of information together in memory, the ability to provide specific memories, metamemory during retrieval) show relative decline with aging while others (collaborative memory, emotional and motivated memory, acquisition and maintenance of existing knowledge base) show relative preservation with aging

      Look at these areas in further detail

    13. research points to the value of training for older learners that enhances the learner’s self-efficacy, accommodates age-related differences in cognitive capacities and emotional reactions to feedback, uses content that builds on the trainee’s existing knowledge and skills, and has immediate relevance to the trainee.

      Findings relevant to instructional design:

      • enhance self-efficacy
      • accommodate age-related cognitive differences
      • include positive feedback
      • build on existing knowledge
      • content should be immediately relevant
    14. Developmental activities that do not provide the learner with a sense of growth and accomplishment are unlikely to be sustained as people age (Carstensen et al., 1999)

      Growth and accomplishment are important factors in motivation for adults.

    15. as people age and develop expertise in domains associated with their work and other aspects

      This is an important instructional design implication--instructional activities should rely less on reasoning to develop understanding and more on the application of prior knowledge and schema integration.

    Tags

    Annotators

    1. Because it is a limited resource, it is possible to use up attentional reserves

      attentional capacity is fixed--cognitive load; although multiple modalities can be processed simultaneously--dual coding.

    2. Capacity models acknowledge individual differences in attentional resources and the ability to allocate these resources between multiple tasks. In addition, and according to the capacity model, some individuals have greater attentional resources than others to begin with (Kane & Engle, 2002).

      This may help to explain some of the variation we saw in students.

    3. distraction in its various forms impairs learning and subsequent recall of information
    4. The top of the figure represents posttest scores in the no-distraction condition, and thus the bars reflect the amount of impairment from a student’s normal level of performance. Conversation had the largest negative effect, impairing performance by 30% from baseline, followed by high-arousal video, video game, and texting/social media. Unexpectedly, folding laundry impaired posttest performance by over 20%, which is equivalent to two full letter grades. Least impairing was the low-arousal video, yet this condition still lowered scores by 15%, or one and a half letter grades. These results indicate that the presence of distraction during learning can lower subsequent test scores by multiple letter grades.

      This study illustrates the educational impact of different types of distractions during learning. Conversation was the most distracting and resulted in the lowest levels of learning compared to a mild distraction like low-arousal video.

    5. Older students tended to do better than younger students in the distraction conditions (r[109] = .21, p = .003). However, there was no significant relationship between age and performance on the baseline posttest (r[109] = .08, p = .24), indicating that age may play specifically a role in the level of impairment caused by distraction during learning

      Adults may be better able to manage distractions as their lives becoming increasingly more complex with more responsibilities.

    6. One notable exception to the agreement between objective and subjective measures of learning was the high-arousal video, which was an exciting sword-fighting scene. Although students did not feel distracted by the high-arousal video, their performance was very poor. This indicates that students are unaware of how certain TV programs can capture attention and induce deficits in learning

      This is an important finding as students are not always a good judge of their learning and the impact of the distractions.

    1. A few articles construed engagement through its opposite, by operationalizing and measuring disengagement, primarily through off-task behaviors, disruptions, or inactivity (Donovan et al., 2010, Hayden et al., 2011, Rowe et al., 2011). Yet some research has argued that disengagement or disaffection is not merely the bipolar opposite of engagement, but its own unipolar construct (Skinner, Kindermann, & Furrer, 2009).

      The construct we studied was distraction, which limited the ability of the student to engage or made it more difficult to engage.

    1. Any transcript is already an abstraction for a particular purpose, and oneof the challenges of any transcription procedure is determining what levelof detail should be included in the representation of both talk and actions.The level of detail is usually determined by the purposes of the analysis orthe theoretical assumptions underlying it. In this case, for instance, not ev-ery action is described.

      This is the approach I used when annotating the screencast videos. I did not annotate every action--just those that were important for the purpose of our analysis--distractions.

    2. Inspired by Bakhtin’s (1979) concept of polyphony and a microgeneticapproach to the development of activity (Rowe & Wertsch, 2002; Vygotsky,1978), and to capture the relationships among actions and talk carried outby multiple agents as they develop over the course of an activity, I have usedthe musical score as the model for constructing the transcripts

      Rowe developed a new method of transcription and analysis that included both language and activity using a microgenetic approach and modeling the annotation of simultaneous actions on a musical score.

    3. We can see texts as shaped by two sets of causal powers and bythe tension between them: on the one hand, social structures and socialpractices; and on the other hand, the agency of people involved in theevents of which they are a part

      This is analogous to the social structures and practices of the design of a course and expected contributions and the agency of the learner and how they act.

    1. When text is not critically analyzed, oppressive discursive practices, such as marginalization and oppression, are taken as accepted norms

      It can also be said that if we do not critically analyze the embodied experiences of nontraditional students in distance education, "oppressive...practices...are taken as accepted norms", continuing to disadvantage these learners.

  6. Oct 2020
    1. Discourse (the words and language we use) shapes our role and engagement with power within a social structure. CDA emphasizes when looking at discourse three levels of analysis: the text, the discursive practice, and the sociocultural practice. The text is a record of a communicated event that reproduces social power. Discursive practices are ways of being in the world that signify accepted social roles and identities. Finally, the sociocultural comprises the distinct context [Page 370]where discourse occurs.

      How does this play out in an analysis of action? I think the discourse is the actions the students is taking, the discursive practice would be the prosocial behaviors of the student that conform to instructor expectations, and the sociocultural practice is the home context where the practice of being a student intersects with the home life and other identities of the students.

    1. This article introduces a special issue of Qualitative Inquiry that focuses on using "concept" as method in the education and social sciences. They describe this exploratory approach where the method emerges during the process of research.

    2. As we wrote at the beginning of this article, the purpose of this special issue was to explore the possibilities of using concept as method in educational and social science inquiry. In short, we asked authors to begin inquiry with a concept instead of a preexisting methodology with a predetermined process in which the researcher identifies a problem, conducts a literature review, designs a study using existing research designs (e.g., in qualitative research—case study, ethnography, grounded theory), collects data, analyzes data, and writes it up. The researcher using a concept would not necessarily use conventional methods of “data collection” (e.g., interviewing, observation, survey) or methods of “data analysis” (e.g., grounded theory analysis, thematic analysis, coding, statistical analysis). Instead, the concept would orient her thinking and her practices, which might or might not include conventional practices.

      This is what I did with the research study. The concept was the "experience of nontraditional learners in distance education". While I did do some of the traditional preparation for the study, I had to remain flexible, allowing the data to emerge as I prodded for ways to observe and understand that experience. There were no other known studies that had painted the picture of the nontraditional learner in distance education as they participate in their distance learning courses. Because much of this experience is internal to the learner, I had to think about ways of observing their behaviors in combination with interviews to help them explicate that experience and what they were thinking during those behaviors.

    1. Chapter 4, Evidence-based pedagogy: Do pedagogical features enhance student learning?, discusses the use of "pedagogical aids" in psychology textbooks, such as chapter outlines, bold terms, review questions, discussion questions, and online companions. An interesting finding was that students who took quizzes online did not perform as well as students who took quizzes in class. By putting restrictions on the online quizzes, the researchers were able to improve exam scores. Students were no longer "cheating", trying to perform well on the quiz by looking up answers and sharing them. Instead, they are forced to read the text more carefully.

    1. Distance learning has been defined as “planned learning that normally occurs in a different place from teaching and as a result requires special tech-niques of course design, special instructional techniques, special methods of communication by electronic and other technology, as well as special organi-zational and administrative arrangements” (Moore and Kearsley, 1996, p. 2).
    2. Embodied cognition is the idea that cognition is shaped by every aspect of an organism’s experience, including the bodily system and ways the body interacts with its environment (see Yannier et al., 2016).
    3. Key Affordances of Learning Technologies
      1. Interactivity
      2. Adaptivity
      3. Feedback
      4. Choice
      5. Nonlinear access
      6. Linked representations
      7. Open-ended learner input
      8. Communication with other people
    4. An affordance has been defined as a feature or property of an object that makes possible a particular way of relating to the object for the person who
    5. Researchers in the field use the term affordances to refer to oppor-tunities that a technology makes possible related to learning and instruction (Collins et al., 2000)
    6. Purposefully teaching the language and practices specific to particular disciplines, such as science, his-tory, and mathematics, is critical to helping students develop deep understanding in these subjects

      This helps to reduce the cognitive load by placing fewer demands on working memory to try to remember what the terminology means, but it also helps to build representations of these words in their mental schema.

    7. Effective instruction depends on understand-ing the complex interplay among learners’ prior knowledge, experiences, motivations, interests, and language and cognitive skills; educators’ own experiences and cultural influences; and the cultural, social, cognitive, and emotional characteristics of the learning environment.

      This is the theoretical foundation of the science of learning

    8. “a model of student cognition and learning in the domain, a set of beliefs about the kinds of observations that will provide evidence of students’ competencies, and an interpretation process for making sense of the evidence” (National Research Council, 2001, p. 44)

      Features of effective assessment

    9. Effec-tive formative assessment articulates the learning targets, provides feedback to teachers and students about where they are in relation to those targets, and prompts adjustments to instruction by teachers, as well as changes to learn-ing processes and revision of work products by students (Andrade, 2016).

      Features of effective formative feedback

    10. teachers can guide learners in developing sound academic habits by offering rewards, that effective feedback targets the specific stage a learner has reached and offers guidance the learner can immediately apply, and that helping learners establish connections with knowledge they already have assists them in learning new material. We noted that when learners are guided in constructing conceptual models for themselves, such models are par-ticularly useful in helping them understand and organize what they are learning

      Methods for facilitating learning skills for students

    11. These accounts of disciplinary learning are informed by insights from the learning sciences that becoming more proficient in a domain is not simply a matter of acquiring knowledge. Rather, learning in a content area involves a process of engaging in disciplinary practices that require learners to use knowledge in the context of discipline-specific activities and tasks

      The selection of appropriate instructional strategies should account for the discipline--learning in a discipline is more than just the acquisition of knowledge but includes specific types of reasoning and activities not common to other disciplines.

    12. Stereotype threat is believed to undermine performance by lowering executive functioning and heightening anxiety and worry about what others will think if the individual fails, which robs the person of working memory resources.

      This supports my assertion that stereotype threat adds undue cognitive load.

    13. Steele has noted that stereotype threat is most likely in areas of performance in which individuals are particularly motivated

      Stereotype threat is an important factor in student performance that faculty should be aware of, particularly with marginalized students and adult learners who may not identify as successful students, but how does it affect their own performance as instructors? If they care about teaching, but don't identify primarily as instructors, does this limit their teaching ability?

    14. This integration often means tak-ing on the particular knowledge, goals, and practices valued by that group (Nasir, 2002

      Perhaps faculty instructional decisions are influenced by their peer group and social identity.

    15. Social dimensions of identity are linked to social roles or characteristics that make one recogniz-able as a member of a group, such as being a woman or a Christian (Tajfel and Turner, 1979).

      How do social dimensions of identity influence instructional decisions?

    16. priming learners to adopt a multicultural mindset may support more-divergent think-ing about multiple possible goals related to achievement, family, identity, and

      Is this the same for instructors? Does priming them to adult a multicultural mindset support more divergent thinking about instructional strategies and students' needs?

    17. performance goals tend to support better im-mediate retrieval of information, while mastery goals tend to support better long-term retention

      Students may prefer performance goals because they more readily demonstrate success in the short term, whereas mastery goals take longer to realize.

    18. learners who strongly endorse mas-tery goals tend to enjoy novel and challenging tasks (Pintrich, 2000; Shim et al., 2008; Witkow and Fuligni, 2007; Wolters, 2004), demonstrate a greater willingness to expend effort, and engage higher-order cognitive skills during learning (Ames, 1992; Dweck and Leggett, 1988; Kahraman and Sungur, 2011; Middleton and Midgley, 1997). Mastery students are also persistent—even in the face of failure—and frequently use failure as an opportunity to seek feedback and improve subsequent performance

      Is there a way to encourage students to develop mastery goals versus performance goals?

    19. in some circumstances external rewards such as praise or prizes can help to encourage engagement and persistence, and they may not harm intrinsic motivation over the long term, provided that the extrinsic reward does not undermine the individual’s sense of autonomy and control over her behavior

      Instructors should take care that external motivators, like grades, do not undermine student autonomy and control.

    20. Self-determination theory posits that behavior is strongly influenced by three universal, innate, psychological needs—autonomy (the urge to control one’s own life), competence (the urge to experience mastery), and psycho-logical relatedness (the urge to interact with, be connected to, and care for others).
    21. five characteristics of informational texts were associated with both interest and better recall: (1) the information was important, new, and valued; (2) the information was unexpected; (3) the text supported readers in making connections with prior knowledge or experience; (4) the text contained imagery and descriptive language; and (5) the author attempted to relate information to readers’ background knowledge using, for example, comparisons and analogies (Wade et al., 1999)

      These factors can be used to help faculty select appropriate texts for their subject.

    22. some studies have suggested that task valuation seems to be the strongest predictor of behaviors associated with motivation, such as choosing topics and making decisions about partici-pation in training

      Valuing the task is important for all learners, but particularly for adults.

    23. (1) whether a topic or task is useful for achieving learning or life goals, (2) the importance of a topic or task to the learner’s identity or sense of self, (3) whether a task is enjoyable or interesting, and (4) whether a task is worth pursuing (Eccles et al., 1983; Wigfield and Eccles, 2000)

      These constructs align with adult learning theory

    24. Another important aspect of self-attribution involves beliefs about whether one belongs in a particular learning situation

      This is particularly important for adult students in college as they may attribute their failures to the idea that they do not belong in college, a form of stereotype threat.

    25. improve self-efficacy for learning

      Strategies for improving self-efficacy in learners include helping students to set appropriate goals and helping them to break them down into subgoals, and providing feedback on progress so students can attribute their success to their own efforts.

    26. Self-efficacy theory (Bandura, 1977), which is incorporated into several models of motivation and learning, posits that the perceptions learners have about their competency or capabilities are critical to accomplishing a task or attaining other goals (Bandura, 1977).
    27. motivational systems perspective, viewing motivation as a set of psychological mechanisms and processes, such as those related to setting goals, engagement in learning, and use of self-regulatory strategies
    28. mindset: the set of assump-tions, values, and beliefs about oneself and the world that influence how one perceives, interprets, and acts upon one’s environment (Dweck, 1999).
    29. less likely to seek challenges and persist than those who focus on learning itself.• Learners who focus on learning rather than performance or who have intrinsic motivation to learn tend to set goals for themselves and regard increasing their competence to be a goal. • Teachers can be effective in encouraging students to focus on learning instead of performance, helping them to develop a learning orientation.

      summary of findings from research on motivation

    30. People are motivated to develop competence and solve problems by rewards and punishments but often have intrinsic reasons for learning that may be more powerful. • Learners tend to persist in learning when they face a manageable chal-lenge (neither too easy nor too frustrating) and when they see the value and utility of what they are learning.• Children and adults who focus mainly on their own performance (such as on gaining recognition or avoiding negative judgments) are

      summary of findings from research on motivation

    31. Motivation is a condition that activates and sustains behavior toward a goal
    32. Learners routinely generate their own novel understanding of the information they are accumulating and productively extend their knowledge by making logical connections between pieces of information

      This is constructivism

    33. prior knowledge can also lead to bias by causing people to not attend to new information and to rely on existing schema to solve new problems.

      This is important for working with adult learners--they may be resistant to new content that does not fit their mental models.

    34. The tendency to prefer simple, broad explanations over more complex ones may affect what people learn and the inferences they draw.

      people tend to prefer simple explanations, so they sometimes oversimplify explanations in peer teaching.

    35. Students who prepared to teach others performed better on the assessment than students who simply read and studied the material.

      Even just preparing to teach and not the act of teaching itself has benefits for learning.

    36. prior knowledge moderated the effectiveness of self-explanation and that the more prior knowledge of chemistry the students reported having, the more self-explanation appeared to help them learn

      Self-explanation works when there is some prior knowledge that students can draw on to help them understand what they are learning. If there is limited background knowledge, this strategy is not effective.

    37. Self-explanationis a strategy in which learners produce explanations of material or of their thought processes while they are reading, answering ques-tions, or solving problems.
    38. elaborative interrogation does not come naturally to most children and adults; training people to use this skill—and particularly training in asking deep questions—has been shown to have a positive impact on comprehension, learning, and memory

      elaborative interrogation needs to be taught

    39. Elaborative interrogation is a strategy in which learners are asked, or are prompted to ask themselves, questions that invite deep reasoning, such as why, how, what-if, and what-if not (as opposed to shallow questions such as who, what, when, and where) (Gholson et al., 2009).
    40. The authors concluded that the drawing was more effective in this case because the learning involved spatial relations

      The choice of drawing or summarizing as a learning strategy depends on the spatial nature of the content to be learned.

    41. compare their drawings to author-generated pictures (Van Meter et al., 2006). Similarly, providing learners with a list of relevant elements to be included in drawings and partial drawings helps learners create more complete drawings and bolsters learning (Schwamborn et al., 2010)

      Strategies to improve the effectiveness of drawing as a learning tool.

    42. To summarize is to create a verbal description that distills the most important information from a set of materials. Similarly, when learners create drawings, they use graphic strategies to portray important concepts and relationships. In both activities, learners must take the material they are learning and transform it into a different representation

      This involves deeper thinking about the content and making connections to what is already known.

    43. a fairly consistent trend in which the development of knowledge remains steady as reasoning capacity (the ability to quickly and accurately manipulate multiple distinct pieces of factual information to make inferences) drops off (Salthouse, 2010).

      The ability to quickly manipulate and integrate information declines in adulthood.

    44. Reasoning ability is a major determinant of learning throughout life, and it is through reasoning, especially in contexts that allow people to pursue their interests, that people develop knowledge throughout their life span (Ackerman, 1996; Cattell, 1987)

      Should adults explicitly be taught reasoning strategies?

    45. Problem-based learning emphasizes that memories are not simply stored to allow future reminiscing, but are formed so that they can be used, reshaped, and flexibly adapted to serve broad reasoning needs. The goal of problem-based learning is to instill in learners flexible knowledge use, effective problem-solving skills, self-directed learning, collaboration, and intrinsic motivation. These goals are in line with several of the goals identified in other contexts as important for success in life and work (National Research Council, 2012b).

      This explains the importance and effectiveness of problem-based learning.

    46. We have seen that building a knowledge base requires doing three things: accumulating information (in part by noticing what matters in a situation and is therefore worth attending to); tagging this information as relevant or not; and integrating it across separate episodes.

      Processes required for building a knowledge base. To integrate and extend knowledge, they need to reason to create understanding.

    47. these declines are offset by increases in knowledge accumulated through the life span, which empowers new learning

      Instructors should capitalize on the broad base of knowledge adults bring to the classroom.

    48. An implication of this ability is that students need to learn to see the relevant information in the environment to help differentiate concepts, such as the differ-ence between a positive and a negative curvilinear slope

      Practicing identifying important information in novel circumstances seems like a way to help novices improve this ability.

    49. A central focus of HPL I was how experts structure their knowledge of a domain in ways that allow them to readily categorize new information and determine its relevance to what they already know. Be-cause novices lack these frameworks, they have more difficulty assimilating and later recalling new information they encounter.

      It is important for instructors to structure knowledge in ways that match the mental schema their novice students bring with them so that they can better categorize new information and determine relevance of the new information.

    50. The shift toward gist-based memory with age can lead older adults to be more likely than younger adults to remember the “big picture” or important implications (McGinnis et al., 2008). The shift toward pattern completion also may enable older adults to note connections among events and to integrate across experiences, abilities that often are considered part of the wisdom that is acquired with age

      These are the benefits of the shift that happens with aging: adults more likely to remember the big picture and implications, and to make connections across events and experiences.

    51. Binding and pattern completion are likely to be part of the explanation for why older adults are more likely than younger adults to retain the “gist” of an event but not its specific details.

      Also, older adults are better able to remember the moral of a story rather than details. This begins in middle age.

    52. Normal aging is accompanied by a gradual decline in episodic memory that begins as early as the twenties and accelerates precipi-tously after the age of 60 (Salthouse, 2009). This decline is associated with degradation in a key aspect of episodic memory: the ability to anchor or bind an event to one’s personal past and to a location (e.g., Fandakova et al., 2014; Wheeler et al., 1997).

      Is this contrary to what they said above about adults remembering more aspects of episodes? How does this decline in episodic memory affect learning in adults?

    53. An adult’s more mature neural structures and networks manage to retain many more of the features of the original experience.

      How does this affect instructional design? If adults are better at remembering experiences, should instructional include more experiential learning?

    54. Working-memory performance declines beginning in middle age (Bopp and Verhaeghen, 2005; Park et al., 2002; Verhaeghen and Salthouse, 1997)

      This has implications for the design of instruction for adult learners. Instructors should be especially cautious about the cognitive load placed on learners. Distractions in the home environment for students in distance education also contributes to cognitive load.

    55. he way a learner will retrieve particular knowledge and skills varies with the cues that trigger the reconstruction; the cues, in turn, are partly dependent on the emotional, social, and cognitive state of the learner at that moment.

      Multiple varied assessments are more appropriate for demonstrating knowledge rather than a single assessment.

    56. When students shifted perspectives, they recalled new information that they had not recalled the first time. Only the retrieval conditions had changed. Students had encoded and stored the same story, but what they recalled depended on the cues to which they were attending.

      This is fascinating. The retrieval prompt can be important for determining which knowledge is recalled, privileging that information in memory.

    57. if a person fails to remember a fact or skill at a particular time, that does not necessarily mean he does not possess the necessary knowledge

      the right cues might not have been present to prompt the recall

    58. or long-term skill development and learning to occur, the distributed pattern of inputs contributing to the current experience (visual, motor, auditory, emotional, etc.) must be consolidated and integrated with stored memory representations from prior experiences.

      retroactivation

    59. Retrieval processes are triggered and guided by retrieval cues in the learner’s environ-ment (e.g., prompts, questions, or problems to be solved) or in the learner’s mind (other thoughts or ideas that have some relationship to the memory)

      retrieval cues

    60. Retrieval refers to the processes involved in reconstructing memories of past experiences.

      retrieval

    61. Over time and with sleep, an encoded memory may be consolidated, a process whereby the neural connections associated with it are strengthened and the memory, or representation of the experience, is stabilized, or stored

      consolidation

    62. “intrinsic” executive control, or a person’s ability to direct herself, change course when needed, and strategize in the absence of explicit rules to follow
    63. Interventions that target social and emotional learning may be beneficial in part because they improve executive function (Riggs et al., 2006)

      Is there a connection between SEL and EF?

    64. Self-regulation refers to learning that is focused by means of metacog-nition, strategic action, and motivation to learn.
    65. refers to cognitive and neural pro-cessing that involves the overall regulation of thinking and behavior and the higher-order processes that enable people to plan, sequence, initiate, and sustain their behavior toward some goal, incorporating feedback and making adjustments
    66. Metacognition is the ability to monitor and regulate one’s own cognitive processes and to consciously regulate behavior, including affective behavior
    67. The learner shapes that process through decisions and capacities to orchestrate his learning, but many aspects of learn-ing occur below the level of consciousness.

      Some learning is subconscious--not everything needs to be thought about.

    68. Ways to do this include providing just-in-time access to critical knowledge, worked-out examples, assistance with hypothesis generation, and advice as needed.

      Guided discovery strategies

    69. experts may not realize how much of their understanding stems from perceptual learning. As mentioned previously, once one has learned how to see something, it is hard to remember what it looked like when one was a novice. Experts may not realize that novices cannot see what they themselves see because it seems so self-apparent to their perception

      This is the curse of expertise. Once one has changed their perception through learning, they are often unable to perceive things in the way they used to.

    70. it is doing the activity, not being explicitly instructed, that brings the gains

      Procedural learning requires extensive practice--there is no shortcut. It also requires practice, not just instruction.

    71. Implicitpattern learning, also called statistical learning, involves the learning of regular patterns in a particular environment without actively intending to do so.

      Implicit pattern learning requires extensive exposure.

    72. Peer observation is a key source of information about descriptive norms: standards for conduct among socially related people, which are ac-

      Descriptive norms are important for learning because students will begin to moderate their conduct based on observations of their peers. This can be helpful in peer learning.

    73. The researchers found that for modeling to be a successful learning method, learners must not only pay attention to the critical components of the modeled behavior but also ignore irrelevant features of the behavior or skill; they must also be able to remember and replicate what they have observed.

      Observational learning or modeling is most successful when the student is directed to attend to the important aspects of the behavior and to ignore others, then given the opportunity to remember and replicate what they have learned.

    74. for observational learning has been called “no-trial learning” (Bandura, 1965) because it is even faster than the one-trial learning observed in animals that have a strong built-in tendency to form certain associations

      Observational learning allows others to acquire new skills without having to figure them out on their own.

    75. predictable rewards actually reduce the durability of habits. That is, bad habits are often harder to extinguish when they are only intermittently rewarded, and the benefits of good habits may seem unclear when one takes the reward for granted.

      Intermittent rewards are more beneficial for habit development.

    76. The gradual learning and unlearning of habits follows principles of condi-tioning, a nonconscious form of learning in which one automatically adjusts one’s decisions and behaviors when particular and familiar contextual cues or triggers are present.

      Habit formation is a type of learning.

    77. motor learning to improve her finger work, perceptual learningto pick out chord progressions from recordings, and observational learningby watching others’ live and recorded performances. Practice and regimenta-tion figure prominently in her training. Her playing has improved considerably with individual lessons and her accompanying efforts to use both verbal and example-based instruction to improve.

      Learning procedures: motor learning, perceptual learning, observational learning, verbal and example-based instruction.

    78. As she works, Kayla is likely to engage in several types and applications of learning. She will probably learn both key terms and rules: for she will learn that “hypotenuse” is the term for the longest side of a right triangle and how to find the length of any hypotenuse using a formula. She will encodethe formula in words or a picture so that she can later retrieve the rule for a test. She may learn to create and transform a spatial model that provides an intuitively compelling justification for the theorem. She may learn to linkthe spatial model to algebraic notation, and she may learn procedures to ma-nipulate this symbolic notationto provide a formal proof of the theorem. She will learn to apply the Pythagorean theorem to closely related problems like finding the distance between two coordinates on a computer screen. She may even learn how to transfer the bigger concept to other contexts such as analyzing a communication network (Metcalfe, 2013).

      Learning processes: rules, encoding, retrieval, spatial model, linking, procedures, application, transfer.

    79. People are willing to work harder to learn the content and skills they are emotional about, and they are emotionally interested when the content and skills they are learning seem useful and connected to their motivations and future goals.

      This relates to research on relevance for motivation (like Keller) and the principle of Knowles' adult learning theory that says that adults need their learning to be immediately applicable.

    80. Quite literally, it is neurobiologically impossible to think deeply about or remember information about which one has had no emotion because the healthy brain does not waste energy processing information that does not matter to the individual (Immordino-Yang, 2015).

      Mattering matters! If there is no emotional connection to the content, such as curiosity or motivation to learn, the information will not be remembered. The brain is too efficient to learn something that is not meaningful.

    81. extensive research now makes clear that the brain networks supporting emotion, learning, and memory are intricately and fundamentally intertwined (Panksepp and Biven, 2012), even for experts in technical do-mains such as mathematics (Zeki et al., 2014).

      Emotion is intricately connected to learning and memory.

    82. Brain development and functioning, like the learning it supports, is socially contextualized. It happens in the context of experiences, social relationships, and cognitive opportunities as subjectively perceived and emotionally expe-rienced by the learner. Cultural norms and goals shape how and what people think. This is true even when a person is working alone or independently.

      This is important because many adult learners in distance education are working alone or independently and think that social interaction is not necessary for learning.

    83. the proposition that all learning is a social process shaped by and infused with a system of cultural meaning (Nasir and Hand, 2006; National Research Council, 2009; Tomasello, 2016). This work bridges the worlds of home and school. It examines how culturally defined expectations and the ways caregivers in a community engage with their children interact with school learning: the context and the content of what one learns in the structured setting of a school.

      How does home affect adult learners? How do family expectations shape the student experience? Do families encourage adult learners to talk about their learning at home and provide time and space for them to do their work?

    84. Segall and colleagues (1966). This work challenged the assumption that people everywhere, regardless of their backgrounds, see the world in the same way because they share the same perceptual system. It showed that people living in urban, industrialized environments are more susceptible to the Muller-Lyer illusion (the perception that a set of lines of the same length, but flanked by angles pointing inward (<) or outward (>) are actually different lengths) than people who live in physical environments in which straight lines and right angles are not often seen.

      What abilities do adults have or lack that instructors in distance education are not aware of because of the differences in life experiences?

    85. The social practices of school, such as coordinated activities and routines, reflect the culture of that school and the goals and values of the larger society in which the school is embedded. Individuals learn to navigate that culture and may do so in different ways that reflect their own unique experiences within their homes and communities.

      This can be problematic for first-generation students or those who are new to distance education where there are a whole new set of social norms for students to learn that are not necessarily made explicit, such as how and when to contact an instructor versus a peer and with which types of questions or problems.

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