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  1. Oct 2020
    1. The social practices of school, such as coordinated activities and routines, reflect the culture of that school and the goals and values of the larger society in which the school is embedded. Individuals learn to navigate that culture and may do so in different ways that reflect their own unique experiences within their homes and communities.

      This can be problematic for first-generation students or those who are new to distance education where there are a whole new set of social norms for students to learn that are not necessarily made explicit, such as how and when to contact an instructor versus a peer and with which types of questions or problems.

    2. While humans share basic brain structures and processes, as well as fundamental experiences such as relationships with family, developmental stages, and much more, each of these phenomena is shaped by the individual’s precise experiences. Learning does not happen in the same way for all people because cultural influences pervade development from the beginning of life

      This is where we will see learner variability. It will be helpful to understand some of the brain structures and processes that most of us have in common, but we also need to adapt instruction to account for the variability that each learner brings to the classroom.

    3. Research-ers have also pointed out that the research design and methodology used in laboratory-based cognitive psychology and neuroscience research often cannot be practically applied to classroom settings (Oliver and Conole, 2003; Smeyers and Depaepe, 2013). In other words, one of the major ongoing challenges for educational research is that findings from the studies examining fundamental learning processes require substantial translation and interpretation in order to be applicable to practice

      Lab studies often do not translate easily to the classroom and often require interpretation.

    4. As documented by Henrich and colleagues and by others (Henrich et al., 2010a; Nielsen et al., 2017), the social and behavioral sciences have relied very heavily on study subjects from cultures that are Western, educated, industrialized, rich, and democratic, or “WEIRD” (thus, this issue of potential sample bias is known as the WEIRD problem). These researchers also noted that a substantial proportion of research subjects are college students and thus are also disproportionately younger as a group than adults in general. This issue is a particular challenge with laboratory-based research. Field research in real-world settings can much more readily include diverse populations. Findings based only on research with WEIRD subjects cannot be assumed to characterize human beings in general because this population is not repre-sentative of the entire human population

      Lab studies are problematic because of their samples--they are not representative of the variety of learners we will encounter in higher education and the conditions do not represent authentic learning environments.

    5. “Learn” is an active verb; it is something people do, not something that happens to them. People are not passive recipients of learning, even if they are not always aware that the learning process is happening

      This is the theory of constructivism.

    6. learning involves myriad processes that interact over time to influence the way people make sense of the world.

      This is in contrast to the linear and transactional view of learning that were popular.

    7. Specifically, it is now possible to move beyond the idea of an “average” learner to embrace and explain variation among individuals.

      There is no "average" learner, but we also need to be cautious about grouping students by arbitrary and baseless characteristics, like learning styles. Variability in learners can be addressed with good instructional design.

    8. learning that occurs outside of compulsory educational environments is a function of the learner’s motivation, interests, and oppor-tunities.

      Higher education isn't really compulsory education, so we can't treat students like a captive audience. Adults will leave if they are not getting what they need.

    9. People continue to learn and grow through-out the life span, and their choices, motivation, and capacity for self-regulation, as well as their circumstances, influence how much and how well they learn and transfer their learn-ing to new situations

      Important for adult learners: choices, motivation, self-regulation, circumstances

    10. Purposefully teaching the language and practices specific to particular disciplines, such as science, his-tory, and mathematics, is critical to helping students develop deep understanding in these subjects.

      Perhaps think of this as a cultural orientation. Before embarking on a foreign exchange, we would prepare by learning about the location and learning the language. When embarking on study in a field, it would be appropriate to highlight important vocabulary, values in the field, and standard procedures.

    11. A disparate body of research points to the importance of engaging the learner in directing his own learn-ing by, for example, providing targeted feedback and support in developing metacognitive skills, challenges that are well matched to the learner’s current capacities, and support in setting and pursuing meaningful goals

      Importance of self-regulated learning and strategies for improving

    12. helping them to set desired learning goals and appropri-ately challenging goals for performance; • creating learning experiences that they value; • supporting their sense of control and autonomy; • developing their sense of competency by helping them to recognize, monitor, and strategize about their learning progress; and • creating an emotionally supportive and nonthreaten-ing learning environment where learners feel safe and valued.

      Strategies for improving motivation

    13. Motivation to learn is fostered for learners of all ages when they perceive the school or learning environment is a place where they “belong” and when the environment promotes their sense of agency and purpose.

      Belonging, agency, and purpose

    14. The effectiveness of learning strategies is influenced by such contextual factors as the learner’s existing skills and prior knowledge, the nature of the material, and the goals for learning. Applying these approaches effectively therefore requires careful thought about how their specific mechanisms could be beneficial for particular learners, set-tings, and learning objectives.

      It is important to understand (1) the learner, (2) the learning context (which can be quite variable in distance education), (3) the nature of the content to be learned, and (4) the goal for learning.

    15. The learning strategies for which there is evidence of effectiveness include ways to help students retrieve information and encourage them to summarize and explain material they are learning, as well as ways to space and struc-ture the presentation of material. Effective strategies to create organized and distinctive knowledge structures encourage learners to go beyond the explicit material by elaborating and to enrich their mental representation of information by calling up and applying it in various contexts

      Several evidence-based strategies here: retrieval practice, summarizing, elaboration, spacing, mental schemas, application in new contexts

    16. Learners routinely generate their own novel understanding of the information they are accumulating and productively extend their knowledge by making logical connections between pieces of information.

      This supports the constructivist view of learning that knowledge is actively constructed in the mind of the learner--not transmitted by the instructor.

    17. and it can facilitate new learning. However, prior knowledge can also lead to bias by causing people to not attend to new information and to rely on existing schema to solve new problems. These biases can be overcome but only through conscious effort

      The flip side of prior knowledge is bias--inattentional bias results when we do not anticipate something. Instructors might need to anticipate this and plan for it instructionally.

    18. Prior knowledge can reduce the attentional demands associated with engaging in well-learned activities

      Here they are referring to cognitive load. Prior knowledge can help to reduce the cognitive load of a learning activity.

    19. The cues available in a learner’s environment are criti-cal for what she will be able to recall; they also play a role in the way the learner begins to integrate new information as knowledge

      This has many implications, such as contextual learning, making connections to prior knowledge.

    20. In order to coordinate these processes, an individual needs to be able to monitor and regulate his own learning. The ability to monitor and regulate learning changes over the life span and can be improved through interventions.

      Self-regulated learning--it can be improved

    21. Research and theory from diverse fields have contributed to an evolving understanding that all learners grow and learn in culturally defined ways in culturally defined contexts. While humans share basic brain structures and processes, as well as fundamental experiences such as relationships with family, age-related stages, and many more, each of these phenomena are shaped by an individual’s precise experiences. Learning does not happen in the same way for all people because cultural influences are influential from the beginning of life

      While all people have similar brain structures and functions, and some features of learning are the same at any age and in any context, our understanding of the learning process is defined through cultural contexts. How people learn cannot be summarized in one succinct theory because of the variability in each learner's experiences and the cultural context of the learning.

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    1. Sometimes administrations use the excuse of financial exigency to try toremove poorly performing faculty or whole departments. Since the processis long and elaborate, administrations usually must be very certain of theirpositions, or faculty members may seek through legal means to retain theirpositions.

      Institutions have no other recourse for tenured faculty who are not interested in improving their skill in teaching.

    2. In1915, the American Association of University Professors (AAUP) wasformed to help protect academic freedom by securing the employment ofU.S. college faculty. A set of policy statements was prepared (now publishedannually—see AAUP,2005) that outlined the conditions under which fac-ulty members could be fired from their positions.

      look up the current policy for any reference of teaching quality

    3. In the latter instance, satisfactory teaching—thatis, neither extraordinarily good nor bad—may be sufficient in the promotiondecision, since research and publication are often deemed more important.In institutions where teaching is more important, a poor research publicationrecord may be ignored, while a moderate or good publication record mayoffset some deficiencies in teaching ability.

      What value is placed on student evaluations in UMS? Is it different on each campus/department?

    4. Candidates for tenure and promotion must collect evidence of their suc-cess in teaching. At most colleges and universities, at the end of each semesterin every course, evaluation data are collected from students.

      Is this the only evidence of teaching effectiveness that is used in tenure decisions?

    5. The higher education institutions also suffer. Part-time faculty typicallyhave no voting rights in the organizational decision-making structure. Theymay seldom attend faculty meetings and participate infrequently in decisionsabout important faculty or institutional matters. Partly as a result, they maynot be fully committed to promoting the interests of the institution. Theirinvolvement in the life of the institution—for example, advising students orparticipating in institutional events and ceremonies—is limited.

      This is really important. It will be difficult for an institution to ensure that part-time faculty understand how adults learn and how to teach in distance education using evidence based strategies. What are the proportions of tenure, tenure-eligible, and part-time faculty at the 7 campuses?

    6. For those who plan ca-reers in institutions of higher education, the perception is that significantprofessional satisfaction is more likely to be forthcoming from noteworthyresearch productivity. Good teachers, in contrast, rarely become ‘‘famous,’’certainly not outside of their own institutions, while good researchers do.

      This helps to explain why teaching is not always valued by faculty and why they may not have been interested to learn how learning happens.

    7. We should also note that faculty participation in governance is especiallycomplex on unionized campuses, due to collective bargaining agreementsand formal grievance procedures

      What does the AFUM contract say about distance education and the SOTL?

    8. The extent of faculty involvement in institutional decision making tendsto vary among institutional types

      This helps to address the institutional type question

    9. a faculty council or senate (variously named at differentcolleges and universities) is the representative body for the discussion of mat-ters of cross-departmental or cross-school concern to faculty in the institu-tion.

      How have the faculty senates at the campuses addressed distance education and teaching?

    10. faculty engage in decision making about mattersof direct concern to their primary common activities—curriculum andteaching

      How is decision making about teaching methods, instructional design, and faculty development conducted at the 7 universities?

    11. Hence, thereare often faculty in the different schools who teach similar courses and belongto the same discipline but seldom interact due to the highly differentiatedstructure of the typical academic organization.

      How does this structure impact peer learning among faculty?

    12. Statewide governing boards seek to ensure responsible use of public re-sources.

      Does Maine have a state governing board? Are they involved in any decision making or policy making regarding distance education or faculty development?

    13. Public higher education, for example,did not become prominent in the United States until the1950s, and thesesomewhat newer institutions are much more subject to standardization andbureaucratization than are the older private universities and colleges

      This may be a factor in how nimble the faculty are in responding to changes in teaching modality and the culture of evidence-based teaching.

    14. Increasingly of late, many in-stitutions are offering long-term, renewable contracts instead of tenure, andare relying more extensively on adjunct faculty appointments. In fact, morethan half of all new faculty members are hired into positions that are noteligible for tenure (Schuster,2003).

      Does this affect instructional design?

    15. Public institu-tions receive some proportion of their funding directly from the state gov-ernment, and are obligated to comply with state statutes on issuesranging from setting tuition levels to demonstrating accountability on per-formance benchmarks

      The University of Maine System is a public institution that receives funds from the state government and is obligated to meet the needs of the residents of this state, including adult learners.

    16. Bess, J. L., & Dee, J. R. (2008). Understanding college and university organization: Theories for effective policy and practice Volume 1 (1st ed). Stylus.

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    1. Boice, R. (2000). Advice for new faculty members: Nihil nimus. Allyn and Bacon.

    2. page 3 "The professoriate attracts self-starting, self-reliant individuals who place high value on solving problems on their own. To seek or accept help, to take direction that might encourage conformity or submission, could signal unsuitability or weakness."

    1. prevailing disci-plinary paradigms often reflect and beget delimited questions, measures, epistemes, and frameworks; research teams often lack disciplinary and/or cultural diversity; publishing in one’s own disciplinary journal is often most highly rewarded; and funders often have nar-row priorities.

      This is true in higher ed as well. There is very little crossover between disciplines that helps to inform the science of learning.

    2. To date, such knowledge has existed largely in separate fields of research, and has not been integrated such that its profound relevance to developmental processes becomes both visible and directly applicable to the set-tings in which children grow and learn. As a result, important knowledge remains underutilized, contributing to persistent disparities, challenges, and inadequacies in our education systems

      This is true for higher education as well. There is a wealth of knowledge from various fields to inform how learning happens in adults and how to effectively and efficiently facilitate this process, but this knowledge has not been synthesized for educational professionals in higher education and is thus underutilized.

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    1. Although our soci-ety and our schools often compartmentalize thesedevelopmental processes and treat them as distinctfrom one another—and treat the child as distinct fromthe many contexts she experiences—the sciences oflearning and development demonstate how tightlyinterrelated they are and how they jointly produce theoutcomes for which educators are responsible.

      This is true for adults, too. We are not just educating the mind, we are educating a whole person with complex needs and experiences.

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    1. For example,in my role as a peer reviewer for a number of higher education journals, Ifind that more and more I am asked to review papers that often have barely899NEWDIRECTIONS FORTEACHING ANDLEARNING, no. 107, Fall 2006 © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com) • DOI: 10.1002/tl.247

      This is a criticism of haphazard attempts of researchers in higher education.

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  2. Jun 2020
    1. "when Lorge focused on adults' ability to learn rather than on the speed or rate of learning (that is, when time pressure was removed), adults up to age seventy did as well as younger adults" (p. 4). This is an important early finding as it shows that adults can learn as well as traditional-aged students when there is no pressure of performing in a limited time.

  3. Feb 2020
    1. n further amplification of this proposal, it is suggested that each of the eight stages of psychodynamic psychotherapy has a core psychological process that relates to a specific kind of existential search or quest for “something missing.”

      Here is my thought about this....development children

  4. Nov 2019
    1. In essence, “the knowledgeproduction itself may become the form of mobilization” that induces indi-viduals to make the cognitive shift (Gaventa and Cornwall, 2001, p. 76) thatleads to change from within the self outward to the institution

      Wow, this is kind of profound. It is not necessarily what people are thinking and looking at but how they form that knowledge that can influence where they look and what they see, thereby influencing further behavior.

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