227 Matching Annotations
  1. May 2022
    1. If you assume cops are basically good and just need help doing their job better, then body cameras make sense.

      This is a deductive argument, but I believe theres no error in the way it's used

    1. On the whole, the popularizing of "logical fallacies" has been a net negative for debate. instead of recognizing a strawman and saying "youre not accurately representing my position, heres clear evidence why", the conversation devolves into a juvenille meta-argument that adds no value.
  2. Apr 2022
    1. ReconfigBehSci [@SciBeh]. (2021, October 2). @alexdefig I literally only responded to one point in your overall argument/set of tweets. You somehow seem to assume that it is not possible to try to accumulate facts in order to come to a decision, [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/SciBeh/status/1444361490786492418

    1. ReconfigBehSci. (2022, January 4). @STWorg and what is even more surprising is that it is popping up in a discourse between extremely educated individuals who think and argue about complex issues for a living [Tweet]. @SciBeh. https://twitter.com/SciBeh/status/1478346691073949702

    1. ReconfigBehSci. (2022, January 4). 2/2 it seems to be being advanced as part of an argument against measures to reign in rampant infection rates (as a kind of undercutting defeater). Arguments where its hard to tell whether they are meant as arguments for or against a position seem cases of “poor argument” [Tweet]. @SciBeh. https://twitter.com/SciBeh/status/1478340071027888132

  3. Feb 2022
    1. wisdom transcends all kinds of learning, secular, objective and esoteric; it is subtler than all these and is rooted in the awareness of the atma that is central in all creation

      How wisdom is superior than knowledge

      ...in order to not involve in the trouble that is happening in front of the eyes, whether he is a wise person

    1. A hallmark of a successful disinformation campaign is adaptation — when proponents of the campaign adjust their tactics to get around efforts that journalists, government officials or tech companies have taken to stem its spread. On Oct. 16, campaign operators began adapting to Twitter’s curbs.
    2. The more people hear something, the more likely they are to believe it, whether it’s true or not. And false news can spread further and faster than the truth, especially on social media. Mr. Trump seems to understand this.
    3. Despite the hashtag’s popularity on the right, it received little notice in the mainstream media. This is known as “hidden virality,” meaning something extremely popular in one part of the internet is going unnoticed by the mainstream news media.
    4. For more than a year, right-wing media and partisans have pushed “Biden crime family” as a viral slogan. Media manipulation campaigns are usually conjured in small, hidden spaces by a few operators with an agenda. But in this case, it was influential media and political personalities who got the ball rolling.
    5. In any manipulation campaign, the second stage involves campaign operators strategically spreading the hashtag across the media ecosystem.
    6. Constant repetition makes the charge sound true, and blunts accusations of unethical behavior against Mr. Trump’s own children.
    7. The hashtag took a complicated issue with legitimate questions about Hunter Biden’s business dealings with Ukraine and China — and reduced it to a slogan that could also be used to spread falsehoods about Joe Biden.
  4. Jan 2022
    1. Des initiatives pour protéger ces espaces :

      Arg3: Malgré les risques environnementaux qui pèsent sur les EM, il existe des initiatives pour protéger ces espaces

      • Réduction des émissions de CO2 GAS + niveau CO2 atm + température ++ océans = phytoplanctons moins utiles à l'homme Absorber 30% du CO2 généré par l'homme Produire 50% oxygène = indispensables pour la vie humaine sur terre.
    2. des espaces menacés par les effets du changement climatique

      Arg2: Le réchauffement climatique est une menace pour les EM

      • La pollution plastique Consommation = 8M tonnes déchets / an => Formation d'une "soupe de plastique" / "continent de plastique" Risque pour biodiversité marine, espèces ingèrent le plastique

      • Les marées noires constituent un risque pour les EM 2010: Explosion de la plateforme "Deepwater" = marée noire sur les côtes de la Louisiane = EU conflits d'usage entre compagnies pétrolière, pêcheurs et employés du tourisme .

    3. des ressources surexploitées :

      Arg1: Il est nécessaire de protéger les EM car des ressources sont surexploitées

      • L'enjeu de la surpêche selon ONU: 1975 - 2021: 10% => 30% des ressources halieutiques surexploitées 90% des espèces maritimes peches ne se renouvellent pas assez vite naturellement Mer Noire, Méditerranée = Peche industrielle, technique du chalutage

      • La pêche illégale et la pêche d'espèces protégées Espèces en voie d'extinction: grand requin: ailerons, chair, thon rouge Surexploitation des ressources maritimes, selon FAO 26M tonnes = 15 % prises totales.

    4. La lutte contre les trafics illégaux

      Arg3: Les Etats tentent également de lutter contre les trafics illégaux

      • Lutte contre la pêche illicite Selon FAO = 15 et 20 % des prises => 23 Milliards $ /an Moins de préservation du stock renouvelable = surpêche Concurrence déloyale = pecheurs + respect quotas

      • Lutte contre le trafic de cocaïne 2017 - 2019: Cocaïne saisie à bord d'embarcations commerciales x3 = 73 tonnes Moyens ? Sous marins artisanaux, Ou ? Antilles = plaque tournante Quelles saisies ? 3 tonnes sous marins par police espagnole en 2019

      • Lutte contre le trafic des déchets Cout traitement + législation contraignante = Etats exportent leurs déchets / filières illégales ==> Pays d'Asie et d'Afrique: ++ déchets électroniques Malaisie => FR: 43 conteneurs de plastique illégaux

    5. La lutte contre la piraterie maritime

      Arg2: les EM sont confrontés à de la piraterie maritime à laquelle les Etats tentent de faire face

      • Opération de lutte contre la piraterie 2008: Eunavfor = Opération ATALANTE / Golfe d'Aden : Somalie. Soutient bases militaires = Djibouti => Dissuasion => Répression
    6. Les espaces maritimes, des espaces de plus en plus militarisés

      Arg1: La militarisation des EM

      • l'hégémonie américaine EU: 10 portes avions + bases militaires + 7flottes = forte capacité de projection

      • le rattrapage chinois et russe CHINE: 2 portes avions -Liaoning et Shandong depuis Décembre 2019) = Sécurisation Nouvelles routes de la Soie + enjeux M de Chine méridionale et orientale RUSSIE: Forces navales car coopération militaire (Syrie) et ambitions (Arctique). Nouveau SNLE en Mer Blanche (Mai 2018)

      • les puissances émergentes Iran, Inde, Turquie, Brésil (commande de 4 SNA à Naval Group - Décembre 2020)

    7. Des espaces qui suscitent des litiges et des contentieux

      Arg3: Les EM sont au coeur de tensions géopolitiques entre les Etats qui se disputent l'accès aux ressources halieutiques, hauturières et aux routes maritimes

      • Mer de Chine méridionale Chine // Philippines, Vietnam, Brunei, Indonésie, Malaison "langue de boeuf" => Archipel des Spratleys + Îles Paracels Zone de trafic CMM Territorialisation , militarisation des EM Mars 2020: percussion bateau de pêche vietnamien

      • Mer de Chine Orientale Chine // Japon Îles Senkaku et Diaoyu COVID19: Liaoning traverse ZEE jap

      • Mer méditerranée Turquie // Grèce // Chypre // Israël // Liban EM triangulaire de 850km² = réserves de gaz ?

    8. Une délimitation héritée de la Convention de Montego Bay

      Arg1: La délimitation des ZEE est héritée de la Convention de Montego Bay

      • En 1982 est adoptée la CNUDM, réègles internationale utilisation, exploitation, circulation des espaces maritimes

      • Eaux territoriales: droits souverains de l'Etat jusqu'à 22km

      • La ZEE: droits souverains de l'Etat à des fins d'exploration, d'exploitation, de conservation et de gestion des ressources naturelles jusqu'à 200 miles / 370 km.==> 350 km si extension avec le plateau continental selon Convention de Genève (1958)

      • Haute mer: 64% surface des MO, "bien commun de l'humanité" - Résolution 2749 de l'ONU, Arvid Pardo (1970) Exploitation= licences Autorité Internationale des Fonds Marins (AIFM) // liberté de circulation, survol, recherche sc, pose pipe line, cables, ... ==> Mare liberum car "terra nullius"

      • liberté de circulation, "mare liberum" De la liberté des mers, Grotius, XVIIe Un Etat ne peut pas restreindre la circulation d'un navire étrangers hors de ses eaux territoriales. Idem Etats proches d'un passage stratégique

    9. Des frontières maritimes non figées

      Arg 2: Les frontières maritimes ne sont pas figées

      • ZEE = modèle théorique difficilement applicable contentieux entre pays cotiers: Cour Internationale de Justice (1945), Cour permanente d'arbitrage (1899) EX: Fixation ZEE, Ghana - Côte d'Ivoire (2013)

      • ZEE : demande prolongation Demande extension du plateau continental

    10. Des espaces inégalement intégrés

      Arg1: Certaines façades maritimes sont inégalement intégrées au processus de mondialisation

      • Concentration sur certains littoraux = pôles de M° Amérique du Nord, Europe, Asie de l'Est (16/20 ports) 11e: Rotterdam 17e: Los Angeles

      • Des Etats tentent de s'intégrer dans les échanges mondiaux Inde, Vietnam, Maroc = 3e terminal construit au port de Tanger.

      • certains espaces demeurent marginalisés isolation des principales routes maritimes (Amérique du Sud, Afrique) territoires enclavés = dépendance échange: PMA (République centre africaine), Afghanistan

    11. e tourisme de croisière

      Arg6: le tourisme de croisière reste un enjeu économique majeur

      • Un secteur en essor 2019 - 30M de personnes croisière Caraïbes, Mer Méditerranée, Asie Pacifique

      • Qui est marqué par une forte concurrence et de lours freins Multinationales: Carnival, Royal Caribbean, MSC Emissions CO2, risques accidents + COVID19: mauvaise réputation

    12. Les ressources génétiques marines

      Arg5: Les fonds marins regorgent de ressources génétiques marines

      • Le génome des espères sous marines constitue un enjeu commercial et scientifique algues: produits cosmétiques enzymes des éponges: lutte cancer (pharmacie, santé)
    13. Les ressources minérales

      Arg4: Les ressources minérales sont également très convoitées

      • les utilisations technologiques minerais: Cobalt, cuivre, nickel, or, diamant terres rares: cérium, scandium Nodules polymétalliques = hautes technologies (tel, odrinateurs)

      • jeu géopolitique dps 2010's fouilles Etat // monopole chinois Chine = 90% terres rares M

    14. Les ressources énergétiques

      Arg3: les ressources énergétiques sont également exploitées dans les Mers et les Océans

      • les hydrocarbures 30% hydrocarbures proviennent de gisements offshore Mer du Nord, Mer Caspienne, Golfe de Guinée, Golfe Arabo-persique, Mer de Chine méridionale

      espaces inexploités: conditions extrêmes (Arctique), fonds marins profonds = ++ pression (Brésil qui se lance dans l'exploitation d'hydrocarbures au dela du plateau continental)

      • les énergies renouvelables off shore Usines marémotrices: UM de la Rance (Côtes d'Armor, FR) Parcs éoliens off shore: projets aux îles de Lérons, Europe = 1er prod mondial électricité = 5000 éoliennes off shore (Mer du Nord ++)

      • les avancées scientifiques possibles Bathymétrie est mal connue = couts ++ 90% des espèces marines resteraient à découvrir

    15. Les ressources halieutiques Ŕ doc 1 p. 62 sur l’exploitation des ressources halieutiques

      Arg2: les ressources halieutiques constituent un enjeu économique majeur

      • La pêche et l'aquaculture subviennent aux besoins énergétiques et protéiniques de la population 1950 - auj = production halieutique*8 1950 - 2016 = 19M tonnes - 170M tonnes (dont 150M pour conso° humaine directe) 1980 - 2016 = 4,5M - 80M de tonnes prod° aquaculture

      • les ressources halieutiques sont exportées 27% prod° halieutique = int 143 Milliards $ = CA

      • des intérêts économiques vitaux pour les Etats 60M travailleurs = secteur de la pêche situations précaire = 95% des pêcheurs vivent en Afrique ou en Asie

    16. Selon l’OCDE, les mers et les océans rapportent chaque année près de 1500 milliards de dollars

      Les bénéfices économiques de l'économie bleue

      Economie bleue - Bertrand Blancheton, Introduction aux politiques économiques (2020)

      Mers et océans rapportent 1500 Milliards $/an 3000 Milliards en 2030 "Qui tient la mer tiens le commerce du monde, qui tient le commerce tient la richesse, qui tient la richesse tient le monde lui-même", Walter Raleigh => Halford Mackinder

    17. Argument 4 : Les espaces maritimes et les points de passage stratégiques : des zones sensibles menacées

      Arg 4: Les choke points et les EM sont menacés Pirtarie maritime 2018: 201 attaques // navires marchands 4000 attaques depuis 20 ans selon l'IRIS 330M $ de rançons en 7 ans = financement activités criminelles Golfe de Guinée Golfe d'Aden Asie du Sud (Bangladesh) Asie du Sud Est (Détroit de Malacca) Amérique du Sud (Bolivie et Venezuela) = 2 régions les + touchés => next to routes maritimes

    18. Argument 3 : Les routes maritimes, les points de passage stratégiques et les goulets d’étranglement : des espaces maritimes vitaux pour le commerce maritime

      Arg3: les enjeux vitaux des chokes points pour l'économie mondialisée et le CM Connecter espaces de prod°/conso° Espaces maritimes très réduits concentrent trafic maritime:

      • Canaux; Suez, Panama
      • Détroit, Ormuz, Gibraltar, Bab el Manbed, Bering, Malacca
      • Caps: Bonne espérance, Horn

      Détroit de Malacca selon Institut Supérieur d'économie marine (2017) 14M barils / jours Port Klang (Malaisie) = 12e port à conteneurs mondial "Dilemme de Malacca" selon Hu Jintao 20 - 25% du trafic mondial / an

      Dépendance = ouverture permanente des passages stratégiques Mauvaise situations: insécurité, piraterie, conflits, tensions géopolitiques sinon = perturber approvisionnement marchandises + matières premières = - économie mondiale EX: 1967 -> 1974 = pas Canal de Suez (G6jours) alternative = Cap de Bonne Espérance (+ temps, +argent)

    19. Argument 2 : La maritimisation renforce la littoralisation et le rôle des façades maritimes

      Arg2: Maritimisation = littoralissation + importance facades maritimes littoralisation: 60% pop in moins 60km côtes (3,6 Milliards hab) 14/16 aires urbaines

      **Secteurs économiques 1st = pêche 2nd = ZIP (Port de Pirée, Port de Marsaxlokk à Malte), accesibilité, entreprises de raffinages et sidérurgiques = matières premières Services = tourisme, aménités, héliotropisme, haliotropisme => stations balnéaires

      Rôle des ports: HUB dans le processus de M°

      • grande capacité portes conteneurs (1st = Shanghai Yangshan, St Expuéry par CMA CGM) MAIS nécessitent port adaptés (ports en eaux profondes de Kribi, espaces de stockage, portd de transbordement, plateformes intermodales: Port de Rotterdam)

      Rôle façades maritimes = lieu de concentration CMM Northern Range: Have - Hambourg Cote Est des EU: Nord de Boston - Miami Cote ouest des EU: Puget Sound - Californie Asie de l'Est et Japon: Tokyo - Singapour

    20. Argument 1 : L’accroissement du commerce maritime et l’accélération du processus de mondialisation renforcent le rôle central des espaces maritimes

      Arg1: CM + M = rôle des espaces maritimes ++

      90% marchandises et matières première

      • temps, - couts, + fiable
      • Grandes capacités portes conteneurs (CMA CGM Megamax // Ecounter Bay)

      Espaces maritimes inclus dans fluw et réseaux télécommunications = cables sous marins (1,2M km, 99% trafic intercontinental, 10T $/jour) trafics illicites: piraterie, narcotrafiquants

    1. Espérons que le 1er janvier prochain, les entreprises appliquent le « droit à la déconnexion » !

      Espoir de l'auteur de poser un cadre concret et juridique et ainsi protéger le salarié face aux dérives du télétravail. Cette phrase conclut l'article de l'auteur et met en avant ce qu'il pense être à date la meilleure façon de réagir.

    2. Ainsi, en situation de télétravail, le salarié découvre que sa zone d’autonomie ressemble à une peau de chagrin. Joignable à tout moment avec son téléphone portable, il ne profite guère de l’éloignement de son supérieur hiérarchique et reste toujours disponible (messagerie).

      Pour terminer son article, l'auteur fait un constat assez pessimiste de la situation des salariés en télétravail

    3. Ainsi, les télétravailleurs devront s’adapter à cette absence de frontière en créant leurs propres limites entre travail, famille, loisirs. Les directions des ressources humaines devront les y aider en organisant le travail et en fixant des objectifs réalistes.

      L'auteur avance brièvement qu'il va falloir s'adapter à ce nouveau mode de travail

    4. Le télétravailleur apparaît donc comme une victime du harcèlement constant des technologies.

      L'auteur avance brièvement qu'il va falloir s'adapter à ce nouveau mode de travail

    5. L’absence de frontière « physique » risque de provoquer une interpénétration des valeurs d’une zone à l’autre. Le cumul de deux identités en même temps et en un même lieu peut être destructeur et déstabilisant. Le sas entre le domicile et le travail, représenté par le temps de transport, peut également venir à manquer à certains télétravailleurs.

      L'auteur met en avant la perte de repères, notamment lié au fait qu'il n'y a plus de frontière physique lorsqu'on est en télétravail et qu'un flou entre vie perso et vie pro peut se créer

    6. Les TIC (technologies de l’information et de la communication) permettent de gérer des tâches dans l’urgence et d’améliorer l’exécution de certaines missions. Mais, cela favorise l’immiscion dans la vie personnelle des salariés.

      A nouveau, l'auteur fait le constat que les nouvelles technologies rendent le salarié disponible tout le temps et connecté en permanence

    7. De plus en plus de salariés tentent d’éviter la submersion en traitant les mails professionnels hors temps de travail.

      L'auteur met en avant la notion d'engrenage. Pus on traite des mails en dehors du temps de travail, pour éviter d'être submergé, plus cela devient normal pour l'employeur et plus le salarié devient la victime d'un système qu'il a lui-même mis en place

    8. Le télétravail « gris » correspond à un « débordement » des activités professionnelles induit par les diverses sollicitations (mails, smartphone, forums…). (Y. Lasfargue Obergo)

      L'auteur fait le constat que les nouvelles technologies rendent le salarié disponible tout le temps et connecté en permanence

    9. L’absence de régulation entre les sphères privées et professionnelles présente des risques pour l’efficacité de l’équipe de travail. L’organisation doit donc anticiper la perméabilité de la frontière travail/famille.

      On note la notion d'anticipation qui est importante dans toute conduite de changement et nouvelle situation à vivre

    10. La vidéo permet également un contrôle à distance par le manager. Les formes de contrôles sont donc diverses et probablement intrusives.

      On note ici une alerte hypothétique de l'auteur sur les formes de contrôle

    11. La qualité de vie familiale est présentée comme meilleure (étude Obergo, Lasfargue et Fauconnier 2010).

      L'auteur met en avant un point positif du télétravail selon une étude

    12. Le nombre de télétravailleurs est en augmentation puisque 16,7 % des salariés français déclarent télétravailler au moins huit heures par mois en 2014, contre 12,4 % en 2012 (source : LBMG Worklabs, Le télétravail en France, 2012).

      On énonce un fait, celui de l'augmentation du télétravail avec des données chiffrées

    13. Le télétravail a été introduit dans le Code du travail à l’article 1222-9 par la loi du 23 mars 2012 (l’article 46 de la loi dite Warsmann définit le télétravail). Cette loi prévoit des mesures de protection des données et de préservation de la vie privée. L’Accord National Interprofessionnel du 19 juillet 2005 dans son article premier donne du télétravail la définition suivante :

      ici on pose le cadre juridique

    14. La loi n° 2016-1088 du 8 août 2016 relative au travail, à la modernisation du dialogue social et à la sécurisation des parcours professionnels (JO du 9 août 2016), instaure à compter du 1er janvier 2017 (art. 55) un droit à la déconnexion pour tous les salariés ainsi qu’une concertation relative au télétravail (art. 57).

      ici on pose le cadre juridique

    1. It was largely the speakers of Iroquoian languages such as theWendat, or the five Haudenosaunee nations to their south, whoappear to have placed such weight on reasoned debate – evenfinding it a form of pleasurable entertainment in own right. This factalone had major historical repercussions. Because it appears tohave been exactly this form of debate – rational, sceptical, empirical,conversational in tone – which before long came to be identified withthe European Enlightenment as well. And, just like the Jesuits,Enlightenment thinkers and democratic revolutionaries saw it asintrinsically connected with the rejection of arbitrary authority,particularly that which had long been assumed by the clergy.

      The forms of rational, skeptical, empirical and conversational forms of debate popularized by the Enlightenment which saw the rejection of arbitrary authority were influenced by the Haudenosaunee nations of Americans.


      Interesting to see the reflexive political fallout of this reoccurring with the political right in America beginning in the early 2000s through the 2020s. It's almost as if the Republican party and religious right never experienced the Enlightenment and are still living in the 1700s.


      Curious that in modern culture I think of the Jesuits as the embodiment of rationalist, skeptical argumentation and thought now. Apparently they were dramatically transformed since that time.

    1. on feilds or to exercise

      Chloe Nelson Argument Structure: Unlike using a Rogerian Argument, the writer never looks at any other viewpoint. A concession or refutation would have furthered the argument, especially in this highlighted section where an argument from an opposing viewpoint may say that it is appropriate for high school students to exercise in sports bras while exercising.

    2. My point is school is ment to be a safe learning ground, so let's keep it that way.”

      Chloe Nelson: Argument Structure: This is the claim for the Toulmin model, although not explicitly stated, the writer concludes that high schools, girls specifically, would be less safe with girls being allowed to be in sports bras.

    3. horny hormone infused teenage boys,

      Chloe Nelson: Argument Structure: For the Toulmin model, there is never any evidence used to support the assumptions, causing the argument to lack authority.

    4. because of dresscode,

      Chloe Nelson: Argument Structure: This is the warrant/assumption for the Toulmin model, the writer is assuming that high schools have dress codes that prevent high-schoolers from not wearing shirts, and the reader most likely shares the same view.

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    1. Democrats in Washington State are now pushing a bill,

      Aristotelian structure: narration (background)

    2. The vaccine holocaust has arrived,

      Assumptions (Toulmin Model): This claim is based under the assumption that the COVID-19 vaccines are dangerous.

    3. And yes, Leftists and Democrats are gearing up to become actual fascist Nazis, running death camps and mass extermination ovens right here in America. This is how they plan to stay in power, just like Adolf Hitler once did — by exterminating dissenters and ruling through terror.

      Conclusion

    4. They are taking the vaccine wars KINETIC: Covid concentration camps ACTIVATED in America, unvaxxed will be kidnapped at gunpoint by left-wing “health officers” with arrest power

      S: Mike Adams from NatrualNews P: To warn the public about supposed "Covid concentration camps" A: NaturalNews readers, typically right-wing anti-vaxxers C:January 10, 2022, COVID-19 pandemic E: Washington's WAC 246-100 bill

    5. these covid concentration camps are going to be ramped up into extermination / death camps

      Argument by assertion fallacy and claim of fact: Repeating the claim again and again, does not make it true.

    6. Democrats have built death camps in America

      Argument by assertion fallacy and claim of fact: Restating this claim once again.

    7. covid concentration camps are actually politically-motivated death camps

      Argument by assertion fallacy and claim of fact: The article has repeated this claim multiple times.

    1. Indeed, Spielberg’s film radically, woefully transforms the one scene in the original that conveys a sense of Maria and Tony’s family histories,

      He acknowledges that Spielberg used one scene, but then goes on to explain how the scene was not recreated very well.

    1. Staff Writer

      Argument Structure: Classical Orientation

      The author uses classical orientation in his article to prove to his audience how his views are correct, and anyone who thinks differently is wrong. The argument is week because it is missing a statement of background, a refutation and a proposition. Without these key elements in Pecoraro's essay, the readers are less likely to be persuaded to join in agreement with him. Without those crucial steps, the readers doubt that Pecoraro knows a lot about the topic at hand. The reader also feels like the author is biased when there is no refutation. The author doesn't even acknowledge there is issues with his opinion. This article is also missing a lot of evidence. The author in each body paragraph practically just states a claim, and then gives his reasoning. Typically not with evidence which also loses his audience's trust. The author lacks pathos, making his audience not persuaded by his essay.

      Type of Claim:Implicit

      The author never directly says his issue with tablets, he just says in several different ways why textbooks are better.

  5. Dec 2021
    1. such experiments can represent as many “projects of becom-ing”

      The authors posit that policy experimentation in shrinking cities can lead to emergent forms of economic restructuring that serves as a counter narrative to neoliberalism.

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    1. Health Nerd. (2021, December 13). Accusing everyone you disagree with of being a shill for pharmaceutical companies is a very simple way to tell anyone with even the slightest insight that you have absolutely no idea what you’re talking about and no desire to do simple things to educate yourself [Tweet]. @GidMK. https://twitter.com/GidMK/status/1470287869168152576

  6. Nov 2021
    1. The negative indirect effects of additional land-use change may outweigh the positive direct effects on global climate and biodiversity, so that a large-scale switch to organic farming in the EU could possibly turn out to be a disservice to global sustainability.

      Argument

    1. ignores

      Critiques community economic development's focus on local empowerment. Advances the argument that a local focus divorced from the broader political economy cannot tackle the larger governance and economic forces that create inequality, especially due to concentrated poverty in some jurisdictions that leaves local governments under-resourced due to a meager tax base.

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    1. Calling a software convention "pretty 90s" somewhat undermines your position. Quite a lot of well-designed software components are older than that. If something is problematic, it would be more useful to argue its faults. When someone cites age to justify change, I usually find that they're inexperienced and don't fully understand the issues or how their proposed change would impact other people.
  7. Oct 2021
    1. rms of Global Systems, but we do need an earth- wide network of connections, including the ability partially to translate knowledges among very different-and power-differenti- ated - communities. We need the power of modern critical theories of how meanings and bodies get made, not in order to deny meanings and bodies, but in order to build meanings and bodies that have a chance for life.

      Here's Haraway is argueing for the need for a critical analysis of how meaning is ascribed.

  8. Sep 2021
    1. is, each landowner (or person who otherwise has some interest in the prospective use of a given piece of land) has in mind a certain future for that parcel which is linked somehow with his or her own well-bein

      Land and rational self-interst regarding its use.

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    Annotators

  9. Aug 2021
    1. The goal of this text is topresent a version of the history of psychologythat resists the traditional storylines of greatachievements by eminent people or schools ofthought that rise and fall in the wake of scientificprogress and that instead attempts to reveal thecomplex trajectory of psychology as a sociallyembedded set of theories and practices thatboth reify and reflect the contexts from whichthey arise and to which they return.

      This seems to be the key idea of the authors writing. Identifying that their approach to the history of Psychology will differ from the usual "traditional storylines" and to bring in a more complex, messy(?) and overlapping narratives that reflects the contexts that these psychological knowledge emerge from.

    1. You need to explicitly delegate keyword arguments. def foo(*args, **kwargs, &block) target(*args, **kwargs, &block) end
    2. you can use the new delegation syntax (...) that is introduced in Ruby 2.7. def foo(...) target(...) end
    3. In Ruby 2, you can write a delegation method by accepting a *rest argument and a &block argument, and passing the two to the target method. In this behavior, the keyword arguments are also implicitly handled by the automatic conversion between positional and keyword arguments.
  10. Jul 2021
    1. But having an experienced team that knows the codebase well as an argument for using them is weird and not strong.
  11. May 2021
    1. The most common way to stage an argument in the thesis goes something like this: Here is a puzzle/problem/question worth asking. If we know more about this puzzle/problem/question then something significant (policy, practice, more research) can happen.Here is what we already know about the puzzle/problem/question. I’ve used this existing knowledge (literatures) to help: my thinking and approach; my research design; make sense of my results; and establish where my scholarly contribution will be. Here is how I designed and did the research in order to come up with an “answer”.Here’s the one/two/three clusters of results.Missing stepNow here’s my (summarised) “answer” to the puzzle/problem/question I posed at the start. On the back of this answer, here’s what I claim as my contribution(s) to the field. Yes I didn’t do everything, but I did do something important. Because we now know my answer, and we didn’t before I did the research, then here are some possible actions that might arise in policy/practice/research/scholarship.
  12. Apr 2021
  13. Mar 2021
  14. Feb 2021
    1. The more people hear something, the more likely they are to believe it, whether it’s true or not. And false news can spread further and faster than the truth, especially on social media. Mr. Trump seems to understand this.
    2. In this case, the hashtag served two purposes: It made the phrase itself more common, and it amplified The New York Post’s Hunter Biden laptop report.
    3. #BidenCrimeFamily, and the typo, is a crash course in how to rally supporters around a conspiracy theory — while neutering the attempts of social media companies to stop it. With the #StoptheSteal campaign, Mr. Trump is now using this same tactic to sow doubt about the integrity of the election.
    4. That moment wasn’t random. #BidenCrimeFamily is part of a yearlong, effective disinformation campaign against Joe Biden — one that was spread by social media, political influencers and the president himself.
    5. #BidenCrimeFamily, and the typo, is a crash course in how to rally supporters around a conspiracy theory

      argument

    6. That moment wasn’t random. #BidenCrimeFamily is part of a yearlong, effective disinformation campaign against Joe Biden

      argument - "moment wasn't random"

  15. Jan 2021
    1. And they have direct bearing on classroom practice — if I am to choose between the two, the choice is clear.

      Of course I agree... if students must be at war, or must be in a dance, I choose dance. And yet, when we see sea lions "dancing" on issues which are life-and-death to the other person in the argument, we see how mismatched metaphors create strife.

  16. Oct 2020
    1. res

      HTTP response argument to the middleware function, called "res" by convention.

      Request - User's incoming data. Response - Your outgoing data.

    2. req

      HTTP request argument to the middleware function, called "req" by convention.

      Request - User's incoming data. Response - Your outgoing data.

    1. looking to implement massive, costly programs including a national daycare system, pharmacare, affordable housing and green initiatives.

      Government spending is not a bad thing. In fact it is crucial to the economy. People's fear about deficits are overblow. Under the MMT framework, not all deficits are bad, it all depends on context. In fact in modern history, deficits and debt have always been part of the game. Government surpluses have been a rarity in Canada.

      Based on sector account balances, the government deficits are the private sectors surplus. Furthermore all new money created is through banks and government spending. If you balance budgets (decrease spending and increase revenues via taxation), you are essentially destroying money and slowing down the economy.

      The main driver of concern is inflation across the board. If government spending gets out of control, it starts buying up the resources from the rest of the private sector, therefore increasing prices. When this happens, spendingn needs to be ramped back. The chances of this happening in a recession/depression/world wide pandemic is very unlikely.

    2. Even Trudeau’s former top adviser, Gerald Butts, appears to have his doubts about MMT, recently posted the following on twitter: “I read The Deficit Myth this week. I dunno guys. I see why you want to believe in MMT, but it feels like snake oil to me. Things that sound too good to be true almost always are.”

      To each their own. A lot of the info from MMT is jarring, because it show the inner plumbing of government finance. It is nothing what we have been told. Many economists, central bankers and private investors have taken to MMT and agree with its description. They may disagree with some of the policies suggested by the MMT academics, but no one had identified that what they describe as false. This is not a strong argument against what MMT is saying. It is simply opinion.

    3. The National Post’s Jesse Snyder wrote an excellent piece recently about how the Canadian economy has been transformed in the past decade moving from a healthy three to five per cent trade surplus to an annual average deficit of negative two to three per cent. Over the same period, Canadian investments in assets abroad surpassed foreign direct investments by $804 billion.

      Once again trade deficits or surpluses are not the same as good of bad. Context is very much neccessary. Have a trade deficit can actually be a good thing. We actually get more "stuff" and other country's resources in exchange for what....wait for it...money (which is pretty much worthless). People get caught up in the accounting of money rather than the actual accounting of real resources. We get a ton of stuff on the cheap by having a trade deficit.

    4. It is expected that the Bank of Canada will end up controlling more than 56 per cent of our total government bond market by end of 2021, up from 29 per cent today, according to estimates from Ian Pollick, head of fixed income, currency and commodity research at Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce, as cited by Bloomberg. If you think about that, it sounds an awful lot like Modern Monetary Theory (MMT) is now being tested in this country.

      This is the problem with most people who finally take the time to know how our government spend and their relationship with the central bank. Canada, the US, UK and Australis have been "doing" MMT for a very very long time. MMT only describes the process. MMT is not a prescription of how the world should be. It is very much describing how things are right now. A big chunk of the academic writings is providing insight on how government spending, accounting and financing actually work.

    5. While the NDP has been lobbying for a wealth tax, so far there have been few indications of tax hikes from the Liberal government.

      The problem with the lefts approach is that they assume you need taxes in order for the government to spend. Based on soverign currency issues with central banks, the operation is spend first, then tax, then "borrow". This also assumes that federal governments with soverign currencies have a limited quantity of dollars. This is not true. There is no need to tax the wealthy or anyone unless there is a larger purpose of creating greater equality (i.e. the wealthy get to powerful or start to buy up essential resources) or to slow down an overheated economy. In the main purpose of taxes is to remove money from the system when there is too much, which will cause inflation).

    1. that will advance justice and opportunity for college athletes. The proposal will guarantee fair and equitable compensation, enforceable health and safety standards, and improved educational opportunities for all college athletes.

      Parts of the College Athletes Bill of Rights (CABR)

    1. streamlined offering of college sports, with a heavy emphasis on those sports which attract large fanbases, commonly referred to as “revenue” sports.
    2. “we need football so we don’t have to cut other sports.”

      may have issues with some sports like football, but the revenue from those sports allows for other sports, especially womens sports which dont make as much money bc patriarchy

    1. the institution of a far less expensive, voluntary intramural system that is typically practiced at the community college level. 
    2. Student athletes were almost never the highest achieving in my classes.

      students who may not have gone to college can????

  17. Sep 2020
  18. Aug 2020
    1. As a web designer, I hate that "log in" creates a visual space between the words. If you line up "Log In Register" - is that three links or two? This creates a Gestalt problem, meaning you have to really fiddle with spacing to get the word groupings right, without using pipe characters.

      Sure, you can try to solve that problem by using a one-word alternative for any multi-word phrase, but that's not always possible: there isn't always a single word that can be used for every possible phrase you may have.

      Adjusting the letter-spacing and margin between items in your list isn't that hard and would be better in the long run since it gives you a scalable, general solution.

      "Log in" is the only correct way to spell the verb, and the only way to be consistent with 1000s of other phrasal verbs that are spelled with a space in them.

      We don't need nor want an exception to the general rule just for "login" just because so many people have made that mistake.

  19. Jul 2020
    1. Bex, F., Lawrence. J., Snaith. M., Reed. C., (2013) implementing the Argument Web. Communications of the ACM. (56). (10). Retrieved from chrome-extension://bjfhmglciegochdpefhhlphglcehbmek/pdfjs/web/viewer.html?file=http%3A%2F%2Farg-tech.org%2Fpeople%2Fchris%2Fpublications%2F2013%2FbexCACM.pdf

  20. May 2020
  21. Apr 2020
    1. the security risk argument doesn't make sense. Numerous social media and forum sites support HTML and they don't seem particularly prone to security issues.
    1. le phénomène s’est étendu aujourd’hui à de nombreuses professions et atteint son paroxysme chez les femmes actives qui gèrent en parallèle leur activité professionnelle et l’essentiel de la vie de famille.

      Voici le premier argument. En effet, il nous est dit que ce phénomène de dispersion atteint son paroxysme avec les femmes actives qui doivent gérer vie professionnelle et vie de famille, mais il serait bon d'approfondir d'avantage. Nous pouvons nous demander pourquoi cela se produit chez les femmes actives. Nous pouvons donc réfléchir si cela n'est pas dû à ce qu'on appelle la charge mentale, puisque ce sont majoritairement les femmes qui s'occupent du foyer et des enfants. A l'inverse, nous pouvons nous demander si la dispersion n'atteint pas son paroxysme parce qu'elles sont d'avantage multitâches que les hommes. En effet, elles sont capables de faire plusieurs tâches simultanément, et cela peut aussi engendrer une dose supplémentaire de travail. Ce phénomène de multitâche peut donc entraîner d'avantage de dispersion de leur part.

    2. Le mode « multitâche » du cerveau est ainsi quasiment constant. J.‑P. Lachaux évoque le dilemme du « chercheur d’or » en train d’exploiter son petit filon tout en étant tenté d’aller voir plus loin s’il n’y a pas mieux. Ce dilemme entre l’exploitation (poursuivre le travail en cours) et l’exploration (aller voir ailleurs) est notre lot quotidien.

      Nous avons ici le deuxième argument. Il est tout à fait normal d'être distrait, cela est une particularité commune à tous. Il faut cependant faire attention à ne pas toujours aller de distractions en distractions.

  22. Mar 2020
    1. Whenever I'm so substantively shaky or incoherent as to make my case unpersuasively the first time around, I figure I should live with the consequences. And whenever I find criticism flawed, I figure readers — perceptive as they are — will see the flaw as well, therefore there's no need for me to rub it in.
  23. Sep 2019
    1. Comment reconnaître un ordre des discours, qui fut toujours un ordre des livres ou, pour mieux dire, un ordre de l'écrit qui associe étroitement autorité de savoir et forme de publication, lorsque les possibilités techniques permettent, sans contrôles ni délais, la mise en circulation universelle et indiscriminée des opinions et des connaissances

      L'argument est rhétorique dans sa forme (une question sans réponse) et dans son contenu (Opposition entre une autorité issue du processus de publication vs diffusion sans distinction des savoirs et des opinions) comme si le livre physique ne servait pas à diffuser aussi des opinons non contrôlées. Premisse et conclusion sont discutables.

  24. May 2019
    1. If you're reading my notes and annotations, please consider using Hypothesis to annotate articles and hold journalists accountable for badly reported pieces like this.

    1. If you're reading my notes and annotations, please consider using Hypothesis to annotate articles and hold journalists accountable for badly reported pieces like this.

    1. After you’ve read/listened to/viewed more sources, you may need to change your thesis.

      I feel as though when we are taught, it is always that the thesis comes first. Reading this made me feel encouraged because I often times have to rearrange my thesis, but was under the impression you are not supposed to do this. Once you research things, you develop a more educated opinion of your knowledge, so to me it makes perfect sense that it is ok to change your thesis.

  25. Apr 2019
    1. Being a teenager is hard; there are constant social and emotional pressures that have just been introduced into the life of a middle or high schooler, which combines with puberty to create a ticking time bomb. By looking at the constant exposure to unreasonable expectations smartphones and social media create, we can see that smartphones are leading to an increased level of depression and anxiety in teenagers, an important issue because we need to find a safe way to use smartphones for the furture generations that are growing up with them. Social media is a large part of a majority of young adults life, whether it includes Instagram, Facebook, Snapchat, Twitter, or some combination of these platforms, most kids have some sort of presence online. Sites like Facebook and Instagram provide friends with a snapshot of an event that happened in your life, and people tend to share the positive events online, but this creates a dangerous impact on the person scrolling.​ When teens spend hours scrolling through excluisvely happy posts, it creates an unrealistic expectation for how real life should be. Without context, teenagers often feel as if their own life is not measuring up to all of their happy friends, but real-life will never measure up to the perfect ones expressed online. Picture Picture Furthermore, social media sites create a way for teenagers to seek external validation from likes and comments, but when the reactions online are not perceived as enough it dramatically alters a young adults self-confidence. This leads to the issue of cyberbullying. There are no restrictions on what you can say online, sometimes even annonimously, so often people choose to send negative messages online. Bullying is not a new concept, but with online bullying, there is little to no escape as a smartphone can be with a teenager everywhere, and wherever the smartphone goes the bullying follows.This makes cyberbullying a very effective way to decrease a youth's mental health, in fact, cyberbullying triples the risk of suicide in adolescents, which is already the third leading cause of death for this age group.

    2. ​Technology is in constant motion. If we try to ignore the advances being made the world will move forward without us. Instead of trying to escape change, there needs to be an effort to incorporate technology into every aspect of our lives in the most beneficial way possible. If we look at the ways technology can improve our lives, we can see that technology specifically smartphones, have brought more benefits than harm to the academic and social aspects of teenagers lives, which is important because there is a constant pressure to move away from smart devices from older generations. The first aspect people tend to focus on is the effect that technology has on the academic life of a teen. Smartphones and other smart devices are a crucial part of interactive learning in a classroom and can be used as a tool in increasing student interest in a topic. For example, a popular interactive website, Kahoot, is used in many classrooms because it forces students to participate in the online quiz, while teachers can gauge how their students are doing in the class. Furthermore, these interactive tools are crucial for students that thrive under visual learning, since they can directly interact with the material. This can be extended to students with learning disabilities, such as Down Syndrome and Autism,​ research has shown that using specialized and interactive apps on a smart device aids learning more effectively than technology free learning. Picture Picture Another fear regarding technology is the impact it has on the social lives of young adults, but the benefits technology has brought to socializing outweighs any possible consequences. The obvious advantage smartphones have brought to social lives is the ability to easily communicate with people; with social media, texting, and calling all in one portable box there is no longer a struggle to be in contact with family and friends even if they are not in your area. Social media can also be used for much more In recent years, social media has been a key platform in spreading platforms and movements for social change. Because social media websites lower the barrier for communicating to large groups of people, it has been much easier to spread ideas of change across states, countries, or the world. For example, after Hurricane Sandy tore apart the northeastern United States, a movement called "Occupy Sandy" in which people gathered to provide relief for the areas affected was promoted and organized through social media. Other movements that have been possible because of social media include #MeToo, March for Our Lives, #BlackLivesMatter, and the 2017 Women's March. ​

    3. There is no question that technology is becoming a part of our lives more every day. What we have to take a closer look at is the increasing dependency that children have on smart devices, which is taking over all other normal childhood activities, an important occurrence because it is interfering with normal childhood development and negatively impacting relationships between parents and children. Smartphones give young adults access to almost unlimited information and almost unlimited content that they may not yet be equipped to navigate. Every parent wants to know what is going on in their child's life, but with smartphones, this is highly suggested just to make sure the internet has not led them down a dark path. For example, an astonishing study found that 19% of young adults ages 13-19 sent sexually suggestive content online, and 31% had received this type of content. Smartphones make exposure to these things at an early age much easier, and preventing the exposure much harder. There are many restrictions and blocks that can be put in place to help guide children in the right parts of the internet, but there is still the issue of time management on devices. Smartphones and other smart devides have taken the place of activities that should be prioitized for a healthy lifestyle, such as homework and exercise. One aspect that has drawn many children into overuse of technology is online gaming. Online games often have interactions with other online players, which allows children to feel as if they are socializing without actually interacting with friends, especially for children who struggle with in person interaction.

      ​While this may be beneficial for short term socializing or motor skills, in the long-run, the children are choosing to sit and stare at a screen instead of interacting with people around them, or doing productive things such as homework, so the short-term benefits are outweighed by long-term consequences.

    4. The music we listen to highly impacts our decision making, especially as adolescents. Adolescents are extremely impressionable, and the music they listen to has a great impact on how they decide to live their day to day lives. Popular musicians are seen as role models by the people who idolize them, and adolescents may try to represents the songs in which they favor through their actions every day.

      Recent studies have found that adolescents who listen to music that supports substance abuse and violence have a greater chance to act upon what they listen to. What young adults and teenagers listen to through music and popular media will affect their decision making process. Specifically with substance abuse, and there is a direct uptake in use of illegal substances by adolescents who listen to music that promotes such activities. This can cause a whole societal problem considering most of todays popular music among adolescents touches upon substance abuse and violence. Adolescents are extremely impressionable and the music they listen can shape how a person tries to act, or represent themselves.

    5. Music and the media directly impact the way we view sports, and the way we prepare for our games. Sports depend on music and the media for inspiration, and something to be connected to. Not only can we use music to get us ready for a big game, or a long practice, but we can use the songs we listen to, to connect us to the atmosphere in which we like to play our sports in. The entire world of sports revolves heavily around music, especially the way in which our sports are portrayed in the media. Every season professional sports and the NCAA included will use a popular song in one of their commercials to give you something to tie that sport to when you hear that song. This method of familiarizing the game to a song helps viewers always connect the two when either watching a game, or listening to a song.

      ​Not only can we connect our sports to songs, but we prepare for our games with music. Music can influence the way we feel as stated previously in the about section. This can be a powerful effect for pre and post game activities. For people who are unfamiliar with being in a locker room atmosphere, nothing can bring a team closer together than a song that is consistently played before or after games. Teams will usually have a few songs that have significant value to every player and become part of the teams ritual. When you have a song, or multiple songs that bring you together as a team this can significantly increase the feeling you of joy you have during wins, or loses with your teammates. Music is one of the most important ways to artistically articulate the world of sports.

  26. Mar 2019
    1. Social Anxiety and Academic AchievementTo the best of our knowledge, only two research groupshave tested the hypothesis that social anxiety is directly and

      The author gets to the main point of the article and establishes the main concept by citing two sources that will later be explained in further details

    2. In fact,Russell and Topham (2012) propose that social anxietymay have a negative impact on university/college students’academic achievement

      The author cites a secondary source to present his claim through a similar opinion

    1. It is rather unclear what the purpose of the paper is as the author continues to discuss or mention other sources' viewpoints about the problem and not his own. There is basically no argument whatsoever in the article.

    2. The literature has revealed that anxiety was one of the predictors which contribute to several results of academic performance specifically to students at high school and university level. Therefore, in order to achieve better academic performance, students must be able to control and present themselves in a moderate and appropriate level of anxiet

      main claim again is discussed along with the way the author thinks the affected students should deal with the disorder

  27. Feb 2019
    1. If we argue falsly and know not that we do so, we s hall be more pillicd than when we do, but either way disappointed.

      Intent matters. Ignorance, though, can not be used as an excuse.

    1. argument

      Lawyer and teen know-it-all jokes aside, I can see real potential that this statement is true. Making an argument requires testing it to see if the argument remains logical and consistent under varying circumstances. The problem must be thought through to its logical conclusion. That is the entire process of law school--thinking through problems and developing legal principles in response to those problems.

  28. Jan 2019
    1. why so many commentators have thought Cicero's De oratore, which does con-front the issue from time to time, so much more one-sided an argument than it is.

      Aristotle's definition of rhetoric likens the notion of public speaking to persuasion. When addressing an issue of concern, using all available means of persuasion at one's disposal aids in constructing a sound argument.

  29. Dec 2018
    1. the self-sampling assumption

      All other things equal, an observer should reason as if they are randomly selected from the set of all actually existent observers (past, present and future) in their reference class.

      From Wikipedia, Self-sampling assumption

    2. the risk that humankind will go extinct soon has been systematically underestimated
    3. The Doomsday argument

      The Doomsday argument (DA) is a probabilistic argument that claims to predict the number of future members of the human species given only an estimate of the total number of humans born so far. Simply put, it says that supposing that all humans are born in a random order, chances are that any one human is born roughly in the middle.

      From Wikipedia, Doomsday argument

  30. Nov 2018
    1. Anyone who considers it appropriate to dub these people “violent criminals” surely has a heart two sizes too small.

      I don't agree that it makes them heartless, I just believe they are close minded and have not been informed right.

    2. Viewed in the light of their actual historical functions, the Canadian and American governments are themselves murderous cartels that rely, in turn, on Mexican cartels to protect their murderous colonial mines.

      I disagree because I really do believe that the Mexican cartels wouldn't want to help the United States at all.

  31. Oct 2018
    1. Second, and more importantly: political toleration does not require the strong and doctrine of philosophical relativism. Increased awareness of diversity together with an awareness of the historical contingency of one’s own convictions will promote political toleration just as effectively.

      This is it chief

    2. The anti-relativists counter-argue that even if we grant that political tolerance is an important value, and that accepting relativism would promote it, we should never adopt philosophical views about the nature of truth or justification simply because of their assumed good moral or political consequences.

      There is a key difference between moral relativism and tolerance, and making decisions and being a dick.

    3. Advocates of relativism, particularly outside philosophical circles, often cite tolerance as a key normative reason for becoming a relativist. On this rationale, all ways of life and cultures are worthy of respect in their own terms, and it is a sign of unacceptable ethnocentrism to presume that we could single out one outlook or point of view as objectively superior to others.

      This is the main point I will be arguing against, the belief that I thought I previously had.