169 Matching Annotations
  1. Sep 2021
    1. " We're going to have to control your tongue" I felt like that was an analogy. I took it as "you should watch what come's out of your mouth because words can hurt someone." Kind of like the saying when people say " watch your tongue"

  2. Sep 2019
    1. By her own hand

      Something that a lot of other students, and professors, mentioned that they have learned was this idea of "catharsis" in Greek theater. How important it was to include it in their writings, and how they pioneered this idea and really got to create it. I think this line is a great example of emotional catharsis for the audience. A woman has killed herself out of guilt, sadness, disgust, or a combination, and yet- we feel relieved. Relieved that she does not have to live with this vile truth of her wedding and having kids with her own son. It allows the audience this emotional catharsis of her release from this life, and a feeling that she knew it was wrong.

  3. Oct 2016
    1. space exploration is important

      Its not only important for our curiosity but for the future of mankind too. It inspires people to be scientists, astronauts,and engineers that will even further help the space program. Nasa also does a lot of environmentally friendly projects even though they burn a lot of rocket fuel. They also study a lot of how to help the earth out from energy usage to climate change. Nasa also improves our daily lives with many objects they have created such as baby formulas, cell phone cameras, shoe insoles, and memory foam. Not only does he space program help on earth and beyond it, it also helps us put ourselves and the universe in perspective.

    1. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA

      This is a stakeholder because they are from the medical perspective of topic of conversion therapy. They are a organization that deals with mental health especially for youth. They are reliable with the information that they have because they are close to the field that is being observed for this research. Many of the people apart of this organization are doctors, social workers, etc. This is relevant to the current topic of the affects of conversion therapy because they are educated in the mental health category and have been apart of helping the individuals for years.

    2. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Ending Conversion Therapy: Supporting and Affirming LGBTQ Youth. HHS Publication No. (SMA) 15-4928. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2015.

      This is the citation in MLA format.

    3. SAMHSA

      There is no cited author of this article; however, it seems to be someone associated with the SAMHSA organization, which is an organization that is for the mental health of lgbt+ youth. This article seems to appear in a pamphlet format, which is often displayed in doctor offices , in order to inform patients. If this is the case, then this may be seen by multiple kinds of people, including parents and the lgbt+ youth.

    4. Sexual orientation is a multidimensional construct that consists of sexual identity, sexual and romantic attraction, and sexual behavior. Great shifts in the understanding of sexual orientation have occurred over the past century (Herek, 2010). Though a minority sexual orientation was once considered abnormal or a medical problem, scientists now understand that sexuality occurs on a continuum and variations in sexual orientation are part of the normal range of human sexuality (American Psychological Association, 2009; Diamond, 2015; Vrangalova & Savin-Williams, 2012).

      Throughout this article, the author uses research based evidence. Although, they never use quotes about other's opinions, they do paraphrase with the citations of where the information is derived from. The evidence always seems to support the idea that conversion therapy is harmful and does not seem to go into the other side's perspective, but the information is reliable and recent.

    5. These individuals included researchers and practitioners in child and adolescent mental health with a strong background in gender development, gender identity, and sexual orientation in children and adolescents. The panel also included experts with a background in family therapy, ethics, and the psychology of religion. Among others, the panel included:

      The author includes a list of individuals who contributed to the panel, which consists mostly of professionals with multiple different backgrounds. This is done to establish more ethos throughout the article.

    6. Through the support of the Federal Agencies Project, APA hosted an expert consensus convening on this topic in July 2015, which significantly informed this report.

      The SAMHSA group establishes ethos through explaining that they collaborated with another organization called the Federal Agencies Project. This shows that they are credible, since it is not just the idea of one professional organization to end conversion therapy. There are multiple groups and organizations around the United States that have input on the situation. Although, this establishes credibility, it could also be believed that the author of this article only seeked out the opinion of another organization that already believed that this is a harmful therapy. This could show bias toward the idea that conversion therapy is harmful, since they do not seem to include much information about why the other side believes that it is not a harmful technique.

    7. comprehensive evaluation, support in identity exploration and development without an a priori goal of any particular gender identity or expression, and facilitation of family and community support

      The author of this article realizes that therapies that try to change the identity of the youth are harmful and should under no circumstance be used to 'treat' their lgbt+ identities. This kind of conversion therapy is not a treatment, instead it hurts the person who is forced into it, especially if they are mostly sure that they are not heterosexual, but this is a discovery that the child has to make on their own. []http://www.soc.ucsb.edu/sexinfo/sites/default/files/files/styles/large/public/field/image/conversion%203.jpg This is a picture that relates to the standpoint of the author of this article. The picture is from a protest on conversion therapy because it is harmful for those involved. It is relevant because it is becoming more known by ordinary people (not doctors) that this kind of therapy is not helping the lgbt+ youth.

    8. These psychosocial issues are likely related to if not caused by negative social attitudes or rejection (Vance, Ehrensaft, & Rosenthal, 2014). As with sexual minority adolescents, other issues of clinical relevance for gender minority adolescents include increased risk of experiencing victimization and violence, suicidal ideation and attempts, and homelessness

      Moving forward in my research I would like to explore more of these symptoms that lgbt+ youth often have after the rejection of their identities. I believe this would be an interesting way to see what kind of emotions this kind of rejection leads to for many youth. For instance, do many youth who are rejected based on their lgbt+ identities feel shame, want to commit suicide, etc.?

    9. Children are rarely if ever distressed about their current or future sexual orientation; more commonly, parents and guardians are distressed about a child’s perceived current or future sexual orientation and seek the assistance of behavioral health providers

      Children need to feel a sense of security and confidence when it comes to learning about themselves; however, this is deeply influenced by the people around them. If someone 'comes out' at a young age or during puberty they often are met with multiple challenges, especially from the people they hold the closest. Many children do not know how their parents may take the news that they currently identify with the lgbt+ community. They long for validation and acceptance and are afraid of rejection, especially from their parents. Often, when a child has more conservative parents on the lgbt+ views, they are often afraid of what will happen to them when they decide to disclose the information of their possible sexuality. For instance, many of these children are afraid to be left on their own or kicked out because of their sexualities. Many years ago, I knew a boy who was older then I was, who grew up with a Catholic background. When he was open about it to his parents after years of struggling with finding his identity, he was met with rejection and acceptance. His mother could not accept that her son was gay and did not know how to handle the information in a positive manner, which caused a rift in their relationship. However, his father was completely accepting and never treated him differently for something he could not change.

    10. Sexuality occurs across a continuum; same-gender attraction and relationships are normal variations of human sexuality (Diamond, 2015; Vrangalova & Savin-Williams, 2012). Similarly, a gender identity that is incongruent with assigned sex at birth, as well as a gender expression that diverges from stereotypical cultural norms for a particular gender, are normal variations of human gender

      SAMHSA is trying to explain that sexuality varies in human beings and is a perfectly natural attraction. The audience is most likely toward parents who do not know how to handle their feelings about their child being lgbt+, more specifically a parent who may be more conservative about their views. For instance, families with strict religious backgrounds have a tendency to believe that homosexuality is a sin. In order for the author of this article to continue with how a parent or guardian should handle these negative feelings toward their child for not being heterosexual, they use the word "normal" to validate the youths' sexualities.

    11. SAMHSA is committed to eliminating health disparities facing vulnerable communities, including sexual and gender minority communities.

      The claim in this journal is placed in the summary and argues that lgbt+ youths experience multiple different issues in the mental health category, which is where SAMHSA comes in to exclaim the negative effects on the child that often occur when a family acts in a negative fashion to their child's sexual identity and/or gender identity. Ultimately their goal is to create a more positive environment for these youths, especially through getting the conversion therapy thoughts out of a parent's or guardian's head before it causes more damage to the lgbt+ child.

    1. definitions.

      As a general comment on this article, I'm left wanting more, but this is a good article to get me started off. This piece gives me some background information and a bit more direction in terms of what I'm researching. I may just use this source for back up in the future, as opposed to using it as the main support of an argument.

    2. More specifically, black men were often assumed to be the rapists of white women and immigrant men were overwhelmingly stereotyped as the deviant homosexual seducers of young boys.

      Even when many white men were accused of such acts, for some reason, the white men are deemed innocent while the scapegoats become stereotypes of their race.

    3. Of course, white men who committed rape were cast as exceptions to their racial group, whereas black men accused of rape were seen as representatives of theirs.

      This is a poignant assertion. Non-whites (and their actions) are usually seen as a representative of their larger group, whereas whites are given the benefit of being considered as an individual. For example, if a black man robs a store, that group (either African Americans as a whole, or African American men) is assumed to have the tendency to rob; whereas if a white man robs a store, he is seen as the outlier, the exception to the rule.

    4. REVIEW OF: Redefining Rape: Sexual Violence in the Era of Suffrage and Segregation

      Martinez, Amanda R. "REVIEW OF: Redefining Rape: Sexual Violence in the Era of Suffrage and Segregation." The Journal of Race and Policy 10.1 (2014): 111-15. Ethnic NewsWatch [ProQuest]. Web. 11 Oct. 2016.

      The author of this review, Amanda R. Martinez, is an assistant professor in communication studies, sociology, and gender & sexuality studies at Davidson College in North Carolina. This review is posted in The Journal of Race and Policy.

    5. Redefining Rape is exhaustive in covering the intersectionalities across hundreds of years that inevitably reflect societal tensions, amply supported with detailed legal cases and recounted stories at the community, state, and national scopes. Those interested in gender studies, women's issues and history, LGBTQ human rights issues, social psychology, sociology, and communication studies would particularly enjoy this comprehensive work on socially constructed and ever-changing rape definitions.

      Martinez's claim is that "Redefining Rape" by Freedmen is an important read that chronicles the history of rape and how it intertwines with race and gender relations in the United States.

    6. At the outset, Freedman draws upon historical data to describe the foundational political history of rape

      The author of the original piece being reviewed ("Redefining Rape" by Estelle B. Freedmen) includes context in how rape and sexual assault have been addressed over the course of history. She addresses cultural response to rape and accusations of such beginning in the 1600s and working toward the present.

    7. white males are privileged and entitled to act upon their sexual impulses, so much so that white men's privilege was granted automatic social protection in many cases. Furthermore, men outside the bounds of white privilege were often cast as sexual deviants, even when evidence pointed to the strong likelihood of a white male rapist.

      I would consider referencing or quoting highlighted portion to show that it is nothing new for white men to be excused for their wrongdoings and, in turn, for non-whites to be accused and then stereotyped for such crimes.

    1. Moreover, we must avoid the temptation to further sacrifice Earth’s already hugely depleted biodiversity for easy gains in food production, not only because biodiversity provides many of the public goods on which mankind relies but also because we do not have the right to deprive future generations of its economic and cultural benefits. Together, these challenges amount to a perfect storm.

      I think the "they" the authors' are addressing in this article are people are unaware or in denial of the urgency of this situation.

    2. Efforts to increase sustainable production limits that benefit the poorest nations will need to be based around new alliances of businesses, civil society organizations, and governments.

      Unlike one company making all of the decisions, we need multiple organizations working together to keep the interests of the people and the environment in mind.

    3. Because genetic modification involves germline modification of an organism and its introduction to the environment and food chain, a number of particular environmental and food safety issues need to be assessed

      The authors' appear to be doing a good job of leaving their biases out of this article. They evenly present to pros and cons of the situation and offer solutions but also explain the drawbacks.

    4. We also accept the need for this technology to gain greater public acceptance and trust before it can be considered as one among a set of technologies that may contribute to improved global food security.

      They say "we" as though they have a dog in this fight with the universal acceptance of GMOs.

    5. Just as seriously, it also led to a virtual monopoly of GM traits in some parts of the world, by a restricted number of companies, which limits innovation and investment in the technology.

      This goes right back to my current research question. Monopolies in the food industry, especially in the agrichemical business delete competition and innovation leaving the consumers' interests behind.

    6. and a switch from public to private sources

      Is it dangerous that we are switching from a public to a private source? Do these private sources have the consumers' best interest in mind?

    7. Currently, the major commercialized genetically modified (GM) crops involve relatively simple manipulations, such as the insertion of a gene for herbicide resistance or another for a pest-insect toxin.

      Genetically modifying foods can make them resistant to certain toxins which are sprayed on the foods. To do this they insert a gene to make these plants resistant - do we know where these genes come from and if they're safe?

    8. conventional breeding to develop F1 hybrid varieties of maize and semi-dwarf, disease-resistant varieties of wheat and rice. These varieties could be provided with more irrigation and fertilizer (20) without the risk of major crop losses due to lodging (falling over) or severe rust epidemics.

      Conventional breeding of selected traits could increase yield and limit crop losses.

    9. In this article, major strategies for contributing to the challenge of feeding 9 billion people, including the most disadvantaged, are explored. Particular emphasis is given to sustainability, as well as to the combined role of the natural and social sciences in analyzing and addressing the challenge

      This is basically the thesis for this article.

    10. n recent decades, agricultural land that was formerly productive has been lost to urbanization and other human uses, as well as to desertification, salinization, soil erosion, and other consequences of unsustainable land management (16). Further losses, which may be exacerbated by climate change, are likely

      All the ways that humans formerly increased food production are becoming less available as it is destroying our ecosystems. Therefore other solutions must be found.

    11. A threefold challenge now faces the world (9): Match the rapidly changing demand for food from a larger and more affluent population to its supply; do so in ways that are environmentally and socially sustainable; and ensure that the world’s poorest people are no longer hungry.

      The authors' claim is that the way we are producing food now is not sustainable and there needs to be a new way to get food to the masses without further damaging our environment.

    12. Science  12 Feb 2010:Vol. 327, Issue 5967, pp. 812-818DOI: 10.1126/science.1185383

      American Association for the Advancement of Science is the world's largest general scientific society. It publishes five respected peer reviewed journals.

    13. H. Charles J. Godfray1,

      http://www.futureoffood.ox.ac.uk/people/charles-godfray

      Godfray has a lot of experience and including nine other authors this article most likely has a lot of relevant information.

    14. Food Security: The Challenge of Feeding 9 Billion People
      Godfray, H. C. J., J. R. Beddington, I. R. Crute, L. Haddad, D. Lawrence, J. F. Muir, J. Pretty, S. Robinson, S. M. Thomas, and C. Toulmin. "Food Security: The Challenge of Feeding 9 Billion People." Science 327.5967 (2010): 812-18. AAAS. Web. 11 Oct. 2016.
      

      The article is already setting the tone that it will be exploring the ways for the majority of people to get fed with the skyrocketing population.

  4. content.ebscohost.com.ezproxy2.library.colostate.edu:2048 content.ebscohost.com.ezproxy2.library.colostate.edu:2048
    1. We examined how loneliness relates to social anxiety, paranoia, and depression symptoms ina general community sample aged 18–87 years old (N1,010). We administered online measures over3 time points across a 6-month period.

      Throughout this article the authors remained unbiased and kept their main focus on their data and information retrieved on loneliness and its relationship with anxiety,depression and paranoia. They stick to their facts and remain straightforward with their audience.They continue to build logos, which becomes their main source of credibility.

    2. A total of 1,010 individuals aged between 18 and 87 years oldfrom a community sample in the United States completed the studyonline. Participants were recruited via a university medical re-search volunteer registry based in a Midwestern city in the UnitedStates. Although the volunteer registry database is located in onecity, the database registered people from different parts of thecountry (including both rural and urban areas). However, most ofthe volunteers reside within the same state as the medical school.Participants were asked to complete the study up to three timesacross a period of 18–24 weeks. Thus, participation lasted up to 6months

      To back up there statements they perform an experiment to show how loneliness is linked with paranoia and anxiety. Their method is another way that they provide logos to the audience and appear credible. Giving an elaborate explanation makes it easy for the audience to understand.

    3. On the basis of the existing studies previously reviewedhere, we expected that loneliness at an earlier time will predicthigher levels of social anxiety, paranoia, and depression at a latertime.

      With depression being one of the most common mental health issues in todays society, this is a reason why we should raise awareness. We often recognize depression but we do not recognize the heart of the issue which is, loneliness.

    4. Therefore, it is plausible that the presence of thesesymptoms may hinder the ability to connect with others in ameaningful way, hence leading to higher levels of loneliness

      With loneliness being extremely linked to social anxiety we could easily raise the awareness of loneliness while informing those with social anxiety. Since the two are linked together, both can be talked about in reference to each other. Those diagnosed with social anxiety should be aware that they are more prone to loneliness.

    5. This article was published Online First April 28, 2016.

      Lim, Michelle H., Thomas L. Rodebaugh, Michael J. Zyphur, and John F. M. Gleeson. "Loneliness Over Time: The Crucial Role of Social Anxiety." Ebsco Host. N.p., 28 April 2016. Web. 8 Oct. 2016.

    6. loneliness was associated with all mentaldisorders, but most strongly with social anxiety disorder

      This is when the authors present their claim. They state that although loneliness is common among people with mental disorders it is much more common to people with anxiety. They follow this statement with statistics furthering their logos.

    7. Michelle H. Lim and Thomas L. Rodebaugh, Department of Psychology,Washington University in St. Louis; Michael J. Zyphur, Department ofManagement and Marketing, University of Melbourne; John F. M.Gleeson, School of Psychology, Australian Catholic University.Michelle H. Lim is now at Brain and Psychological Sciences Centre,Swinburne University of Technology.Grant funding awarded to Michelle H. Lim & John F. M. Gleeson fromAustralian Catholic University

      In the beginning of the article we are given the authority on which they speak on. They appeal to the audiences logos by not only giving information on their university background but also following those statements with accomplishments and where they have ended up. These statements expanded their credibility.

    1. Libertarian vice presidential nominee Bill Weld said Wednesday his decision to focus on attacking Donald Trump ahead of Election Day is "the way to win."

      The author of this article is journalist Eli Watkins. He writes for CNN news, a non-scholarly cable news net work. His main focus of the article is vice president nominee Bill Weld and his strategy to win the debate. One of Watkins' coworkers Jake Tapper spoke with Weld and discovered his strategy. Watkins makes Weld’s claim very clear by the title and the first sentence of the article. Weld believes that the way to win is to focus on attacking Donald Trump. Weld believes that he needs to peel off Republican votes from Trump. This article also clearly answers my question of “why is it so common for opponents to attack each other during debates?”. Opponents believe that attacking each other is the key to winning an election. Those who would disagree with Weld would say that to win the election you must be a good candidate. Making the opponent look bad does not always look good on your part. Watkins’ credibility is in high standings due to his coworker having a personal encounter with Weld, instead of taking something her heard off the media. Weld verbally said that his way to win is to attack Trump to Tapper and CNN. This is also a recent article that was updated on October 5th. Watkins’ article would appeal to a Democratic audience. People that are voting Hilary Clinton and Bill Weld want to hear what they have to say. This will appeal to them because there is nothing more that want to hear than finding out their preferred candidate won. They will want to know how to get their side to victory. CNN is a know liberal news source which is a bias because they are writing about the libertarian vice president. They could very well be reporting on this because it is their beliefs instead of trying to be a mediator.

  5. Aug 2016
    1. CBRI Is the Dominant Racial Ideology

      Yes! They are addressing where this ideology in itself is an issue.

    2. HelenNeville and her colleagues interviewed over 30 raciallydiverse college students about their beliefs about raceand racism

      Neville conducted research in order to prove her ideas. This is important because without such research, her ideas could be considered subjective. Without evidence, there would be no valid argument.

    3. evading power, including the denial,minimization, and/or distortion of (a) blatant forms ofracism (e.g., “Racism is a thing of the past and is no longera problem today”), (b) institutional racism (e.g., “Certainpolicies and practices unfairly benefit racial and ethnicminorities”), and (c) racial privilege (e.g., “White peopledo not have certain advantages because of the color of theirskin”).

      This supports that claim that CBRI perpetuate racism because, though it may not be intended in all instances, they minimize the harmful effects of racial ideologies that have been instilled within different societies by completely ignoring them. Within the United States and outside of the United States, slavery existed. Slavery promoted the idea of white superiority by taking claim and owning members of perceived inferior races and treating them poorly to say the least on the basis of skin color alone (despite "biological evidence" which was later to be found as false). Members of the perceived inferior races experienced prejudice for decades after. The effects of slavery and those ideologies did not fade but simply redirected themselves into different systems such as the criminal justice system. The unfortunate truth is that race is a social construct based on subjective ideas and when analyzing a topic such as this, some may consider these to be subjective as well with subjective correlations.

    4. Elements of CBRI inpeople of color

      I appreciate that this was included. As a person of color, sometimes the idea that one who identifies with the marginalized group is not affected by CBRI is a false notion.

    5. The harmful effects of a color-evasion approach arealso evident among young children.Apfelbaum and col-leagues (2010)exposed elementary school children

      STAKEHOLDER. Though other stakeholders have been introduce, this one in particular uses pathos. Children are innocent and we as adults have the duty to teach them correctly and correct any teachings that are harmful. By showing that children can be harmfully affected by CBRI, it creates more stakeholders including teachers and parents since they are responsible for them no matter whether they identify a part of the marginalized group.

    6. e argue that it is unrealistic and even harmful todisregard another’s race or to not see color in a society thatis as racially stratified as the United States.

      Here they expand on their claim and are firm in their views.

    7. of potential racial differencesby emphasizing sameness

      Definitions are important. It creates clarity for the reader and (surprise) MORE credibility for the authors.

    8. In this article, we propose a CBRI framework to helpsynthesize the divergent perspectives in the literature. Indefining CBRI, we argue that racial color-blindness isunattainable, reinforces racial prejudices and/or inequality,and is actually an expression of ultramodern notions ofracism among White Americans and of internalized racismor the adoption of negative racial stereotypes among peopleof color

      This is their claim. Color-Blind Racial Ideologies perpetuate racism and inequality by not acknowledging the "elephant in the room" of race. To be completely oblivious to race is impossible with European colonialism across the world.

    9. In the 1990s, the American Psychological As-sociation (APA; 1997) published a pamphlet answering thequestion:Can— or Should—America Be Color-Blind?Us-ing research from social psychology, APA uncovered fal-lacies in individual and collective color-blind approaches toracism and thus concluded in the pamphlet, “Despite soci-ety’s best attempts to ignore race, the research indicatesthat race does matter” (p. 7).

      Once again, further adding to the credibility and this time to the publication of the essay by citing it. However, this is a place to be very careful as not to suggest bias and lack of well roundedness of sources and perspectives from multiple publications which they have an abundance of.

    10. Helen A. NevilleUniversity of Illinois at Urbana–ChampaignGermine H. AwadUniversity of Texas at AustinJames E. Brooks and Michelle P. FloresUniversity of Illinois at Urbana–ChampaignJamie BluemelChicago School of Professional Psycholog

      Each of the authors have their PhD in psychology. They are well-versed and studied in the areas and have the authority to teach on this topic. It is important to note the significance of these professors from different universities collaborating on this essay. In addition, it is important to note the publication and its national recognition.

    11. Psychology has a rich history of research designed tounderstand and describe the changing expressions of racialbeliefs,

      Great. Here they are establishing ethos/credibility to themselves by acknowledging the significance of psychology, which they all received their degrees in, as it pertains to this particular topic.

    12. Color-Blind Racial Ideology

      Neville, Helen et. al. "Color-Blind Racial Ideology: Theory, Training, and Measurement Implications in Psychology." American Psychological Association, Vol. 68, No. 6, Sept. 2013, pp. 455-466. Web. 8 Aug 2016.

    1. affect the entire economy,

      This can be used as an example for why everyone should care about the drought.

    2. produce costlier crops like almonds and pistachios – mostly imported to China and elsewhere – to make up for production cutbacks. Those two crops require 35 times the water compared to the traditional vegetables.

      Are the farmers causing more problems by trying to make up for production costs?

    3. As aquifers are depleted, farmers are drilling deeper and deeper for water. In some places, the drilling is pulling up water that last saw sunlight during the Ice Age.

      The farmers must have water in order to provide food to the country, but drinking water is needed as well. What will happen when even the deepest groundwater is removed?

    4. one bridge now sits below the water line.

      The sinking is affecting the infrastructure of the state. How could this, in combination with natural disasters, continue to have a negative impact on the infrastructure.

    5. between May 2014 and January 2015 the ground sank up to 2 inches per month.

      This relates back to the sinking of 45 feet previously noted.

    1. This study began by asking whether the minority party has any electoral incentive to act responsibly in Congress. The short answer is: yes. Americans do hold meaningfully different evaluations of each party’s performance in Congress. To a significant degree, these evaluations are formed on the basis of criteria logically related to legislative performance. In turn, Americans use the evaluations of both parties when casting their votes in House elections. Importantly, the electoral impact of minority party performance ratings appears to be just as large, on average, as the impact of majority party performance ratings.

      I can use this in my paper as a counter argument against my own. He is arguing that, with the current two party system in America, both parties are held accountable for their actions, therefore the two party system is a fair way of electing politicians.

    2. On its face, these findings would appear to support the one-party model of accountability for Congress. Specifically, they are consistent with a story in which everything a citizen learns or feels about Congress is automatically associated with a single party: the majority. But while it may be true that Americans closely associate approval of Congress with approval of the majority party, this does not rule out the possibility that Americans also evaluate the performance of the minority party in Congress and use that evaluation when voting. No existing studies offer or test this alternative hypothesis.

      In this section, Jones brings up specific, credible research that backs up the one party model. He adds that although these findings are legitimate given the assumptions they make, he argues that different research needs to be done to account for Americans that take the minority party into consideration when voting. Once again, his mention of a legitimate study from the opposing side serves to strengthen his credibility.

    3. In particular, the frequent occurrence of divided government, as well as occasional friction between a president and his own party in Congress even during unified government, have necessitated additional theorizing about whether and how models of collective accountability should be more realistically adapted.

      In this section, Jones introduces the two primary theories of accountability that have been established, providing background on the subject for the reader. At the end of this section, he states the main issue with these theories, and adds that more research needs to be done in this area to account for the fact that there is often no single party in power.

    4. In both cases, the minority party appeared to believe that it could make the ruling party look bad by denying it bipartisan legislative victories, and that the public would respond at the polls by punishing the ruling party, not the minority. Also in both cases, the strategy seemed to pay dividends. The minority party experienced sweeping electoral successes two years later, regaining their majority status.

      Jones is providing reasonably strong evidence that supports one of the opposing view points. He provides one example from each party in recent history in which political gridlock seemingly led to the shift of power away from the current majority. This is a legitimate counterpoint and Jones' choice to include it in the beginning gives more validity to his argument later on in the article.

    5. Existing research suggests that to the extent that accountability for congressional performance occurs, it does so primarily through a referendum on the performance of the majority party. If true, this means that the minority party has no incentive to act responsibly, and may even have an incentive to polarize and obstruct.

      Here, Jones is entering into the conversation by introducing the primary point that he opposes in this article. The opposition argues that the American public evaluates Congress as a whole, and the majority party is often blamed for political gridlock. Jones disputes this immediately by arguing that American's do in fact take party performance into consideration when deciding who to vote for in elections.

    6. I argue that the ratings Americans give to each congressional party flow in part from the parties’ actual performances in Congress, reflecting factors such as policy stances, managerial effectiveness, and partisan tone. I also argue that when Americans cast ballots in elections, they take into account their evaluations of not only majority party performance, but also their separate evaluations of minority party performance. In this way, Americans hold both parties accountable for their respective performances.

      Here, Jones articulates his main point in the article. He is arguing that Americans hold both parties in Congress accountable for their actions and accomplishments as a party, and that voters take into account their evaluation of both political parties when deciding who to vote for in elections.

    7. Polity

      Polity is the journal of the Northeastern Political Science Association. This journal was established in 1968 and is one of the more widely known political science journals. They are considered to be a credible publication.

    8. David R Jones

      Jones is a professor at Baruch College who specializes in American politics. He has written multiple books on politics in America, and his research has been included in many scholarly journals including The American Journal of Political Science.

    9. A More Responsible Two-Party System? Accountability for Majority and Minority Party Performance in a Polarized Congress

      Jones, David R. "A More Responsible Two-Party System? Accountability for Majority and Minority Performance in a Polarized Congress". Polity, 18 Aug. 2014. Web. 01 Aug. 2016.

    10. In both cases, the minority party appeared to believe that it could make the ruling party look bad by denying it bipartisan legislative victories, and that the public would respond at the polls by punishing the ruling party, not the minority. Also in both cases, the strategy seemed to pay dividends. The minority party experienced sweeping electoral successes two years later, regaining their majority status.

      Here, Jones is providing reasonably strong evidence that supports one of the opposing view points. He provides one example from each party in recent history in which political gridlock seemingly led to the shift of power away from the current majority. This is a legitimate counterpoint and Jones' choice to include it in the beginning gives more validity to his argument later on in the article.

    11. Existing research suggests that to the extent that accountability for congressional performance occurs, it does so primarily through a referendum on the performance of the majority party. If true, this means that the minority party has no incentive to act responsibly, and may even have an incentive to polarize and obstruct.

      Here, Jones is entering into the conversation by introducing the primary point that he opposes in this article. The opposition argues that the American public evaluates Congress as a whole, and the majority party is often blamed for political gridlock. Jones disputes this immediately by arguing that American's do in fact take party performance into consideration when deciding who to vote for in elections.

    12. Polity

      Polity is the journal of the Northeastern Political Science Association. This journal was established in 1968 and is one of the more widely known political science journals. They are considered to be a credible publication.

    13. David R Jones

      Jones is a professor at Baruch College who specializes in American politics. He has written multiple books on politics in America, and his research has been included in many scholarly journals including The American Journal of Political Science. http://www.baruch.cuny.edu/wsas/academics/political_science/djones.htm

    14. A More Responsible Two-Party System? Accountability for Majority and Minority Party Performance in a Polarized Congress

      Jones, David R. "A More Responsible Two-Party System? Accountability for Majority and Minority Performance in a Polarized Congress". Polity, 18 Aug. 2014. Web. 01 Aug. 2016.

    15. I argue that the ratings Americans give to each congressional party flow in part from the parties’ actual performances in Congress, reflecting factors such as policy stances, managerial effectiveness, and partisan tone. I also argue that when Americans cast ballots in elections, they take into account their evaluations of not only majority party performance, but also their separate evaluations of minority party performance. In this way, Americans hold both parties accountable for their respective performances.

      Here, Jones articulates his main point in the article. He is arguing that Americans hold both parties in Congress accountable for their actions and accomplishments as a party, and that voters take into account their evaluation of both political parties when deciding who to vote for in elections.

  6. Jul 2016
    1. As the population exploded and farming acreage increased, the land collapse accelerated – one area dropped nearly 40 inches between 2007 and 2010. And in just eight months leading up to February 2015, it sank another 13 inches.

      All thanks to the lack of ground water and available water from rivers and lakes.

    2. enough fresh water needs to be released to keep seawater from infiltrating the area

      New information to me. I always thought the salt water regulated itself through sea life.

    3. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and conservative lawmakers, farmers and residents who accuse the agency of wasting millions of gallons of water to protect salmon and an endangered anchovy called the delta smelt

      Controversial use of water because many believe in protecting wildlife and endangered species while others are more concerned with their own survival. This raises the question of which is more important?

    4. Farmers use 40 percent of the state's water supply. Residential and commercial usage is 10 percent, and the rest is released into the waterways or used by the government.

      Farmers aren't even using half of the available water and they're the ones providing food to the nation. This can be used in an argument to support farmers.

    5. "Wealthy people don't care, they will find a way [to use water]," said Republican state Sen. Jim Nielsen, a lifelong farmer and farming advocate. "But it's not the urban use that's sucking the state dry, it's the farmers," he added sarcastically.

      This is an interesting quote. Often times the wealthy doesn't seem to notice serious problems until it is directly affecting them.

    6. second year of mandatory 25 percent water cuts.

      The once lush coast is now know for being brown.

    7. Lake Shasta

      Massive lake to small Grand Canyon thanks to the drought and need for water.

    8. infrastructure damage from the altitude drop; two million acres of dead farmland; disappearing wildlife; $2.7 billion in economic losses; 21,000 lost jobs; and rising food and utility costs.

      Problems of the drought that are affecting everyone economically, among other ways.

    9. urged to drill new wells – at a cost of $30,000 each. Portable showers have been installed at a local church and bottled drinking water is delivered. Emergency state funding has paid for delivery of 2,500-gallon water drums to residents' front yards for washing and bathing. It's been that way for two years.

      Where do we draw the line? Water is having to be trucked in to do even simple things like bath. This developed country is almost moving backward in time and advancements.

    10. the only way to do something about it is to stop drilling. Then it will keep sinking for a year or two even if it's stopped.

      Currently there are no other solutions to help the now sinking state.

    11. will produce floods as the water has nowhere to go

      The land is too dry and collapsing from mining, thus the water will not all soak in to the earth. This can lead to mudslides which are also devastating in a hilly state like California.

    12. It will take several years of rain to bring the state out of its crisis mode regardless of how many spring showers occur.

      Can a major storm like El Nino help speed up the process?

    13. Tori Richards

      Richards is a contributor for several news outlets such as US News, Fox News, and Bloomberg News. She lives in California, thus experiencing the drought first hand.

    14. sunk more than 45 feet since 1935 – something the U.S. government calls the "largest human alteration of the earth's surface."

      This can be used for why groundwater drilling is a bad thing.

    15. Water Woes Divide California into Haves, Have Nots

      Richards, Tony. “Water Woes Divide California into Haves, Have Nots.” U.S. News. 8 Apr. 2016. Web. 10 July 2016.

      Richards claim is in the subtitle of the article. He states that the decrease in water in California may cause a Dust Bowl. Throughout the piece, Richards also talks about the ongoing sinking of the state due to groundwater mining.

    1. How ISIS Spread in the Middle East And how to stop it

      Ignatius, David. "How ISIS Spread in the Middle East And how to stop it". The Atlantic.29 Oct. 2015. Web. 10 Jul. 2016.

      Ignatius claims that ISIS is not merely a terrorist group, but it's an anti-colonial organization with higher political motives aiming to restore an "Islamic caliphate" similar to the ottoman empire. And that the US failed foreign policies facilitated their insurgence and empowerment.

    1. At a time when the country is critically short of engineers, especially female ones, it’s heartening to see so many opportunities to inspire students with a love of science.

      Finally, Grady finishes her article with establishing another benefit to the mission that might get more people on board with funding NASA. She states that there is room for high end jobs, to help with unemployment. She also makes special mention that female engineers are wanted, that may appeal to the female demographics as well.

    2. It may not be as sexy as putting a man on the moon, but it’s something I believe we should care as deeply about.

      Grady does several things here. One of the main arguments against funding for NASA is that people do not see probes circling other planets of important. Sending Neil Armstrong to the Moon was impressive and exciting, but this wasn't. However, she stands as a voice for her field, and is attempting to show her audience that this is just as important of a mission.

    3. Since the Voyager missions, it has been known the Saturn-like ring around Jupiter is formed by sulphur dioxide released by volcanism on the moon Io. The planet’s magnetic field traps dust from Io and accelerates it, producing the intense radiation for which Jupiter is notorious.

      Grady mentions the Voyager missions. This shows that the mission is complementing previous mission information, showing the cost of the mission isn't just to tread old ground. By doing so, Grady is building a case that the money is truly being spent to gain and improve our information on the planet of Jupiter.

    4. The craft will go closer, for longer, than any other of Jupiter’s visitors and its colour camera, nicknamed the JunoCam, will snap close-ups of clouds and polar regions. While the on-board instruments will refine what little we know about its composition, which has higher amounts of sulphur, nitrogen and noble gases than expected from a planet basically formed from gases left-over after the sun’s creation.

      Grady is stating the importance of this mission. The reason this is important is because it covers one of the stakeholder positions that will be covered in my paper. It describes the valuable information that NASA and the space exploration community will gain from this mission. By explaining that the mission will give more information than any of the previous explorations to Jupiter so far, it is justifying why the cost of this mission is important. This will in turn show that funding towards space programs is being used responsibly and that the money is not being wasted on treading old ground.

    5. Not only did it have to withstand the planet’s intense radiation field, the £890 million probe also needed to survive intense turbulence and dodge space debris.

      Grady is now getting to the heart of the article. She writes very technically and factual from her on out. It is unbiased as there is no opinion being thrown in. She describes some of the many issues that surround the mission and how much money it has cost to get to the point it is today.

    6. It’s mission? To solve the mystery of what lies beneath the planet’s swirling storm clouds.

      She now brings the viewer back to the main purpose of the article; to talk about the Juno mission. She does so by expressly stating what the mission is.

    7. . Indeed, it sounds like the plot of a Hollywood sci-fi blockbuster – the craft even had the courtesy to arrive at Jupiter on Independence Day.

      Grady attempting to further connect with her audience, people interested and invested in space exploration, by talking about something other than the mission. she refers to Independence Day, a popular sci-fi action movie that also happens to refrence the day the real life mission of Juno became successful.

    8. It was a scene that made me smile. Back in November 2014, I experienced the same feeling of elation after robot probe Philae - a project I had worked with colleagues on for almost 20 years – finally landed on a comet, after detaching from the Rosetta satellite.

      Grady does several things with this statement. First, she adds to her credibility for reporting on this topic. By working on a mission similar to this one, she is showing that she has an insider's view on missions such as this, instead of being purely an outsider. She also establishes emotion into the article by going into more detail into the excitement that goes on within these missions, and how she had a genuine emotion to the announcement and reaction of the mission.

    9. the hardest thing Nasa has ever attempted. Little wonder, then, that the cheers of its jubilant scientists reverberated around the world, last week, as spacecraft Juno arrived in the Jovian system after an epic five year, 1.8 billion mile, journey.

      Grady starts the actual article by talking about just how impressive the Juno mission is in of itself. The fact that the success of the mission was an exciting announcement to the entire world speaks volumes as to how impressive this mission has become.

    10. Monica Grady, Professor of Planetary and Space Science at the Open University

      Article gives a brief biography of who the author is, and points to a leader in the field, showing a reputable and scholarly source. Open University is an accredited university that offers online schooling for European countries, verifying the author is in fact a professor.

    11. How Nasa's Juno Jupiter probe could be about to solve the solar system's biggest mystery of all

      Grady, Monica. "How Nasa's Juno Jupiter probe could be about to solve the solar system's biggest mystery of all." The Telegraph. 10 July. 2016. Web. 10 July. 2016.

      Grady uses a title that helps support her overall point of this paper. This mission is incredibly important for NASA, as well as our understanding of the solar system that Earth inhabits.

  7. Mar 2016
    1. Meanwhile health authorities in at least five of the affected countries—Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, El Salvador, and Jamaica—are advising women to avoid pregnancy for the moment.1

      This quote can be used to showcase the exact severity of the disease as health officials are not just advising that people try and stay safe from contracting the disease, but also advising that they refrain from getting pregnant. This is due to the fact that there is an anticipated risk that the pregnant women in these areas may contract or already have contracted the disease. This also addresses what the government is saying. By issuing this statement the governments of these regions are not only indicating that there is a risk of Zika infection, but they are also indicating that the populous is not in control of whether or not they will contract the virus. If the government thought the disease were preventable by the civilians' efforts to stay safe then they would have released a statement indicating people to remain extra safe during pregnancy or if there is risk women may become pregnant. This is a showcase of how the Virus' spread is actually not able to be contolled by the people.

    2. The rapid spread of Zika virus in the Americas, where there is little population immunity, is a major concern, especially given the possible link between infection during pregnancy and the congenital abnormality microcephaly

      Ingrid Torjesen's claim is that this outbreak of Zika virus that is currently occurring in the Americas (primarily South America) is something that the world should be incredibly concerned about.

    3. Margaret Chan, WHO’s director general, said, “Although a causal link between Zika infection in pregnancy and microcephaly has not been established, the circumstantial evidence is suggestive and extremely worrisome. An increased occurrence of neurological syndromes, noted in some countries coincident with arrival of the virus, adds to the concern.”

      The Author brings the statement of the World Health Organization's director general to support her claim and justify the exact severity of this outbreak. The quoted Margaret Chan also speaks to the fact that a direct linkage of the disease during pregnancy to microcephaly has not yet been established, but it is largely observed and should also be worried about. Linkage of microcephaly would appear in the form of birth defects, neurological problems, and death of a newborn baby that has been affected by this disease. Microcephaly would also include linkage to Guillain-Barre.

    4. Zika virus outbreaks prompt warnings to pregnant women

      Torjesen, Ingrid. "Zika Virus Outbreaks Prompt Warnings To Pregnant Women." BMJ: British Medical Journal 352.8042 (2016): i500-2. Academic Search Premier. Web. 8 Mar. 2016.

  8. content.ebscohost.com.ezproxy2.library.colostate.edu:2048 content.ebscohost.com.ezproxy2.library.colostate.edu:2048
    1. The Missouri Task force onGender Bias, for example, found that enforcement of rape shield laws was unevenand that even provisions that made it onto the books were not always enforce

      This looks really bad for law enforcement in the case that they would ever try to defend themselves against these allegations. This is also just more proof of the author's claims that there is a biased against women not only in a courtroom, but also in a police station where people should feel safe.

    2. Even worse, women sometimes have to deal with police who do not even want torecognize what happened to them. The case of Susan Estrich, a rape survivor andlaw professor, is instructive. In retelling her own rape victimization, Estrich reportsthat the police ‘‘asked me if he took any money. He did; but while I remembervirtually every detail of that day and night, I can’t remember how much. But Iremember their answer. He did take money; that made it an armed robbery. Muchbetter than a rape. They got right on the radio with that’’

      In the case of Susan Estrich, it seems pretty obvious that the police didn't really focus on what actually happened when she was raped, but they focused more on the fact that it was an armed robbery which was "much better than a rape."

    3. ORIGINAL ARTICLEMisogyny: It’s Still the Law—An Empirical Assessmentof the Missouri Juvenile Court System’s Processingof Rape and Robbery Offenders

      McGuire, M., Steve Donner, and Elizabeth Callahan. "Misogyny: It's Still The Law-An Empirical Assessment Of The Missouri Juvenile Court System's Processing Of Rape And Robbery Offenders." Gender Issues 29.1-4 (2012): 1-24. Academic Search Premier. Web. 8 Mar. 2016.

      McGuire, Donner, and Callahan argue that the bias against women can be recognized in a court of law specifically in cases of rape and robbery in the first degree. They focus on and examine forcible rape and robbery cases specifically in Missouri's juvenile court system.

    4. Patriarchal societies have long used their legalsystems to subjugate and control women in a variety of ways including prohibitingthem from owning property or other economic assets, denying them access toeducation and restricting their participation in the political system

      This particular sentence can be related to the case of Kesha Sebert v. Lukasz Gottwald. Kesha was recently denied a preliminary injunction that would ultimatley free her from her contract with Gottwald. She claimed to have been physically and emotionally abused by the music producer. The highlighted sentence is basically saying that women don't have control over bad things that may happen to them, the court of law does. While Kesha is not prohibited from owning property or other economic assets, she is still being restricted by having to continue to work under her alleged assailant. That being said, an important inquiry question comes to mind. Is a piece of paper really more important than a human being's physical and emotional health?

    5. Even after rape was recognized as a crime of violence against women andwomen’s rights to their own bodily integrity were acknowledged, the legal systemremained primarily concerned with protecting men from false accusations notwomen from sexual violenc

      The problem with Kesha's situation is there is not hard, solid evidence that her allegations actually happened. Gottwald has spoken out and claimed that her accusations were false and he didn't know why she would even say that. Is it possible that the court was protecting him from these false accusations?

    6. Gend. Issues (2012) 29:1–24

      "Gender Issues." - Springer. Springer US, n.d. Web. 08 Mar. 2016.

      This article is issue 1 of volume 29 of "Gender Issues." "Gender Issues" targets four main points in the articles within. Contributors try to understand gender socialization, personality and behavior in context. They explore relationships such as friendships, romantic relationships and professional relationships. They analyze how gender identity, expression and relations are impacted by economic, legal and social changes. Lastly, authors interpret these impacts on the roles of people throughout the world.

    7. Gend. Issues (2012) 29:1–24

      "Gender Issues." - Springer. Springer US, n.d. Web. 08 Mar. 2016.

      This article is issue 1 of volume 29 of "Gender Issues." "Gender Issues" targets four main points in the articles within. Contributors try to understand gender socialization, personality and behavior in context. They explore relationships such as friendships, romantic relationships and professional relationships. They analyze how gender identity, expression and relations are impacted by economic, legal and social changes. Lastly, authors interpret these impacts on the roles of people throughout the world.

    8. Even after rape was recognized as a crime of violence against women andwomen’s rights to their own bodily integrity were acknowledged, the legal systemremained primarily concerned with protecting men from false accusations notwomen from sexual violence

      The problem with Kesha's situation is there is not hard, solid evidence that her allegations actually happened. Gottwald has spoken out and claimed that her accusations were false and he didn't know why she would even say that. Is it possible that the court was protecting him from these false accusations?

    9. Patriarchal societies have long used their legalsystems to subjugate and control women in a variety of ways including prohibitingthem from owning property or other economic assets, denying them access toeducation and restricting their participation in the political system

      This particular sentence can be related to the case of Kesha Sebert v. Lukasz Gottwald. Kesha was recently denied a preliminary injunction that would ultimatley free her from her contract with Gottwald. She claimed to have been physically and emotionally abused by the music producer. The highlighted sentence is basically saying that women don't have control over bad things that may happen to them, the court of law does. While Kesha is not prohibited from owning property or other economic assets, she is still being restricted by having to continue to work under her alleged assailant. That being said, an important inquiry question comes to mind. Is a piece of paper really more important than a human being's physical and emotional health?

    10. Misogyny: It’s Still the Law—An Empirical Assessmentof the Missouri Juvenile Court System’s Processingof Rape and Robbery Offenders

      McGuire, M., Steve Donner, and Elizabeth Callahan. "Misogyny: It's Still The Law-An Empirical Assessment Of The Missouri Juvenile Court System's Processing Of Rape And Robbery Offenders." Gender Issues 29.1-4 (2012): 1-24. Academic Search Premier. Web. 8 Mar. 2016.

      McGuire, Donner, and Callahan argue that the bias against women can be recognized in a court of law specifically in cases of rape and robbery in the first degree. They focus on and examine forcible rape and robbery cases specifically in Missouri's juvenile court system.

    1. Dylan Ruan

      Dylan Ruan is an Environmental Communication and Media Strategy major from the University of California, Santa Barbara. Most of his work focuses consists of taking notable faculty researchers and publicizing their work through written publication. https://www.linkedin.com/in/dylanruan

      "The Santa Barbara Independent is a true community newspaper with a market penetration higher than almost every other "alternative" weekly in the country" (Reliable Popular Source). http://www.independent.com/history/

      The newspaper has continually grown over the years and penetrates a wide variety of audiences. They report using a unique voice that resonates with independent and involved individuals in the community. It is an innovative newspaper, that knows how to properly report current events.

    2. Meng described El Niño’s rippling effects as impacting one region of the world after another.

      This source might help me going forward with research because it is showing me how one thing can effect everything. It is a chain of both societal and environmental impacts. I should research the effects on each chain if climate change continues to be a big problem.

    3. “We also know that the broader the coverage of a cap-and-trade program, the less costly it’s going to be to make the same amount of reduction,” Meng said of achieving carbon reductions around the world.

      This is a global solution. It helps to see how solutions to the problems with effect a global audience rather than just a local one. This helps to show the big picture for Meng' s work.

      I would be interested in researching other solutions that could be used to reach a more global audience as well.

      This is also an audience appeal as he is showing how Meng's innovations are universally helpful. He is working to better the world, not just a specific nation.

    4. The Carbon Market and Global Climate Issues UCSB’s Kyle Meng Discusses Environmental Economics

      Ruan, Dylan. "The Carbon Market and Global Climate Issues." Santa Barbara Independent 1 Mar. 2016: n. pag. Web.

      Ruan claims that UCSB's Kyle Meng is focusing on creating a future where "climate change is battled with market-based solutions". Moreover, that climate change can be addressed using environmental economics.

    5. Because this consequence is experienced by someone else — the environment, humans on other continents, or animals — there is little obvious incentive for many of us to reduce carbon emissions. One solution to this problem is to put a price on pollution.

      By showing a possible solution to the problem, Ruan establishes early on the credibility in Meng's work. His solution is backed by his vast understanding of economics as he explains to the audience how it would benefit society to put a price of pollution. In doing this, reduction of activity would occur, in turn causing carbon emissions to become reduced.

    6. Meng believes that environmental economics “is fundamentally about harnessing the power of markets to address environmental problems.”

      This is what "they" are saying. Ruan is articulating Meng's philosophy to the audience. Meng, who is well versed in economics and the environment, specifically climate change and market-based solutions, is showing how we can use the market to help fix the environment. Meng addresses primarily two ways economics can be used to bring communities together to reduce emissions. He also addresses environmental effects like El Nino that can have dramatic repercussions if not properly analyzed and helped.

    7. Meng’s research also focuses on the potential impacts of climate change, which he tries to understand by looking to the recent past, such as the global climatic phenomenon known as El Niño

      Another example to help establish credibility falls within Meng's research of a past climate change event, El Nino. Most of the time to better gain understanding of a particular problem and its solutions, a person should look at the past to address what worked and what didn't. This will save both time and money and help in deciding future actions of climate change.

    8. These major agricultural losses, he observed, have the potential to lead to an increased amount of civil unrest and conflict within tropical nations.

      I would be interested in further researching potential conflicts between tropical nations. How prevalent has this issue been and has it ended up causing big conflicts in the past?

    1. “For more than 15 years, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, state wildlife agencies, tribes, conservation organizations, ranchers and other landowners have worked hard to recover gray wolves in the Northern Rocky Mountains. Our collective efforts have brought this population to the point where it no longer requires Endangered Species Act protection,” stated Tom Strickland, Assistant Secretary for Fish and Wildlife and Parks for the Department of the Interior.  “The Service’s decision to delist the wolf in Idaho and Montana reflected the strong commitments from the states of Idaho and Montana to manage gray wolves in a sustainable manner. Today’s ruling makes it clear this wolf population cannot be delisted until the State of Wyoming has instituted an adequate management program, similar to those of Idaho and Montana.”

      I also agree with this quote, which shows a possible compromise: Wyoming's plans be changed to be similar to Idaho and Montana while a regulation of wolf hunting is required.

    2. Montana and Idaho’s plans were approved in 2003, but Wyoming’s plan that would have categorized wolves as predators in much of the state allowing a “shoot on sight” policy was rejected.  Some compromises were made and, in spring 2008, the FWS announcement to delist the species was met by an immediate lawsuit by environmental organizations. 

      Wyoming's wolves are constantly in danger with the aforementioned "shoot on sight" policy, whether the animal is just wandering or actually taking livestock. With this policy, any hunter or farmer, or civilian, would all go on an endless wolf hunting spree, rapidly decreasing the wolf population and setting the wolf conservation back to its original position (endangered species to possibly extinction).

    3. Environmental groups once again filed suite but their request for injunction to halt the hunts in Montana and Idaho was denied on the grounds that the hunts would not do irreparable harm to the population as a whole.

      This is typically true. Overpopulation of wolves need to be taken care of; there will be no prey species left and environmental problems could occur. Issues such as, forest (plus other nature-based species), prey and predator species' would deteriorate.

    4. in Wyoming. That state was excluded from the delisting because its wolf management plan, that would allow unrestricted killing of wolves outside the northwest part of the state, was not approved by the FWS. 

      I agree with this decision by the FWS because Wyoming does not have a good, ethical, and (population-wise) humane way in dealing with their wolves. Unrestricted killing would place the grey wolves back on the ESL and the whole cycle would start again.

    5. In addition, Montana wolf program coordinator Carolyn Sime suggested that one option under consideration would be application for a federal permit to conduct a research hunt. 

      The author is giving another inside perspective of a state's possible solution to sate every side.

    6. States are now scrambling to come up with alternatives to manage wolf populations.

      Now the author is giving solutions to the reader(s) to show that something is being done and using pathos.

    7. Judge Molloy’s recent decision was met with frustration by the state and federal wildlife management agencies. “For more than 15 years, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, state wildlife agencies, tribes, conservation organizations, ranchers and other landowners have worked hard to recover gray wolves in the Northern Rocky Mountains. Our collective efforts have brought this population to the point where it no longer requires Endangered Species Act protection,” stated Tom Strickland, Assistant Secretary for Fish and Wildlife and Parks for the Department of the Interior.  “The Service’s decision to delist the wolf in Idaho and Montana reflected the strong commitments from the states of Idaho and Montana to manage gray wolves in a sustainable manner. Today’s ruling makes it clear this wolf population cannot be delisted until the State of Wyoming has instituted an adequate management program, similar to those of Idaho and Montana.”

      The author is using a quote to use ethos from an inside perspective of the FWS. The author is showing the side where grey wolves do not need to be on the ESL any longer from the FWS and communities' efforts to reestablish wolf populations in the area.

    8. Montana and Idaho’s hunts proceeded last fall with 72 killed in Montana and 188 killed in Idaho.  At the end of last year, the wolf population in the Northern Rocky Mountain Recovery Area, which comprises parts of Montana, Idaho, and Wyoming, was estimated to be at least 1,706, with 242 packs, and 115 breeding pairs.

      The author gives statistical facts so the reader can piece their own opinions.

    9. Judge Molloy foreshadowed that he felt that the FWS had broken the law by delisting wolves in Montana and Idaho but keeping them listed in Wyoming.

      Hints back to the claim

    10. Environmental groups once again filed suite but their request for injunction to halt the hunts in Montana and Idaho was denied on the grounds that the hunts would not do irreparable harm to the population as a whole.

      The author shows the other side of the argument without giving their own insight yet.

    11. The tug-of-war over wolf management in the Northern Rockies began when the FWS recovery goal for the species was reached in 2002 and proposed delisting was contingent upon acceptable state management plans.  Montana and Idaho’s plans were approved in 2003, but Wyoming’s plan that would have categorized wolves as predators in much of the state allowing a “shoot on sight” policy was rejected.  Some compromises were made and, in spring 2008, the FWS announcement to delist the species was met by an immediate lawsuit by environmental organizations.  In summer 2008, Judge Molloy granted a preliminary injunction to the organizations halting hunting seasons that were being planned by the state fish and wildlife agencies.  Then, in September of that year, the FWS placed the Northern Rockies population back on the endangered species list to re-evaluate the science and allow the states to amend their management plans. In spring 2009, the FWS—under a new Administration—officially classified the wolf population in the Northern Rocky Mountains as a distinct population segment and authorized the delisting of the animals throughout the region except for in Wyoming. That state was excluded from the delisting because its wolf management plan, that would allow unrestricted killing of wolves outside the northwest part of the state, was not approved by the FWS. 

      The author is giving background information and increases credibility with it presented. The information is given without the author being biased yet.

    12. The record in this case implies that the Service tried to find a pragmatic solution to the legal problem raised by the inadequacy of Wyoming's regulatory mechanisms, and Wyoming's choices about meaningful participation in a collective delisting agreement like that engaged in by Montana and Idaho. Even if the Service's solution is pragmatic, or even practical, it is at its heart a political solution that does not comply with the ESA.

      The author is showing one side of the argument, that FWS is not allowed to make decisions of that caliber.

    13. The judge ruled that the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s (FWS) decision to turn management over to the states of Idaho and Montana but to keep Endangered Species Act (ESA) protection in Wyoming was a political rather than a biological decision.

      This is the article's argument and claim: to discuss FWS's decision on what states were allowed to have grey wolves on and off the ESL.

    14. U.S. District Judge Donald Molloy

      Important source and increases credibility and reliability because of Molloy's power as a judge for the United States.

    15. Grey Wolves Back on the Endangered Species List

      "Wildlife Management Institute." Wildlife Management Institute. Wildlife Management Institute. Web. 06 Mar. 2016. http://www.wildlifemanagementinstitute.org/index.php?option=com_content.

    16. The Outdoor News Bulletin was first issued by the Wildlife Management Institute in 1946. It was produced bi-monthly until 1991 and has been released monthly since then. Until 2006, the ONB was distributed by paid subscription and as hard copy. It now is sent out via email, RSS syndication and posted here at no cost to readers.The ONB reports on select, significant issues, circumstances and other information that bear on the professional management of wildlife and related natural resources. For most of its history, it was targeted to outdoor media — to identify and clarify key subjects for their interest and potential further scrutiny and outreach to the public. The outdoor media still represent an important audience, but the ONB also reaches administrators, educators, researchers, communicators and others within the conservation community. The coverage typically amounts to news items or encapsulated reports, but there are occasional, detailed articles. Nearly all copy is generated by WMI staff and contractors. The ONB is edited by Jodi Stemler.WMI does not require request for permission for others to reproduce or reprint ONB content.WMI welcomes new readers and values comments from all readers on its overall coverage and individual topics.

      This gives this article and website credibility for the information and articles they write to the public. It is a popular scholarly source.

    17. Grey Wolves Back on the Endangered Species List

      This author (the name nor publication date is not posted) is giving a title that is neither supporting wolves on the ESL nor are they against it. They show no bias. However, considering the website (I could not highlight the website title "Wildlife Management Institute", otherwise this part of the post would have been separate), this author must be a pro-wolf supporter.

    1. The WWF is run at a local level by the following offices... WWF Global

      WWF or World Wildlife Fund, not to be confused with the one with oiled up wrestlers and bad acting, has been around for 20+ years. They are an international organization the fights for the protection of animal species and habitat. They are deeply invested in the rainforest but now have branches in all parts or the world.

    2. African rhinos

      "African Rhinos" WWF. web. March 5 2016. <wwf.panda.org>

    3. Wildlife Crime Initiative

      This link leads to a page with a bit stronger tone on the topic of poaching.

    4. 9,000% since 2007 - from 13 to a record 1,215 in 2014.

      I cannot verify these facts. They are listed to promote sympathy and action from the audience. I'll i know is the math is correct.

    5. Asian

      Here the other specific stake holder is addressed. The Asian culture is the main consumer of Rhino horns. The claims of the horn's powers are the main driver. Claims range from sexual prowess to curing cancer to status symbols. All in all bad if you are a Rhino.

      If a Rhino horn really did cure cancer would it be fair to harvest then? If you or someone you loved had cancer, wouldn't you try anything to fix it?

    6. Why rhinos matter

      This appeals to all, Animal activists, global activists, econimists and humanitarians. Everything has a part to play in life. If the world loses one part it affects the rest of the world, sometimes in ways we never even though possible. Its almost always negative.

    7. European

      European settlers have made a habit out of this. The author includes this not only as a historical reference but knows it should ring a bell with all Americans that have ever heard the story of the American West. We almost drove the American Bison to extinction for their hides. They numbered over 150 million in number and before regulations were put in place declined to only thousands.<br> History will repeat it's self if given the chance.

    8. Indeed, the white rhino has been brought back from the brink of extinction. However, both species are again at risk due to a huge surge in poaching to meet demand for illegal rhino horn, primarily in Asia. Countries and conservationists are stepping up their efforts but record numbers of rhinos are currently being killed.

      The claim is simple, we (the organization) are winning but the fight is not over yet and the audience's help is required. The audience appeal is to people concerned with the world's balance and animal lovers... hopefully ones with deep pockets.

    1. Women need to be given the power to manage their own pregnancies.

      The author gives directly her argument that women should manage not only contraceptives, but also abortion. She claims that abortion is a right.

    2. Public health clinics in poor communities rarely offer either the blood test that detects the presence of the virus or the ultrasound that can diagnose birth defects. We in Brazil need to know their stories to repair the harm inflicted by the government’s negligence in controlling the outbreak.

      It shows poor women’s reality in Brazil that they have little opportunity to get a birth defect examination whether their fetus is infected by Zika virus or not in public health clinics. The author urges the government to provide financial support and social medical services for the poor women.

    3. The poor women who are most likely to contract Zika face tremendous barriers to getting safe abortions. They are forced to carry their pregnancies in fear.

      In this sentence, the author premises her main argument that women need to be given the power to have safe and legal abortion.

    4. In abortion, too, Brazil’s economic inequality is a factor: Wealthy women can pay to secure safe abortions; most women can’t. Advertisement Continue reading the main story Advertisement Continue reading the main story

      Although abortion is illegal in Brazil, wealthy woman can have an abortion in protected and safe conditions. It is a striking contrast from women in poverty who does not have enough money to get a secure abortion. The audience reconfirm the true picture of Brazil’s severe social inequality phenomenon.

    5. In 2010, I conducted a national survey that found that by age 40, one in five Brazilian women had had at least one abortion. The overwhelming majority of these abortions were illegal and performed in unsafe conditions.

      The author claims that Brazil prohibits abortion in law, but 25% of Brazilian women had received an abortion at least one time in illegal and dangerous conditions. Though she has some persuasive points, her delivery could have been more effective by suggesting accurate evidences. She bases her argument on a national survey, but she does not state what exact name of the survey is or how many participants were enrolled in. Her lack of evidence discredits her claim and it cannot satisfy the needs of her audience who want to an accurate information about Brazil. Therefore, the author should reinforce her rhetorical strategies by developing logos.

    6. The Zika epidemic has given Brazil a unique opportunity to look at inequality and reproductive rights, and to change how the country treats women.

      The author presents a problem that Brazil government’s action against Zika virus. She criticizes their short-range policy which urges women not to fall pregnant without providing any education or information about birth control methods.

    7. The women at greatest risk of contracting Zika live in places where the mosquito is part of their everyday lives, where mosquito-borne diseases like dengue and chikungunya were already endemic. They live in substandard, crowded housing in neighborhoods where stagnant water, the breeding ground for disease-carrying mosquitoes, is everywhere. These women can’t avoid bites: They need to be outdoors from dawn until dusk to work, shop and take care of their children. And they are the same women who have the least access to sexual and reproductive health care.

      Brazil is one of the countries which have worst gap between the rich and the poor in the world. The author claims that Zika virus is a key indicator about social inequality of Brazil. Young, poor, black and brown women who live close to slum area are exposed to great danger of Zika. Also, they have fewer opportunities to access to sexual and reproductive health care. It is heart-breaking to me that the women who live in underprivileged backgrounds are also troubled with the epidemic. Brazil government should prepare measures not only focus on focuses on Zika, but also resolve social inequality in a long-term policy.

    8. My friends who are planning to have children soon are worried about Zika. But they don’t need to be too concerned. In our well-to-do neighborhood in Brasília, the capital, there has not been a single case of a baby with the birth defects associated with the Zika epidemic. As far as I know, not one woman here has even been infected by the virus.

      It is a very interesting fact that the affluent area in Brazil is perfectly safe from Zika virus, but the author does not give any evidence about it. It lacks of audience appeals and she should reinforce her rhetorical strategies by developing logos. She just relies on her ethos at this point. Although the topic is Zika virus and Brazilian women’s right to choose, she has the Brazil Olympics 2016 in mind and indirectly promotes that Brasilia which is the capital of Brazil is not dangerous at all.

    9. I am a Brazilian woman.

      What authority the author speaks is her ethos. She can observe current Zika virus problem in the immediate vicinity, Brazil. So, she looks deeper into the problem with a different perspective than other authors. The audience may think her article is more credible than others because of her nationality, Brazilian.

  9. Feb 2016
    1. The Backlash Against Serial—and Why It's Wrong

      Friedersdorf, Conor. "The Backlash Against Serial -- and Why It's Wrong." The Atlantic. 3 Dec. 2014. Web. 18 Feb. 2016.

      Friedersdorf's claim is in the title: he argues that Koenig did a good job of reporting in Serial and that we should focus on the larger issue of making sure the truth is out there in order to get, in this example, justice for both Hae and Adnan.

    2. As Lindsay Beyerstein notes in The New York Observer

      Friedersdorf establishes credibility by referencing commenters on Kang's article as well as an author from The New York Observer, thereby making me trust that others hold his opinion as well. However, I wonder how cherry picked the quotes from the comments section are. I checked and there were a few who agreed with Kang's analysis.

    3. Let's get my biases out of the way

      Nice job of getting some refutations out there early on. This helps establish ethos in that Friedersdorf appears to be self-aware, although, as I pointed out in an earlier annotation, he is not entirely self-aware because he ignores his own point that there is usually some grain of truth in criticisms about white reporter privilege.

    4. As often as not, there is at least something to be learned from the critic.

      I agree with this point, and it's something I need to do further research on. After reading the article in full, I don't think Friedersdorf acknowledges what Koneig could learn from her critics. Instead, he focuses on undermining Kang's concerns about Serial. In my opinion, the takeaway for Koenig is to be more mindful of race and culture in her reporting, and to be sure to refer to credible authorities when she may not fully understand.

    5. They're worth addressing for two reasons.

      Friedersdorf tries to establish credibility right away by acknowledging the value in Kang's concerns.

    6. Conor Friedersdorf

      Conor Friedersdorf is a staff writer at The Atlantic, where he focuses on politics and national affairs. He lives in Venice, California, and is the founding editor of The Best of Journalism, a newsletter devoted to exceptional nonfiction. "Conor Friedersdorf"

      The Atlantic is a well-known magazine (a reliable popular source) known as "high quality review with a moderate worldview."

      One of the oldest and most respected of American reviews, The Atlantic Monthly was founded in 1857 by Moses Dresser Phillips and Francis H. Underwood. It has long been noted for the quality of its fiction and general articles, contributed by a long line of distinguished editors and authors.

    7. Most of all, the response to mistakes should never be to discourage white reporters from telling important stories.

      Here Friedersdorf gets to what's at stake in the big picture: according to Friedersdorf, it's important that people's stories are told. The truth needs to be out there, and it's dangerous to make reporters feel scared to tell someone else's story.

    8. What broadcast journalism show is telling these stories better? How many broadcasters are telling them at all? Are these episodes best characterized as exhaustively reported features told with care and empathy, or as stomping around communities the journalists don't understand? Would journalism or social justice be advanced if This American Life told fewer stories like these to its huge, influential audience—or would it be better if other broadcast journalism more resembled This American Life? What particular mistakes do these episodes make? Are they best noted specifically and constructively, or bundled under the vague label "white-privileged cultural tourism," which many of the subjects would dispute?

      Good questions here. I don't know where I stand on the issue and need to do further research. Just because This American Life is doing a better job than some news outlets doesn't mean it shouldn't be called out for its failings.

    9. None of this means that the disproportionate whiteness and lack of religious, ideological, and socioeconomic diversity in most American newsrooms isn't a problem that negatively affects the quality of journalistic output.

      Nice refutation here. Friedersdorf acknowledges that there is a wider problem with white reporter privilege, just not as much in this case.

    10. But even if we accept Kang's speculation

      It's a good idea to accept Kang's speculation even after disproving it because it shows that Friedersdorf is unbiased and truly taking Kang's opinion into account.

    11. It’s a total non sequitur.

      This is useful to see how someone calls an author out for a logical fallacy. It undermines Kang's ethos, the "they" to whom Friedersdorf is responding.