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  1. Nov 2021
    1. very important to see that those schemas structure bigger schemas called frames 00:14:38 now frames were figured out in the mid-1970s in by a number of people but in particular Charles Fillmore a 00:14:51 linguist in my department and one of the world's great linguists figured out that every word is defined in terms of a structure like the frame and let me tell you what a frame is it's very simple 00:15:05 imagine your understanding of a hospital well there are certain roles played by people in that hospital there are doctors and patients and receptionists and nurses there there are rooms like 00:15:18 operating rooms and reset you know there are instruments like scalpels and so on and there are things you know about hospitals you know for example that surgeons operate on patients in 00:15:32 operating rooms with things like scalpels okay every frame is a structure like that and if I say the word surgery immediately everything about it will 00:15:44 come up you'll know that there's a surgeon there's a nurse there's a patient there's an operation going on etc you know something and a lot what one word is defined relative to a frame 00:15:57 what film are discovered was that every word in every language is defined relative to some frame that is a crucial discovery and what's really important 00:16:09 about that and and important for politics is that well consider the following when I teach this the first thing I do is I give my students an 00:16:21 assignment I say ok everybody ready don't think of an elephant you all can do that right you had a problem because the word elephant evokes an image and knowledge of frame in which 00:16:39 you understand what an elephant is and if you negate the frame you have to activate it anyway okay the word activates the frame even if you negate it and that's important in for political 00:16:54 reasons that we'll come back to in a while but words activate frames and fern frames are a ways in which you structure the world you cannot think without 00:17:05 frames you cannot speak without frames being there and those frames are physical there are circuitry in your brain that carries out all those inferences and imposes that structure and that 00:17:20 circuitry once you learn a frame is there mostly for life

      frames are critical for the function of language. We invoke them to invoke a gestalt of experiences of reality, consisting of a group of related associations.