125 Matching Annotations
  1. Sep 2018
    1. Even if they had been able to w rite, pens and ink and paper w ould have been luxuries that few could afford.

      It is so interesting to think about this topic. We share our stories between our families and friends every day. Not only verbally but through written expression as well. We sometimes even take that for granted. We were thought to read and write in a language that others around us could also understand. These people were not as fortunate and needed to share stories verbally to allow them to live on in history and to be passed down to lower generations.

    2. M ost slaves could neither read nor write; and m any w hite A m ericans, acting according to law and custom , pre­vented the slaves from learning to read or write.

      Slaves were not taught to read or write to the benefit of the slave owners. Many viewed slaves that were literate as a threat. It would only make the slaves more difficult for them to control. Some slaves were taught to read for religious purposes.

    3. oral history has been dism issed by a younger generation

      This was discussed in language and literacy at NVCC. This is an ongoing issue as students just a few years ago could recite folk tales and nursery rhymes they were told to as a child. Most adults today no longer tell rhymes and oral stories very often. [yale study video made same observations]

    4. Fred­erick Douglass

      He is an example of a slave that taught himself to read & write with help from The Bible/ religion

  2. Apr 2016
    1. n the Writing portion of the balanced literacy block, teachers scaffold their instruction along the continuum of teacher directedness so that students are increasingly responsible for demonstrating their ability to use writing skills and strategies. Similar to quality reading instruction, excellent writing instruction begins with the teacher modeling a skill or process, moves to the teacher guiding students to use those skills or processes, and culminates in students writing independently. The purposes of writing instruction are:

      I personally think scaffolding is a very effective method.

    2. During Independent Reading, students put all that they’ve learned about decoding and comprehension into action as they choose and read books on their independent level

      Independent reading is something I feel a lot of children enjoy because they get to read on their own and use everything that they know and put it to the test. While its important sometimes to let the children pick the book they want to read, it's important that the books are at their independent reading level so they can read them with accuracy.

    3. Creating Literacy Centers.

      Literacy centers are something simple, but important. I think every classroom should have one.

    4. Guided Reading can serve a variety of purposes, depending on the needs of students:

      Guided reading, is something I think is important because it helps you get closer to a group of students when reading something and its more "personal" so you can see first hand if kids are understanding what they are reading.

    5. In order for students to increase their literacy skills, teachers should consider the following when planning and conducting Shared Reading

      Engaging the children is probably the hardest part. I agree with the text when it's mentioned to use a variety of instructional methods. If it's done the same way, then the kids will lose interest.

    6. Shared Reading has several purposes:

      All of these purposes as well are good enough reasons to do shared reading. It can be helpful to all students and help them build many skills.

    7. Teachers who lead effective and purposeful Read Aloud plan and execute them with the following in mind

      It is important to choose the right text. If it's something not age appropriate or something the kids will enjoy, then you will loose their attention.

    8. An effective Read Aloud has several instructional purposes, with some variance by grade level. These purposes include

      All of the purposes listed are valid purposes and are important

    9. e that the context in which students learn and practice comprehension strategies differs

      This makes total sense. Obviously as the years go by, the material is different and harder so it will differ.

    10. writing instruction so that they model excellent writing for students, share the pen with students during Shared and Interactive Writing, and conference with students as they write independentl

      These methods are excellent!

    11. Read Aloud, read with students during Shared Reading and Guided Reading, and listen to and assess students’ reading during Independent Reading.

      All of these are very important. I work at an after school program, and we have the kids read to the "class" as well as us reading to them.

  3. Mar 2016
    1. Buddy Reading

      I remember doing this in school and it was something different than reading alone or all together as a class. Reading with a buddy can be very effective because you can be more focused on the reading/ what is being read.

    2. Repeated readingis one of the most effective ways to offer lots of practice to students; this instructional method has been proven to help students recall information from their reading, improve their comprehension, increase their reading rates, and change from word-by-word reading to reading with meaningful phrases

      Totally agree with this ! I remember reading something one time and something more than once and saw how reading a text more than once was truly helpful in many ways.

    3. By pointing to each word as you are reading, you can show students where and how you are pausing and how the text shows you when to raise and lower your voice. Occasionally, you can also explain to your students why you are reading in a certain way:

      When I read with the kids at work who are younger, I point to the words as I read them. Sometimes they point to the words for me if I forget. I can see how pointing to each word as we read and explain why we read something a certain way is helpful.

    4. The more that students hear a reader using appropriate phrasing, reading quickly and accurately, and using expression in his or her voice, the more quickly students will understand what fluent reading actually is.

      I agree with this statement. If students listen to a teacher who models all these things correctly, then there is no doubt it will help their students read properly. It is important that a teacher does this.

    5. fluency is the bridge that takes readers from simply decoding words to understanding and enjoying whole texts.

      If a child can't read fluently, then reading might seem like a "task" for them and then they will not enjoy it. But when they can read fluently, they can easily enjoy what they are reading

    6. reading fluency is the ability to read a text quickly, accurately, and with expressio

      It's one thing for a child to learn how to read words and write, but its a completely different thing when it comes to them reading fluently.

  4. Feb 2016
    1. it is important that correct information be transmitted in the classroom. If we allow errors to go uncorrected, the remainder of the class either thinks you did not hear the mistake or thinks what the student said was correct.

      Even though it might makes us uncomfortable, I agree that it is important to correct our students because if another student thinks what the student said was correct when it wasn't then they will think no one made a mistake.

    2. Remember that we teach students these meaningful word parts to increase their stock of information so that they will be able to make intelligent choices when decoding and pronouncing unfamiliar words

      This is important and I agree that if we teach them these meaningful parts then they can use it to decode and pronounce new words in the future.

    3. Kindergarten students should read and hear lots of nursery rhymes, common songs, and poems

      Rhymes and Songs are activities that may not seem important when it comes to a kindergarten class, but these everyday activities are exposing them to phonological awareness in a fun and productive way.

    4. Kindergarten students need to learn to discriminate categories of sounds

      This activity is something that is very simple to do with the kids and I can see how this is something important when it comes to exposing the kids to phonological awareness

    5. One of the first tasks of school is to show students how books work. Throughout Kindergarten and first grade, teachers constantly review the elements of books and the concepts of print

      This is very important especially to kids who are in Kindergarten and First Grade like mentioned. The first step is to show children how books work so they can build upon that and when they learn to read they know how to go through a book.

    6. Explicit and systematic phonics instruction is the most efficient and effective way to teach students to decode, and thus to read independently.

      Once children learn to decode then they can stop wasting time trying to decode the words and will be able to read by themselves and understand what they are reading.

    7. Remember that our explanations of these spelling patterns are suited to the learning capacities of adults, not children.

      This is important to keep in mind because as teachers we need to find different ways to explain these spelling patterns so that the children can understand.

    8. This is the basis for the familiar old phonics rule, “when two vowels go walking, the first one does the talking

      This is a rule I never heard of and I think it could actually come in handy when it comes to helping kids pronounce words and know which sounds to pronounce.

    9. Many sounds can be spelled in multiple ways, and some graphemes (letters or letter combinations) can represent more than one sound.
    10. iphthongs are sounds produced when the mouth moves from one formation to another within a single syllable.

      This is fascinating and I never took the time or had any reason to realize that when saying certain sounds it can cause our mouths to change shape.

    11. Now that you know which consonant sounds are likely to be confused, you can be on the lookout for students who struggle to hear or articulate them. Help students to “feel” how sounds are different by thinking about the different speech organs that are used to make each one

      After reading this section, I feel more prepared on how to help my future students pronounce and distinguish the difference between certain consonants.

    12. The Groupsof phonemes cannot be as easily distinguished as the pairs, but there is a clear logic to their grouping. The nasalsinclude consonant phonemes that are produced by exhaling all of the air through your nose. All of the nasal sounds are voiced; you can feel the vibration of the vocal chords through the nose if you hold a finger beside your nose.

      I am eager to learn the nasal sounds that are made when certain constant phonemes are pronounced. I myself have never noticed my nose making certain sounds when pronouncing words.

    13. Some of these are stop pairs, meaning that the production of the sound completely stops the flow of air through the mouth at some point.

      After reading the chart showing examples of the "Stop Pairs", I didn't realize until now that certain constants stop the flow of air though the mouth at some point when pronouncing words with these constants in them. I learned where the tongue ends up when pronouncing certain stop pairs in w

    14. We all know that English is comprised of consonants and vowels, but many of us may be unaware that this classification has nothing to do with the letter symbols per se, but instead what our speech organs do to produce the sound.

      I was unaware that when a letter is considered a vowel or constant, it has nothing to do with the letter but the sound it makes. I am curious to learn more.

    15. Understanding how our mouths work as we pronounce soundshelps us to listen and watch our students more critically. In a room of children reading chorally, it’s easy to spot those who cannot decode or articulate by the formation of their mouths

      If we can understand how mouths work as we pronounce sounds, then we can listen and watch our students more closely because we will be able to see right away who is struggling based on their mouth formations. This is an important piece of knowledge and will help make sure all the students are pronouncing words corectly.

    16. Once you know the precise method of articulating these sounds, you will be able to provide explicit corrective feedback to improve students’ phonological awareness and phoneme production.

      I agree with this statement 100%.

    17. As a writer of English, you may occasionally refer to spelling conventions (such as “i before e, except after c”) but probably generally rely upon memory and constant repetition to cue spelling patterns.

      I always find myself referring to spelling conventions in my head when I write words. I agree that writers generally rely upon memory and constant reputation to cue spelling patterns. This takes time, but once you got that down, writing is a breeze.

    18. George Bernard Shaw once ridiculed the English language by saying that you could spell fish GHOTI, using the gh in rough, the o in women, and the ti in caution.

      I took the time to try this and while the new spelling didn't sound exactly like fish, it was pretty close. It makes me wonder what other words could be spelled differently and sound the same.

    19. This chapter will also show you how to assist students so far below grade level that the word study content of your program’s lessons is effectively unintelligible to them.

      This information is important because every teacher is going to have students who are far below grade level and we should know how to help them.

    20. Most reading programs are written by highly skilled educators with extensive knowledge of the English language and of current research. Unfortunately, their teachers’ manuals do not explain why the word study activities they require are effective or how they match the linguistic underpinnings of our language

      I'm curious to learn the reasoning behind reading programs because as a future teacher, this information can help us understand more of how we are teaching.

    21. Writing Workshops

      I used to do these when I was in 6th grade and they helped tremendously when it came

    22. Vocabulary, background knowledge, and the use of comprehension strategies all impact how well we understand what we read.

      All of these come to play in terms of reading comprehension. I feel like all of these are important and play their own role in helping us understand what we read.

    23. Research has shown that students who can read with accuracy and fluency are better able to comprehend the material because they are spending the majority of their time thinking about the text and not deciphering the words.

      This is a valid point and drives home the point that I made earlier about spending too much time decoding words takes way from a story or text.

    24. Have students read the same passage repeatedly to improve rate and accuracy Monitor and track speed and accuracy

      This is another thing teachers have their students do for homework that I noticed at the after school program I work at. I have witnessed students reading a passage 3 times and indeed their speed and accuracy greatly improved after reading it for the third time. The teachers have their parents I've them a score on how they did.

    25. For example, students who encounter the word “ungrateful” will be able to decode it quickly if they can recognize the words’ three meaningful parts (its prefix, root, and suffix) and comprehend it easily if they understand the meaning of each part.

      I work at an after school program and sometimes the kids for homework have to identify prefixes and suffixes as well as put parts of words together to create words.

    26. To this end, the teaching of both phonological and phonemic awareness and phonics and the alphabetic principle are very important in Kindergarten. In the phonological

      Alphabetical Principle: is the understanding that words are made up of letters and letters represent sounds. If a child understands these letter-sound associations, he is on the way to reading and writing words.

    27. Thus, one key task of the kindergarten teacher is to build students’ motivation to read books by building their foundational reading skills and exposing them to a wide variety of texts through the Read Aloud.

      I want to be a kindergarten teacher, so this is something I will keep in the back of my mind if I get the opportunity to teach that grade level.

    28. “First grade is the time when children bring together the many language and literacy skills they have been attaining—book and print awareness, phonemic awareness, letter and word knowledge, background information about different topics—and start getting comfortable with the conventions of associating letters and sounds.

      A kindergarten teacher has a very important job because the skills their students acquire are very important to them in first grade

    29. For many children, first grade is the time when they move from “pretend reading” to conventional reading

      I work at an after school program and noticed that kindergarteners pretend to read when they "read" to me while first graders can actually read.

    30. Unfortunately, disparate quality of past literacy instruction begins to evidence itself quite dramatically in second and third grade

      A kindergarten and first grade teacher have a very important job when it comes to instructing kids to read

    31. Third grade students learn to write in cursive

      I was in third grade when I learned to write in cursive. I've noticed that the younger grades are fascinated by cursive and sometimes try to write in it at work.

    32. Excellent teachers of literacy recognize the high returns that come from careful and constant assessment of their students’ literacy skills.

      It is important to assess the students literacy skills so as a teacher we can recognize what we need to do to help.

    33. One of the most profound and personal connections that young children make to print involves their names. The presence of students’ names in several locations around the elementary classroom (on classroom management charts, reading group lists, classroom job boards, etc.) is of great importance as an instructional tool for new readers.

      I will keep this in the back of my mind and think of this when I am setting up my own classroom in the future. I never really thought of this as book and print awareness until now.

    34. Without quick, accurate reading, comprehension is near impossible. We simply cannot focus on understanding a story if we must spend all of our time decoding the words on the page

      This is so true. If we spend a lot of time trying to decode words, then less time will be spent focusing on understanding the story and we will miss the meaning. I felt like this when I took Spanish and did not know many words, by the end of the story after looking up all the words, I had no idea what I had just read.

    35. word and structural analysis skills.

      Definition: "The process of using familiar word parts (base words, prefixes, and suffixes) to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words."

    36. phonics and the alphabetic principle

      Definition: "The goal of phonics instruction is to help children to learn and be able to use the Alphabetic Principle. The alphabetic principle is the understanding that there are systematic and predictable relationships between written letters and spoken sounds."

    37. phonological and phonemic awareness

      Definition: "Identify and manipulate individual sounds of spoken words. Both phonics and spelling focus on the letter sound relationship in WRITTEN words."

    38. book and print awareness,

      Definition: "Print awareness is a child's earliest understanding that written language carries meaning. The foundation of all other literacy learning builds upon this knowledge."

    39. beginning readers who receive explicit, systematic phonics instruction and practice decoding simple words and reading easy books will eventually find that their ability to decode has become so automatic that they have to expend little cognitive energy on the process.

      This is great but I feel like readers shouldn't just read "like robots". The students should be thinking about the words and what they are reading. This way of reading might not always work.

    40. children master the important skills, strategies, and knowledge they need to become successful readers and writers most quickly and effectively if their teachers integrate both systematic instruction in letter-sound relationships and critical thinking about literature in to their literacy classrooms Researchers and educators often refer to this multi-faceted approach as “balanced literacy” instruction.

      I am curious to find out what these systematic instructions are

    41. The emphasis on teaching students to recognize whole words automatically and to use clues to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words became known as the whole language approach.

      I never heard of this approach before and it actually makes a lot of sense to have the students do it this way and not have them decode words.

    42. A landmark study conducted at the University of Kansas examined the exposure to verbal language of children in several socio-economic settings and found a dramatic difference in the total number of words heard by children at the high end of the socio-economic scale (45 million words over four years) and the children in the lowest sector of the socio-economic scale (13 million). All children will show up for Kindergarten on the same day, but one may have heard 32 million fewer words in his or her lifetime, a fact that will almost certainly affect how quickly a child can decode and understand words.9 Clearly, environmental factors—including those at play before children ever arrive at school—have an enormous impact on students’ literacy development.

      I never really thought about how many words children are being exposed to before starting kindergarten could have such a big impact on how quickly they can decode and understand words. But after reading about this study, it makes sense to me now.

    43. the literacy skills of students in the under-resourced schools where we teach often lag well behind those of children in wealthier areas.

      This point in particular stuck out to me because it's true and it's not okay that some students don't get the same opportunities as other children when it comes to learning to read and write.

    44. Young, capable readers will seize the opportunities provided in a literacy-infused classroom and develop invaluable confidence in their own abilities, which leads directly to success in other subjects such as social studies, math, and science.

      Without being able to read and write, then children will struggle in other subjects because all of them involve reading and writing in one form or another.

    45. children who read well in the early grades are far more successful in later school years

      The sooner children are exposed to literature, the better and more successful they will be in the future.

    46. No single method of intervention will have as dramatic an effect on a student’s future learning and success than a solid foundation in literacy.

      Without having the ability to read and write, then a student's future is dim. These two necessary skills are needed all through schooling and life.

    47. , it is essential that elementary teachers follow the constant cycle of diagnosis, instruction, and assessment that is the crucible of excellent instruction

      This cycle is something that if done correctly can be very beneficial to a student

    48. Perhaps the most obvious benefit of such an initial diagnosis is that it shows you where to begin your instruction.

      This is very important because if you know where to start then you can help the students build upon them.

    49. Phonological Awareness Tests.

      This test is necessary and can really help a student.

    50. Finally, you can ask individual students to read from a Word List, which contains short lists of progressively more challenging words. When a student says a word incorrectly or skips it, the teacher records that as a “miscall.”

      I never seen anything like this and really like this form of testing.

    51. As the name implies, this assessment approach requires students to retell a story to the teacher that the student has read. By recording what aspects of the story the child recognizes and retells, the teacher establishes a picture of the student’s literacy skills.

      I could see how this type of assessment could be very helpful in determining what the child considers important enough to remember. I do not necessarily remember doing this in school but its a simple assessment that can tell a lot about a child.

    52. To measure a student’s fluency (also called oral reading rate), you would conduct a Timed Reading Exercise with a text on this student’s independent reading level

      This exercise is something I would do with my students because I think the speed of a child reading is important when determining what level they are on.

    53. Most teachers—even at the kindergarten and first grade level—find that rubrics are an invaluable tool.

      Why is this so? Is it because children's reading skills are so different from one another at this age or is because without many skills in terms of literacy, you can't evaluate a child?

    54. They use graphic organizers, story maps and outlining techniques to teach students the form and structure of various genres of text.

      I feel like these are very helpful in terms of seeing what the children understood and took away from the story.

    55. Running records, which are useful for students of all grade levels, do not have to be complicated.

      Running records are something that can be easily done and can be helpful in the long run when tracking a students progress.

    56. Running records, which are useful for students of all grade levels, do not have to be complicated.

      Running records are something that can be easily done and can be helpful in the long run when tracking a students progress.

    57. some teachers use the “five finger rule,” where the student is asked (and taught, so he can use this method to choose texts he reads on his own) to read an approximately 100-word passage and put up a finger every time he comes across a word he can’t read. If he puts up fewer than five fingers, the text is at his independent level and he will be able to read it and comprehend it without assistance from the teacher; the process of doing so will also build his fluency, due to the repeated exposure to words he already knows.

      I never heard of the "five finger rule" until now and realize how important is when letting kids read and choose books they want.

  5. Dec 2015
    1. lassroom Snapshot: Word Study

      create a classroom word wall and have the children help come up with some of the words

    2. Improve students’ ability to hear sounds by working with rhymes, riddles, and stories;

      can be done during transition time

    3. print awareness

      creating a print rich environment can help

    4. we should use tier 2 vocabulary that we will identify with the students. Sticky notes can help keep our instruction intentional and on track.

    5. second grade, Ms. Cleary’s students build their comprehension during the Read Aloud and in Shared Reading. During these times, students are listening to a book read to them or are supported by the voices of other fluent readers; thus, their cognitive energy is freed to think strategically about the texts. In fourth grade, however, students are able to use comprehension strategies during Independent Reading; for most students, decoding has become an automatic process. The fourth graders with weak decoding skills (Clayton, Shawnice, and Troy) listen to a book on tape during this time to improve their reading fluency and also attend Mr. Moreno’s small group for additional instruction in troublesome spelling patterns.

      This shows the difference in reading between 2nd and 4th grade readers. 4th graders- decoding has become automatic and they are now able to focus on comprehension. where 2nd graders need to listen to another reader to free up cognitive energy to comprehend.

  6. Oct 2015
  7. Sep 2015
    1. Reading Habits Checklist.
    2. develop your students’ prior knowledge by allowing them to share their knowledge of the subject and giving the class important information they will require to make sense of the text.

      it is important to understand the context of a text. so build background knowledge

    3. frustration levels of your students

      it is important to keep this in mind when teaching so the child doesn't give up altogether

    4. prefix, root, and suffix
    5. Understanding the function of print and the characteristics of books and other print materials

      book and print awareness ie. a book walk

    6. One of the most profound and personal connections that young childre

      their names

    7. honics (decoding words by examining relationships between sounds and letters)
    8. absence of literacy skills is one of the key indicators of the achievement ga
    9. more than 74% of children who enter first grade at risk for reading failure will continue to struggle to read into adulthood.3 Weak literacy skills will prohibit these children from accessing entire fields of knowledge
    10. absence of literacy skills is one of the key indicators of the achievement gap
    11. absence of literacy skills is one of the key indicators of the achievement ga

      not learning to read early=risk getting left behind

    12. it's another thing entirely to observe a ten year old who can only read 40 words per minute at the beginning of fourth grade, when he should be reading over 100

      startling example of achievement gaps

    13. dramatic difference in the total number of words heard by children at the high end of the socio-economic scale (45 million words over four years) and the children in the lowest sector of the socio-economic scale (13 millio
    14. dramatic difference in the total number of words heard by children at the high end of the socio-economic scale (45 million words over four years) and the children in the lowest sector of the socio-economic scale (13 million

      environment impacts students literacy ie. # words heard before entering school

    15. Upon encountering a word that had not been taught, children were told to use picture or context clues to determine its meaning.
    16. Upon encountering a word that had not been taught, children were told to use picture or context clues to determine its meaning.

      whole language approach

    17. bothdecoding and comprehension processes

      =balanced literacy Teachers provide instruction on foundational skills then opportunities to practice

    18. by reading books on their independent level and thinking about more challenging books that are read aloud to them.

      Children learn best this way gradual increase in difficulty foundational skills->practice those skills->read independently->critical thinking about challenging books read aloud to them

    19. mental energy can be used to read and comprehend increasingly complex words and texts.
    20. What Is Literacy?
    21. Phonological Awareness: Understanding that the spoken language is made up of units of sounds, such as sentences, words, and syllables
    22. ntain both syllables and individual sounds, or phonemes. They should be able to hear and produce rhyming and alliteration, as well as begin to segment and blend simple words (to break the word cat down into the sounds /c... a... t/ and put those sounds together again to say cat). Students should also be able to recognize, name, and easily write the individual letters of the alphabet (both capital and lowercase), and know their corresponding sounds
    23. Children become, in a real sense, independent readers.
    24. diagnosing your students’ abilities and progress is a necessary foundation for achieving the significant academic gains that your students must make in order to catch up with students in more privileged communities

      Formulating students' IEP is the most effective way for students to make progress and gains in their education.

    25. First grade is the time when children bring together the many language and literacy skills they have been attaining—book and print awareness, phonemic awareness, letter and word knowledge, background information about different topics—and start getting comfortable with the conventions of associating letters and sounds

      Standard for 1st grade?

    26. pre-writing strategies

      the writing process

    27. common roots, prefixes, and suffixes)
    28. A close look at this graphic shows us that our ability to decode—to translate individual letters or various combinations thereof into speech sounds to identify and read words—is built upon our book and print awareness, phonological and phonemic awareness, phonics and the alphabetic principle, and word and structural analysis skills. Our ability to comprehend—to actively read and understand language—is based on our background knowledge, vocabulary, and ability to use comprehension strategies. Finally, our ability to read fluently—with speed, accuracy, and expression—is dependent on our ability to read non-decodable words on “sight,” to decode with such automaticity that we spend no mental energy in the process, and to read with appropriate phrasing. Reading fluency is the bridge from decoding to comprehension, hence its placement in the graphic.

      Decoding is amazing. We are able to look at words, and understand them. They are just lines put in a certain order and we can look at it and find meaning.

    29. We simply cannot focus on understanding a story if we must spend all of our time decoding the words on the page

      An example of this is when I was taking a spanish course. I did not have a good understanding of the language so I constantly found myself looking up sentences word by word. If we had to do that all the time we wouldn't even bother with language.

    30. Most teachers develop students’ Book and Print Awareness through constant, explicit modeling. When they hold up a Big Book that the class is reading, they “think aloud” about how to hold the book, where to start reading, and in what direction. While a teacher is writing the morning news on the board for his first graders, he might ask the students, “Should I start at the top of the board or the bottom?”

      It is important as a teacher to constantly remind ourselves that our students have 0 knowledge of these concepts. Asking a question about writing orientation may be silly to us, but it is truly helpful to students.

    31. Understanding that the spoken language is made up of units of sounds, such as sentences, words, and syllables

      understanding that language has rules that break it up into understandable sections

    32. Understanding that spoken words are made up of individual phonemes (the smallest part of spoken language); being able to hear, identify, and manipulate those phonemes

      The simplest thing can change a word completely. Pad, Pat....Bad, Bat...

    33. need

      they need review for as long as it takes for them to understand.

    34. Discussions of new words that occur during the course of the day, for example in books

      In a kindergarten class that I observed, every morning the teacher wrote them a letter on the board. They would read it during morning meeting and then any new words would be introduced. For example on Saint Patricks day the new word was leprechaun.

    35. Beginning readers should be able to read easily 90 percent or more of the words in a story

      Student who are given material above their level will not benefit or improve their level of reading. They must develop confidence in their skills and read effortlessly before moving on.

    36. Print represents oral language Reading from left to right and top to bottom Spaces between words and sentences Standard text structures and organization, such as covers, backs, titles, and illustrations Specific genre structures and organization, such as table of contents and index Sentence structure How to hold a book, turn its pages, and shelve it

      Most of these points are skills we take for granted becuase they are second nature to us. In preschool and k to 1st these are a primary focus to develop a foundation for reading.

    37. Phonemic awareness is the recognition of distinct phonemes, or speech sounds, in words. For example, the word squished is composed of the phonemes /s/, /k/, /w/, /i/, /sh/, and /t/.

      Definition and example of phonemic awareness.

    38. Once they figured out what letter or letter combinations made that particular sound, we decoded practice words with our cool new symbols.

      An improtant technique that shows for example, "th" and "ch" sounds as well as long a short vowel sounds with in words.

    39. A]ll students, regardless of which language(s) is (are) spoken, must develop an awareness of phonology and syntax if they are to become literate. . . . The development of listening comprehension is also a necessary condition for reading readines

      Being a student with English as a second language, I was put into a pull out program for reading and writting during my years in elementary school. In these classes we focused a lot on phonology, syntax, and comprehension.

    40. This instruction begins in Kindergarten with the dictation of stories to correspond to children’s illustrations. The child first attempts to use the letters he or she is learning to label pictures independently. Then he or she moves on to early elementary grades, where he or she should learn sentence structure, parts of speech, and how to develop paragraphs with topic sentences and details on a variety of topics. Finally, in upper elementary grades, the child learns to complete full compositions of different styles targeted to different audiences.

      Reading and writing must be taught along side each other. These are some axamples of different stages of writing.

  8. Jun 2015