- Jul 2022
the following eight leverage points yield dis-proportionately large effects: (i) enabling vi-sions of a good quality of life that do notentail ever-increasing material consumption;(ii) lowering total consumption and waste,including by addressing both populationgrowth and per capita consumption differ-ently in different contexts; (iii) unleashingexisting, widely held values of responsibil-ity to effect new social norms for sustain-ability, especially by extending notions ofresponsibility to include the impacts asso-ciated with consumption; (iv) addressing in-equalities, especially regarding income andgender, that undermine the capacity for sus-tainability; (v) ensuring inclusive decision-making and the fair and equitable sharing ofbenefits arising from the use of and adherenceto human rights in conservation decisions;(vi) accounting for nature’s deterioration fromboth local economic activities and telecouplings(70), including, for example, internationaltrade; (vii) ensuring environmentally friendlytechnological and social innovation, takinginto account potential rebound effects andinvestment regimes; and (viii) promotingeducation, knowledge generation, and themaintenance of different knowledge systems,including in the sciences and indigenous andlocal knowledge, especially regarding nature,conservation, and nature’s sustainable use.Although change at some of these levers andleverage points may encounter resistance indi-vidually, action at other levers and leveragepoints can enable such changes.The review also revealed that innovativegovernance approaches that are integrative,inclusive, informed, and adaptive (105, 106)are needed to effectively apply these levers toleverage points. Integrative approaches focuson the relationships between sectors and poli-cies and ensure policy coherence and effec-tiveness, and inclusive approaches, includingrights-based ones, reflect a plurality of valuesand thus promote equity. Informed govern-ance entails new strategies for knowledgeproduction and coproduction that are inclu-sive of diverse values and knowledge systems.Last, adaptive approaches—including learning,monitoring and feedback loops—help copingwith inevitable uncertainties and complexities.
Eight leverage points: 1. promote worldview of a good life that decouples material consumerism 2. lowering total consumption and waste,including by addressing both population growth and per capita consumption differently in different contexts; 3. unleashing existing, widely held values of responsibility to effect new social norms for sustainability, especially by extending notions of responsibility to include the impacts associated with consumption 4. addressing inequalities, especially regarding income and gender, that undermine the capacity for sustainability; 5. ensuring inclusive decisionmaking and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the use of and adherence to human rights in conservation decisions; 6. accounting for nature’s deterioration from both local economic activities and telecouplings, including, for example, international trade; 7. ensuring environmentally friendly technological and social innovation, taking into account potential rebound effects and investment regimes; and 8. promoting education, knowledge generation, and the maintenance of different knowledge systems, including in the sciences and indigenous and local knowledge, especially regarding nature, conservation, and nature’s sustainable use.