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  1. Nov 2016
    1. Box 5.1, Figure 1 illustrates the polar amplification phenomenon for three different periods of the Earth’s climate history using tem-perature reconstructions from natural archives and climate model simulations for: (i) the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO, 54 to 48 Ma) characterised by CO2 concentrations of 1000 to 2000 ppm (Section and the absence of continental ice sheets; (ii) the mid-Pliocene Warm Period (MPWP, 3.3 to 3.0 Ma), characterized by CO2 concentrations in the range of 350 to 450 ppm (Section and reduced Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets compared to today (see Section 5.6.1), (iii) the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 21 to 19 ka), characterized by CO2 concentrations around 200 ppm and large continental ice sheets covering northern Europe and North America.